Ahéville is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France. Communes of the Vosges department INSEE
Aingeville is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France. The village was built on the left bank of the Anger River, a tributary of the Mouzon River and sub-tributary of the Maas River. Communes of the Vosges department INSEE
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M
Arboretum de la Hutte
The Arboretum de La Hutte is an arboretum located in the Vallée de l'Ourche, variously described as within the towns of Darney or Hennezel, Grand Est, France. It is open daily without charge; the Ourche river flows across Darney forest to join the Saône. One century ago Vallée de l'Ourche was an industrial country with forges and glass factories. Only one glass factory still operates near the valley. La Hutte Chapel, near the arboretum, was built at the end of 19th century in Swiss style; the arboretum was created circa 1874 by forge-master Alfred Irrois, contains mature specimens of Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus rubra and Thujopsis dolabrata. It is now in some disrepair, but as of 2007 it was proposed that the Office National des Forêts take responsibility for its rehabilitation. Just try to encircle the trunk of a giant Sequoia and try to find the hidden huge Douglas! List of botanical gardens in France Culture.fr entry L'Echo des Chênaies entry Vosges Itinerances description Vallée de l'Ourche photograph and description Villette54 entry Les Journées Européennes du Patrimoine 2003 CFT Darney Monthureux blog
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, as President of France from 1913 to 1920. He was a conservative leader committed to political and social stability. Trained in law, Poincaré was elected as a Deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic, becoming Prime Minister in 1912 and serving as President of the Republic for 1913-20, he attempted to wield influence from what was a figurehead role, being noted for his anti-German attitudes, visiting Russia in 1912 and 1914 to repair Franco-Russian relations, which had become strained over the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 and the Agadir Crisis of 1911, playing an important role in the July Crisis of 1914. From 1917, he exercised less influence as his political rival Georges Clemenceau had become Prime Minister. At the Paris Peace Conference, he favoured Allied occupation of the Rhineland.
In 1922 Poincaré returned to power as Prime Minister. In 1923 he ordered the Occupation of the Ruhr to enforce payment of German reparations. By this time Poincaré was seen in the English-speaking world, as an aggressive figure who had helped to cause the war in 1914 and who now favoured punitive anti-German policies, his government was defeated by the Cartel des Gauches at the elections of 1924. He served a third term as Prime Minister in 1926-9. Born in Bar-le-Duc, France, Raymond Poincaré was the son of Nanine Marie Ficatier, religious and Nicolas Antonin Hélène Poincaré, a distinguished civil servant and meteorologist. Raymond was the cousin of Henri Poincaré, the famous mathematician. Educated at the University of Paris, Raymond was called to the Paris Bar, was for some time law editor of the Voltaire, he became at the age of 20 the youngest lawyer in France. And was appointed Secrétaire de la Conférence du Barreau de Paris; as a lawyer, he defended Jules Verne in a libel suit presented against the famous author by the chemist, Eugène Turpin, inventor of the explosive melinite, who claimed that the "mad scientist" character in Verne's book Facing the Flag was based on him.
At the age of 26, Poincaré was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, making him the youngest deputy in the chamber. Poincaré had served for over a year in the Department of Agriculture when in 1887 he was elected deputy for the Meuse département, he made a great reputation in the Chamber as an economist, sat on the budget commissions of 1890–1891 and 1892. He was minister of education, fine arts and religion in the first cabinet of Charles Dupuy, minister of finance in the second and third. In Alexandre Ribot's cabinet, Poincaré became minister of public instruction. Although he was excluded from the Radical cabinet which followed, the revised scheme of death duties proposed by the new ministry was based upon his proposals of the previous year, he became vice-president of the chamber in the autumn of 1895 and, in spite of the bitter hostility of the Radicals, retained his position in 1896 and 1897. Along with other followers of "Opportunist" Léon Gambetta, Poincaré founded the Democratic Republican Alliance in 1902, which became the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic.
In 1906, he returned to the ministry of finance in the short-lived Sarrien ministry. Poincaré had retained his practice at the Bar during his political career, he published several volumes of essays on literary and political subjects. "Poincarism" was a political movement over the period 1902–20. In 1902, the term was used by Georges Clemenceau to define a young generation of conservative politicians who had lost the idealism of the founders of the republic. After 1911, the term was used to mean "national renewal". After the First World War, "Poincarism" refers to his support of business and financial interests. Poincaré was noted for his lifelong feud with Georges Clemenceau. Poincaré became Prime Minister in January 1912, began a policy meant to block Germany's ambitions for "world power status", worked to restore ties with France's ally, Russia. During the Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 and the Second Moroccan Crisis in 1911, Russia and France had failed to support each other. In August 1912, Poincaré visited Russia to meet Tsar Nicholas in order to strengthen diplomatic ties.
Poincaré believed the rapprochement would deter Germany from risking a demarche to war, thus avoid a repeat of the Second Moroccan crisis. Tsarist Russia, despite its Francophilia, was disdainful of most of the leaders of the Third Republic, but Poincaré was an exception, regarded in St. Petersburg as a strong leader who meant what he said. Poincaré hoped to pursue an expansionist policy at the expense of the Germany's unofficial ally, the Ottoman Empire. Poincaré was a leading member of the Comité de l'Orient, the main group that advocated French expansionism in the Middle East. Poincaré's willingness to begin a rapprochement with Imperial Germany in order to allow France to pursue its ambitions in the Middle East was strengthened by the outcome of the First Balkan War, where Bulgaria - whose army had been trained by a French military mission - defeated the Sultan's army - whose forces had been trained by the German military. Bulgaria's swift victory over the Ottomans was a great blow to German prestige, correspondingly boosted French confidence.
Poincaré rejected Joseph Caillaux's proposal for a Franco-German alliance, arguing that Paris would be the junior partner, thus tantamount to ending France's status a
Bernard of Saxe-Weimar
Bernard of Saxe-Weimar was a German prince and general in the Thirty Years' War. Born in Weimar within the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, Bernard was the eleventh son of Johann, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Dorothea Maria of Anhalt. Bernard received an unusually good education and studied at the University of Jena, but soon went to the court of the Saxon elector to engage in knightly exercises. At the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War he took the field on the Protestant side, served under Mansfeld at Wiesloch, under the Margrave of Baden at Wimpfen, with his brother William at Stadtlohn. Undismayed by these defeats, he took part in the campaigns of King Christian IV of Denmark; when King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden landed in Germany Bernard joined him, for a short time he was colonel of the Swedish life horse guard. After the Battle of Breitenfeld, he accompanied Gustavus in his march to the Rhine and, between this event and the Battle of the Alte Veste, Bernard commanded numerous expeditions in every district from the Moselle to Tyrol.
At the Alte Veste he displayed great courage, at the Battle of Lützen, when Gustavus was killed, Bernard assumed the command, killed a colonel who refused to lead his men to the charge, by his furious energy won the victory at sundown. At first as a subordinate to his brother William, who as a Swedish lieutenant-general succeeded to the command, but as an independent commander, Bernard continued to push his forays over southern Germany. In this year he was granted the former Bishoprics of Würzburg and Bamberg, being granted the title of Duke of Franconia, he installed one of his many brothers as Statthalter, returned to the wars. A stern Protestant, he exacted heavy contributions from the Catholic cities which he took, his repeated victories caused him to be regarded by German Protestants as the saviour of their religion, but in 1634 Bernard suffered a great defeat at Nördlingen. In 1635 Bernard entered the service of France, which had by intervened in the war, he was at the same time general-in-chief of the forces maintained by the Heilbronn League of Protestant princes, a general officer in the pay of France.
This dual position was difficult. From a military point of view his most notable achievements were on the common ground of the upper Rhine, in the Breisgau. In his great campaign of 1638, Bernard won the battles of Rheinfelden and Thann, captured successively Rheinfelden and Breisach, the last reputed one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. Bernard had in the first instance received definite assurances from France that he should be given Alsace and Haguenau, Würzburg having been lost in the debacle of 1634. Bernard's health, was deteriorating, he died at Neuenburg am Rhein at the beginning of the campaign. The governor of Breisach was bribed to transfer the fortress to France. Bernard was buried at Breisach, his remains being subsequently removed to Weimar. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 801. This cites: J. A. C. Hellfeld, Geschichte Bernhards des Grossen, Herzogs v. Saxe-Weimar B.
Röse, Herzog Bernhard d. Grosse von Saxe-Weimar Droysen, Bernhard v. Weimar. Cust, Sir Edward, "Bernard, Duke of Saxe Weimar", Lives of the warriors of the thirty years' war, Warriors of the 17th century, part II, London: J. Murray, pp. 307–342 Karl Menzel, "Bernhard, Herzog zu Sachsen-Weimar", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 2, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 439–450