In Norse mythology, Hildr is a valkyrie. Hildr is attested in the Prose Edda as Hedin's wife in the Hjaðningavíg, she had the power to revive the dead in battlefields and used it to maintain the everlasting battle between Hedin and Högni. Hildr is mentioned along with other valkyries in Völuspá, Darraðarljóð and other Old Norse poems; the Old Norse word hildr is a common noun meaning "battle" and it is not always clear when the poets had the valkyrie in mind, as a personification of battle. Brodeur, Arthur Gilchrist; the Prose Edda by Snorri Sturluson. New York: The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Available online at Google Books. Jónsson, Finnur. Lexicon Poeticum. S. L. Møllers Bogtrykkeri, København. Orchard, Andy. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-34520-2
Olvir Rosta known as Aulver Rosta, is a character within the mediaeval Orkneyinga saga, purported to have lived during the early 12th century. His Old Norse byname, rósta, means "brawl", "riot", his name, byname, appear variously in English secondary sources. Ölvir appears in the saga as the son of Þorljót, Steinnvör'the Stout'. The mother of Steinnvör is Frakökk, described as one of the great villains of the entire saga. One of Frakökk's sisters, Helga, is the concubine of Earl Hákon Pálsson. Part of the saga relates of how the Earldom of Orkney is for a time jointly run by half-brothers—Haraldr Hákonsson and Páll Hákonsson, who are both sons of Earl Hákon. With the death of Earl Haraldr, son of Helga, Frakökk's family falls out of favour, are forced to leave Orkney. In time, Frakökk conspire with the father of Earl Rögnvaldr, agrees to a plan to take the Orkney by force and split it with Earl Rögnvaldr, she and Ölvir make their way to the Suðreyjar, may their return in a bid to win half of the earldom.
However, their small fleet of ships are defeated in battle against Earl Páll. The saga tells of how Ölvir kills an Orkney chieftain who fought against him during the sea-battle—by burning the man to death within his house; the chieftain's vengeful son tracks down Ölvir and Frakökk, at their own home in Sutherland. After a short battle behind their homestead, Ölvir's men are routed and Frakökk is burned to death within her house. Ölvir has been associated with several places in Sutherland, some of which may bear his name. It has been proposed that Ölvir Rosta may be an ancestor of either one of two Scottish clans from the Outer Hebridean island of Lewis. In 1962 a runestone was uncovered in the Inner Hebrides, it has been suggested. Ölvir Rósta, is a character in the mediaeval Orkneyinga saga. His name in Old Norse is Ölvir rósta; the 17th-century Icelandic historian Þormóður Torfason, who wrote Latin histories which covered events the Northern Isles and north-east of Scotland, rendered Ölvir's name as Aulver Rosta.
Ölvir's byname, rósta, means "brawl", "riot". Both his name and byname are represented various ways in English secondary sources; the saga describes him as "the tallest of men, strong in limb, exceedingly overbearing, a great fighter". The Orkneyinga saga states; the 19th-century historian Joseph Anderson was of the opinion that Rekavík refers to Rackwick on the island of Hoy, Orkney. The saga states that Ölvir's mother was Þorljót's wife, Steinnvör'the Stout'. Ölvir's parents had several other children in the saga: sons Magnús, Moddan, Eindriði. Steinnvör's mother is given as Frakökk; the saga states that Frakökk was a daughter of Moddan, a wealthy and noble farmer from i Dali, "Dale". According to 21st-century historian Gareth Williams, this refers to a dale within the "Dales of Caithness"; the 21st-century historian Barbara Crawford stated that the Dales of Caithness refer to "that part of Caithness which includes the river valleys running down towards the Pentland Firth". The saga records that another daughter of Moddan's was Helga, the concubine of the Orcadian earl, Hákon Pálsson, the mother of the earl's son, Earl Haraldr Hákonsson.
According to the saga, Frakökk's brothers included: Engus'the Generous'. The saga declares that the descendants of Moddan "were high-born and thought a lot of themselves", Williams suggested that they could be related to a powerful dynasty in the Irish Sea zone that included an Óttarr who seized control of the Kingdom of Dublin in 1142. Williams noted. Williams noted that while some of Moddan's descendants had legitimate claims for the earldom, Frakökk did not—however, she made a claim on behalf of her descendants Ölvir. Williams was of the opinion that the power base of Moddan, his son Earl Óttarr, was in Caithness and Sutherland, not in Orkney; the saga states that Frakökk held lands, which according to Williams, were located near the modern town of Helmsdale, Sutherland. Williams noted that the saga states that Frakökk's husband was from Sutherland, and in consequence, Williams considered that these lands passed to her through her marriage. The size of these lands is unknown. Crawford suggested that they covered most of Sutherland: that after the Frakökk's death, the departure of Ölvir, the lands were inherited by her relative Eiríkr'Stay-brail', in turn by his son, before passing into the possession of the de Moravia family.
In Williams' opinion, Crawford may have exaggerated the extent of these lands somewhat. Williams observed that another base of power for Frakökk and Ölvir may have been the Suðreyjar —which can include both the Hebrides, the Isle of Man; the saga states at one point, Frakökk and Ölvir travelled to the Suðreyjar to gather men. Williams noted that the Suðreyjar appear many times in the sagas as a target for raids, conquests, for Orcadian earls. Williams noted that it is possible that saga's association of Frakökk and Ölvir with the Suðreyjar may be a red-her
Wardruna is a Norwegian music group, formed in 2003 by Einar Selvik along with Gaahl and Lindy Fay Hella. They are dedicated to creating musical renditions of Norse cultural and esoteric traditions, make significant use of Nordic historical and traditional instruments including primitive deer-hide frame drums, kraviklyr, mouth harp, goat horn and lur. Non-traditional instruments and other sources of sound like trees, rocks and torches are used; the band have since released four full-length albums, the first three based on a set of runes, the last based on the sayings of Odin from the Voluspa and other old norse sources. TeamRock.com described Wardruna's music as "a conjunction of the earthy, the organic and the ethereal" with "runic-based rites inhabit a frequency that once heard have always seemed just adjacent to everyday consciousness". Wardruna formed in 2003. Selvik and Gaahl were both members of Gorgoroth, appearing together on the album Twilight of the Idols and the live DVD Black Mass Krakow 2004.
Selvik had recorded with other projects including Det Hedenske Folk, Bak de Syv Fjell, Sahg, Dead to this World, Skuggsjá and Faun. Gaahl recorded with Trelldom and God Seed; the group's debut album, Runaljod – Gap Var Ginnunga, was released on 19 January 2009 by Indie Recordings, followed by Runaljod - Yggdrasil on 15 March 2013. In 2014, Selvik announced on the group's official Facebook page that they would take part in composing the score for season 2 of Vikings along with Trevor Morris, he appeared as an actor on the show. In 2014, Gaahl left Wardruna on amicable terms. Wardruna's third album, Runaljod – Ragnarok, was released on 21 October 2016. Thanks in part to the success of Vikings, the album debuted at No. 1 in Billboard's World Albums chart. In August 2017, Wardruna headlined the 20th alternative music, folk music and experimental music festival Mėnuo Juodaragis in Dūburys Lake in Lithuania. In early 2018, they embarked on their first tour of North America; the band's fourth album, the acoustic format Skald, was released on 23 November 2018.
Current Einar "Kvitrafn" Selvik – vocals, all instruments, composer Lindy Fay Hella – vocals, flute Arne Sandvoll HC Dalgaard Eilif Gundersen Jørgen NyrønningFormer Gaahl – vocals Runaljod – Gap Var Ginnunga Runaljod – Yggdrasil Runaljod – Ragnarok Skald Official website
Ingeborg of Norway
Ingeborg of Norway, was a Norwegian princess and by marriage a Swedish royal duchess with a position in the regency governments in Norway and Sweden during the minority of her son, King Magnus of Norway and Sweden. In 1318–1319, she was Sweden's de facto ruler, from 1319 until 1326, she was Sweden's first de jure female regent. Ingeborg was born as the only legitimate daughter of King Håkon V of Norway from his marriage with Euphemia of Rügen; as a child, she was first betrothed to Magnus Birgerson, the son and designated heir of Birger, King of Sweden. Soon afterwards the engagement was however broken for altered political reasons, in 1305 she was betrothed to Eric, Duke of Södermanland, a younger brother of King Birger, thus uncle of her first betrothed. In 1312, Ingeborg and Eric were formally married in a double wedding in Oslo. At her wedding, her mother Queen Euphemia had published the translated famous poems, the Euphemia songs; the couple had two children. Upon the imprisonment of her spouse and her brother-in-law and her cousin and sister-in-law, Ingeborg Eriksdottir, became the leaders of their spouses' followers.
On 16 April 1318, the two duchesses Ingeborg made a treaty in Kalmar with the Danish duke Christoffer of Halland-Samsö and archbishop Esgar of Lund to free their husbands and not to make peace with the kings of Sweden and Denmark before they agreed to this, the two duchesses promised to honor the promises they gave in return in the names of their husbands. The same year, their husbands were confirmed to have died, her son Magnus VII of Norway, at the age of 3, was proclaimed king of Norway upon her father's death, in rights devolved from her. Ingeborg was recognized as formal regent of her son in Norway. Soon, the Swedish nobility elected young Magnus king of Sweden after deposing Birger, Ingeborg was made nominal regent of Sweden and given a seat and vote in the Swedish government and the title: Ingeborg, by the Grace of God, daughter of Haakon, duchess in the Kingdom of Sweden. Duchess Ingeborg held her own court at her residence in Varberg. Letters 1318-1321 reveal that powerful Swedish men took advantage of the young dowager duchess by having her issue and over her own seal, documents to their advantage as compensation for their support of the murdered dukes Eric and Waldemar and of little Magnus's right to the throne.
The exact position of Ingeborg in the regency council is hard to define properly due to the documentation. Mats Kettilumndsson, her ally, presided over the Swedish regency council "alongside" the two "duchesses Ingeborg". Magnus King of Norway, was elected King of Sweden with the approval of the Norwegian council in her presence. Ingeborg was the only one with a seat in both the Swedish and the Norwegian minor regency and council of state, she was duchess of her own fiefs, which were autonomous under her rule, a large number of castles which controlled big areas thanks to their strategic positions. "Ingeborg's position at court was not well-defined: she was the king's mother, but without being a dowager queen." She was criticized for her way of conducting her own politics without the counsel of the Swedish and Norwegian councils, for using the royal seal of her son for her own wishes. 1 October 1320, she liberated Riga from its debts in her name on behalf of her son. She was known to make large donations to her supporters.
Canute Porse was appointed governor of Varberg. Ingeborg surrounded herself with young foreign men, thought to affect her politics, of which Canute was the most known. 12 April 1321, the Swedish council, after receiving complaints from the Norwegian council regarding a rumour of crimes and disturbances in Ingeborg's lands made by foreigners, told the Norwegian council to advise Ingeborg to listen more to the advice of the old experienced men in the councils rather than to young unexperienced foreign men. Ingeborg and Canute had the ambition to make the Danish Scania a part of her possessions. In 1321, Ingeborg arranged a marriage with Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg; the marriage was arranged with the terms that Mecklenburg, Holstein and Schleswig would assist Ingeborg in the conquest of Scania. This was approved by the council of Norway but not Sweden. To finance the invasion, Ingeborg took a loan from Stralsund with free trade in Sweden and Norway as security; when Ingeborg's forces under command of Canute invaded Scania in 1322-23, Mecklenburg betrayed her to Denmark and the alliance was broken.
In 1322, open conflict broke out between the Swedish regency council. In 1323, Ingeborg was forced to accept the terms and give up several of her strategical castles and fiefs. 20 February 1323 the Norwegian regency council rebelled against Ingeborg. She was accused of misusing the royal seal, to have broken the peace with Denmark and for greater costs, was replaced as head of the regency. After 1323, Ingeborgs power was limited to what was approved by votes in the councils, which in practice had deposed her. 14 February 1326, in exchange for having her debts paid, Ingeborg gave up several fiefs and wa
Battle of Clontarf
The Battle of Clontarf was a battle that took place on 23 April 1014 by the River Tolka, from Clontarf inland, near the then-small Dublin. It pitted forces led by Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, against a Norse-Irish alliance comprising the forces of Sigtrygg Silkbeard, King of Dublin, it lasted from sunrise to sunset, ended in a rout of the Viking and Leinster forces. It is estimated that between 10,000 men were killed. Although Brian's forces were victorious, Brian himself was killed, as were his son Murchad and his grandson Toirdelbach. Leinster king Máel Mórda and Viking leaders Sigurd and Brodir were slain. After the battle, the Vikings and the Kingdom of Dublin were reduced to a secondary power. Brian's family was temporarily eclipsed, there was no undisputed High King of Ireland until the late 12th century; the battle was an important event in Irish history and is recorded in both Irish and Norse chronicles. In Ireland, the battle came to be seen as an event that freed the Irish from foreign domination, Brian was hailed as a national hero.
This view was popular during English rule in Ireland. Although the battle has come to be viewed in a more critical light, it still has a hold on the popular imagination; the Vikings began carrying out raids on Gaelic Ireland in the late eighth century, over the following few decades they founded a number of settlements along the coast. Vikings first established themselves in Dublin in 838, when they built a fortified area, or longphort, there. During the tenth century Viking Dublin developed into the Kingdom of Dublin—a thriving town and a large area of the surrounding countryside, whose rulers controlled extensive territories in the Irish Sea and, at one time, York. Over time, many Vikings became the Norse-Gaels. Dublin was involved in the affairs of the Kingdom of the Isles, which included the Isle of Man and the Hebrides, when the Dublin king Amlaíb Cuarán was defeated by Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill at the Battle of Tara in 980, he was supported by the men of the Isles. Amlaíb's son, Sigtrygg Silkbeard, King of Dublin from 990, allied himself with his uncle Máel Mórda mac Murchada, King of Leinster.
They met Máel Brian Boru at the Battle of Glenmama in 999, where they were defeated. From the time of the seventh century and the reign of Domnall mac Áedo, the kingship of Tara was a title, associated with the high kingship of Ireland and was held by members of the Uí Néill dynasty, who controlled the northern half of Ireland. In the tenth century, the Dál gCais, until a small kingdom in what is now County Clare, began to expand. By the time of his death in 951, Cennétig mac Lorcáin had become King of Thomond, his son, Mathgamain mac Cennétig, was King of Munster when he died in 976. Mathgamain's brother, Brian Boru asserted his claim to the kingship of Munster invaded Leinster and gained its submission. In 998 he attacked the Uí Néill stronghold of Meath. Máel Sechnaill responded by attacking Munster in 999, over the following years the two kings struggled for supremacy in Ireland. In 997, Brian and Máel Sechnaill met in Clonfert and reached an agreement where they recognised each other's reign over their respective halves of the country—Máel Sechnaill in the north and Brian in the south.
Brian received the hostages of Leinster and Dublin from Máel Seachnaill, surrendered the hostages of Connacht to him. The peace was short-lived. After they had jointly defeated the Vikings at Glenmama, Brian resumed his attacks on Máel Seachnaill, he marched on Tara in 1000 with the combined armies of Munster, Osraige and Dublin, but after an advance party consisting of the latter two groups was destroyed by Máel Sechnaill, Brian Boru withdrew from the area without giving battle. In 1002 he marched with the same army to Athlone, took the hostages of Connacht and Meath, he was now the undisputed High King of Ireland. Brian consolidated his hold on Ireland by obtaining the submission of the northern territories of Cenél nEógain, Cenél Conaill and Ulaid, following a series of circuits of the northern part of the island, he completed the task when, following "a great hosting...by land and sea" into the Uí Néill territory of Cenél Conaill in 1011, the King was brought south to Dál gCais territory to submit to Brian Boru in person at his royal site of Cenn Corad.
It was not long, before fighting was renewed. Flaithbertach Ua Néill, King of the Cenél nEógain, resented the rise of Brian Boru. Had the old political order persisted, Flaithbertach would have been in line to succeed to the high-kingship, he attacked his Cenél Conaill neighbours in 1012 but, while doing so, Máel Seachnaill attacked the Cenél nEógain inauguration site of Tullahoge. Flaithbertach in turn raided Meath the following year and Máel Sechnaill was forced to back down. Sigtrygg and Máel Mórda took advantage, themselves raided Meath. Máel Sechnaill sent his army to raid the hinterland north of Dublin as far as Howth but he was defeated, he lost 200 men including his son Flann. Sigtrygg sent a fleet along the coast to attack the Munster town of Cork, but, defeated, Sigtrygg's nephew was killed. A full-scale conflict was inevitable. Brian brought his army to Leinster in 1013, camped outside Dublin from September until the end of the year. Sigtrygg went overseas in search of Viking support and enlisted the help of Sigurd Hlodvirsson, the Earl of Orkney and Brodir, a warrior of the Isle of Man.
According to the Icelandic Njáls saga, Sigtrygg promised both men the kingship of Ireland if they defeated Brian. In early 1014, Sv
Mormaer of Caithness
The Mormaer of Caithness was a vassal title held by members of the Norwegian nobility based in Orkney from the Viking Age until 1350. The mormaerdom was held as fief of Scotland and the title was held by the Norse Earls of Orkney, who were thus a vassal of both the King of Norway and the King of Scots. There is no other example in the history of either Norway or of Scotland in which a dynasty of earls owed their allegiance to two different kings; the earliest reference to the title is however to that of a native Scots ruler, although the extent of the Scottish crown's influence so far north at the time, beyond the lands of the powerful Mormaers of Moray is questionable. The Norse saga which mentions the existence of Donnchad does not provide a date although the context suggests the early tenth century. Nonetheless, at least since the days of the childhood of Thorfinn Sigurdsson in c. 1020, but already several decades before, the Earls of Orkney were the controlling figures. In the Norse context the distinction between earls and kings did not become significant until the late 11th century and the Caithness mormaers therefore would have had considerable independence of action until that time.
The Pentland Firth lies between Caithness and Orkney, a stretch of water which divided the two earldoms but united them perhaps for the Norse, whose command of the seas was an important aspect of their culture. Indeed there are numerous incidents recorded in the Orkneyinga saga in which movement across these waters occurs as if the two polities were parts of a single political and cultural arena. In the mid-12th century it appears that a king of Norway - Eystein Haraldsson - had no difficulty in capturing Harald Maddadson, an Earl of Orkney, from his base in Thurso, Caithness. Meanwhile a Scottish king - David I exercised control of both areas through promotion of the Scottish Church and other indirect rather than military means. In the 13th century after the Norwegian defeat at the Battle of Largs and the subsequent Treaty of Perth in 1266, the distinctions hardened and the Firth became more like a "state border". Sutherland was part of the Caithness mormaerdom for most this title's existence but was "taken" by Alexander II from Magnus, the first "Angus" earl and given to others for unknown reasons.
Most dates during the Norse period are approximate and records become more detailed and accurate as the line of Norse jarls comes to an end. After the close of the Jarls' Saga on the death of Jon Haraldsson in 1230, the history of Caithness is "plunged into a darkness, illuminated by few written sources". After the rule of Maol Íosa there was no mormaer of Caithness from c. 1350 to 1379. The title Earl of Caithness was granted to David Stewart, a younger son of the Scots king, the mormaerdom continued as an earldom from that point onwards; the list is by necessity a fragmentary one, the archives being not preserved, the reigns of some supposed mormaers being not attested, so forth. According to the Landnámabók, Thorstein Olafsson and Sigurd Eysteinsson “conquered Caithness and Moray, more than half of Argyll Thorstein ruled over these territories as King”. There is no suggestion that Thorstein was beholden to any overlord although his son-in-law Donnchad is described as a "native earl". In 1098 Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway deposed the Thorfinnsson brothers as Earls of Orkney and set his 8 year old son Sigurd Magnusson up in their place.
This was an unprecedented occurrence intended as a permanent step. Magnus conducted two vigorous campaigns in the Hebrides and Irish Sea region, it is that de facto control of the mormaerdom was in his hands prior to his death during the second campaign in 1103 although "there does not seem to have been any intention on the Norwegian side" to formally take control of Caithness, which remained subject to the Scottish crown. It is possible. In the late 11th or early 12th century, Ótarr son of Madadhan and brother-in-law of Haakon Paulsson is described as "jarl of Thurso", it is not certain that this second "Moddan of Dale" was a descendant of his earlier namesake, there is no suggestion that Moddan himself was a jarl. Ótarr was the brother of Helga Moddansdóttir fl. 1015-23 and a "curiously shadowy figure". After the failure of Harald the Younger, c.1200 William of Scotland asked King of the Isles Rognvaldr Gudrodsson to take Caithness on behalf of the Scottish Crown. Rognvaldr marched north, subduing the region and returned to the Isles leaving three stewards in charge.
Although not descended from previous Orcadian earls, Rognvaldr was related to these Norse magnates through his paternal grandfather's marriage to Ingibjorg, daughter of Haakon Paulsson. There is no evidence of his installation as a Mormaer of Caithness, only that he was appointed to administer the province, his tenure in Caithness seems to have been short-lived and once again Harald Maddadsson became the undisputed ruler of his northern holdings. |- Jon Haraldsson's son Harald had drowned in 1226 and as there were no male heirs two parties with a claim sought the jarldom from King Haakon Haakonsson of Norway. On their return to Orkney in the autumn of 1232 in a single ship the claimants and their supporters were all lost at sea; as early as 2 October of that year the Caithness title was claimed by a member of the family of the Earl of Angus and it was to this house that Caithness and Orkney were granted. There was no Mormaer of Caithness from c. 1350 to 1379. Alexander of Ard, the son of Maol Íosa's daughter Matilda and Weland of Ard was considered the rightful heir to Caithness but he resigned hi
Margaret, Maid of Norway
Margaret, known as the Maid of Norway, was the queen-designate of Scotland from 1286 until her death. She was the daughter of King Eric II of Margaret of Scotland. By the end of the reign of her maternal grandfather, King Alexander III of Scotland, she was his only surviving descendant and recognized heir presumptive. Alexander III died in 1286, his posthumous child was stillborn, Margaret inherited the crown. Due to her young age, she remained in Norway rather than going to Scotland, her father and the Scottish leaders negotiated her marriage to Edward of Caernarfon, son of King Edward I of England. She was sent to the British Isles in September 1290, but died in Orkney, sparking off the succession dispute between thirteen competitors for the crown of Scotland. Margaret, Maid of Norway, was the only child of Eric II, King of Norway, his first wife, daughter of King Alexander III of Scotland, she was born in Tønsberg, a coastal town in southeastern Norway, between March and 9 April 1283, when her mother died during or after childbirth.
Aged fifteen and possessing little royal authority, King Eric did not have much say about his daughter's future. The infant Margaret was instead in the custody of the leading Norwegian magnate, Bishop of Bergen. Margaret's upbringing in the city of Bergen shows that her future marriage was expected to be important to the kingdom's foreign policy; the 1281 treaty arranging the marriage Eric of Norway and Margaret of Scotland specified that the Scottish princess and her children would succeed to the throne of Scotland if King Alexander died leaving no legitimate sons and if no legitimate son of his left legitimate children. It stated that the couple's daughters could inherit the Norwegian throne "if it is the custom"; the Scottish party seems to have been deceived because the succession law of Norway, codified in 1280, provided only for succession by males, meaning that the Maid could not have succeeded to her father's kingdom. Alexander, brother of Margaret's mother and the last surviving child of the King of Scotland, died on 28 January 1284.
The Maid was left as the only living descendant of Alexander III. The King did not wait to discover whether Margaret of Flanders, was pregnant. On 5 February he had all thirteen earls, twenty-four barons, three clan chiefs come to Scone and swear to recognize his granddaughter as his successor if he died leaving neither son nor daughter and if no posthumous child was born to his son. By April it had become clear that the young Alexander's widow was not expecting a child and that Margaret was the heir presumptive. Alexander III's wife, another Margaret, sister of King Edward I of England, had died in 1275, the oath he exacted implied that he now intended to remarry; when Edward expressed his condolence to Alexander III that month for the death of his son, the latter responded that "much good may come to pass yet through your kinswoman, the daughter of your niece..., now our heir presumptive", suggesting that the two kings may have been discussing a suitable marriage for Margaret. Alexander and his magnates may have hoped for an English match.
The King took Yolanda of Dreux, on 14 October 1285, hoping to father another child. On the evening of 18 March 1286, he set out to meet with Queen Yolanda, only to be found dead with a broken neck the next day. Following the unexpected death of King Alexander, Scottish magnates gathered to discuss the future of the kingdom, they swore to preserve the throne for the right heir and chose six regents, known as guardians of Scotland, to govern the country. Although the succession had been laid out by the time King Alexander III died, Margaret's accession was not yet assured, her stepgrandmother Queen Yolanda was pregnant and the child was expected to succeed to the throne. There was a dispute in parliament in April involving Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, John Balliol, Lord of Galloway. Bruce may have opposed the Maid's succession, or the two men may have both claimed to be next in line to the throne after Yolande's child and Margaret. Yolande delivered a stillborn child in November, within a few months Eric's most prominent councilor, Bjarne Erlingsson, arrived in Scotland to claim the kingdom for Margaret.
Bruce raised a rebellion with his son, Earl of Carrick, but was defeated in early 1287. The precariousness of the situation made King Eric reluctant to see his three-year-old daughter leave Norway for Scotland. In May 1289, Eric II sent envoys not the first, to Edward I to discuss the future of Margaret, whom he called "lady and queen". Edward was approached by William Fraser, Bishop of St Andrews and one of the guardians of Scotland, but the Scots could observe the negotiations between the two kings. Eric was indebted to Edward, Edward was determined to make the most of the situation; the guardians, accompanied by Bruce met with English and Norwegian envoys in Salisbury in October. The Treaty of Salisbury was drawn up on 6 November, stating that Eric and Margaret, "queen and heir of the kingdom", asked Edward to intervene on behalf of his grandniece so "that she could ordain and enjoy therein as other kings do in their kingdoms". Margaret was to be sent via Scotland. Once the Scots could assure Edward that Scotland was peaceful and safe, he would send her to them.
Edward was given the right to choose her husband. A papal bull sought earlier by Edward I was issued on 16 November 1289, permitting Margaret to marry his son, Edward of Caernarfon; the guardians and other prelates and magnates wrote that they were in favour of the Engli