Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
A cattery is where cats are commercially housed. Catteries come in two varieties -- breeding catteries. A boarding cattery is where cats are housed temporarily, when they cannot stay at their owners' home. Boarding catteries are used by owners who are away on holiday, although they may be used during house moves, building work or when their owners are incapacitated, for example if they have to go into hospital. Cats must be adequately looked after, otherwise the owner of the cattery may face legal action by the law or cat protection bodies such as the RSPCA if the owner of the cat feel that it be necessary. All establishments boarding cats within the United Kingdom are required to be licensed and inspected by the local authority's Environmental Health department under the Animal Boarding Establishments Act 1963. Licensed establishments will have a copy of their licence prominently displayed as part of their conditions of licence. A veterinary surgeon will not be deemed to keep a boarding establishment for cats so long as the cat is at the time receiving treatment by the veterinary surgeon and the boarding is a requirement of the treatment.
A vet will be deemed to be keeping a boarding establishment if, at the time of boarding, the cat is not under treatment or required to board as part of that treatment. If the boarding facility is advertised as ancillary to the vet's main business, the establishment will need to be licensed and inspected by their local authority and meet the conditions as per any other boarding establishment. In determining whether to grant a licence for the keeping of a boarding establishment for animals by any person at any premises, a local authority shall in particular pay regard to the following: that cats will at all times be kept in accommodation suitable as respects construction, size of quarters, number of occupants, exercising facilities, lighting and cleanliness that cats will be adequately supplied with suitable food and bedding material, adequately exercised / stimulated, visited at suitable intervals that all reasonable precautions will be taken to prevent and control the spread among cats of infectious or contagious diseases, including the provision of adequate isolation facilities that appropriate steps will be taken for the protection of the cats in case of fire or other emergency that a register – either hard or soft copy – be kept, containing a description of any cats received into the establishment, date of arrival and departure, the name and address of the owner.
International Cat Care, a long-established cat charity in the United Kingdom, has defined standards for the construction and management of boarding catteries. ICC standards are in addition to those set by local councils for licensing purposes. A breeding cattery is. Cats may be bred on a commercial basis where they are sold for profit. In the United States, there are two main cat registries – the Cat Fanciers' Association and The International Cat Association which establish standards for member breeders; these cat registries award certificates for catteries that have been inspected for healthy environments. Additionally, many U. S. States and municipalities, along with the Federal government, provide some regulations of breeding catteries. In Europe the standards are established by the Fédération Internationale Féline or World Cat Federation. In Italy by the Associazione Nazionale Felina Italiana. Domestication of animals The Pet Care Trade Association
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Notts County F.C.
Notts County Football Club is a professional association football club based in Nottingham, England. They participate in the fourth tier of the English football league system, they are nicknamed the "Magpies" due to the black and white colour of their home strip, which inspired Italian club Juventus to adopt the colours for their kit in 1903. After playing at different home grounds during their first fifty years, including Trent Bridge, the club moved to Meadow Lane in 1910 and have remained there since. Between 2014 and 2017, there was a professional Notts County ladies team, replaced by Notts County Women in May 2018. County hold a rivalry with Nottingham Forest, as well as with other nearby clubs such as Mansfield Town. Founded in 1862, they are the oldest professional association football club in the world, they hold a Football League record 29 combined promotions and relegations; the club predates The Football Association itself and became one of the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888.
They finished third in the 1890–91 season, have never bettered this position. They reached the 1891 FA Cup Final, but finished as runners-up to Blackburn Rovers, they did manage to best this accomplishment three years by winning the 1894 FA Cup Final with a 4–1 victory over Bolton Wanderers. They won the FA Cup as a Second Division side after being relegated the previous year, before gaining promotion by winning the Second Division title in 1896–97, they remained in the First Division until 1920, barring the 1913–14 season when they won the Second Division following relegation the previous year. They won the Second Division for a third time in the 1922–23 campaign, before suffering relegations down to the Third Division South, which they won in their first attempt in 1930–31. Back in the Third Division South by World War II, they were again promoted as champions in 1949–50 and spent most of the 1950s in the second tier before successive relegations into the Fourth Division, which they won promotion out of as runners-up in 1959–60.
They returned to the fourth tier by 1964 and went on to win the Fourth Division title in the 1970–71 season, before securing promotion out of the Third Division under the stewardship of Jimmy Sirrel in 1972–73. They made their return to the top-flight by finishing as runners-up of the Second Division in 1980–81. Relegated after a three season stay, they ended the decade back in the third tier, before Neil Warnock masterminded play-off successes in 1990 and 1991 that saw them promoted back into the first tier; however they were relegated, thus missing out on the first-ever season of Premier League football. They managed to finish the season as champions. Following a financial crisis they were relegated again in 2004, before they won the League Two title in 2009–10 admist a takeover from a Middle Eastern consortium that fell through despite great publicity and initial expectations. Notts County is the oldest professional league club in the world, having been formed in 1862. Notts pre-dated The Football Association and played a game of its own devising, rather than association football.
At the time of its formation, Notts County, like most sports teams, were considered to be a "gentlemen-only" club. Notts County are considered to be one of the pioneers of the modern game and are the oldest of the world's professional association football clubs. In November 1872, the Notts County full-back Ernest Greenhalgh played for England against Scotland in the first-ever international match, thereby becoming the club's first international player. In 1888, Notts County, along with 11 other football clubs, became a founding member of The Football League, they finished their first league season in 11th place, but avoided the dubious honour of the wooden spoon, which went to Midlands rivals Stoke. However, Notts County did achieve their highest league finish of third in 1890–91, an achievement they repeated 10 seasons later. On 25 March 1891, Notts County reached the FA Cup final for the first time; the Magpies were defeated 3–1 by Blackburn Rovers at The Oval, despite having beaten the same side 7–1 in the league only a week earlier.
County made up for this on 31 March 1894, when they won the FA Cup at Goodison Park, defeating Bolton Wanderers 4–1 in a game in which Jimmy Logan scored the second hat-trick in FA Cup final history. This achievement is memorable for Notts County becoming the first club outside the top division to win the FA Cup: Notts County finished third in Division Two that season. In 1910 they moved to Meadow Lane. County were relegated in 1926 in what was to be their last season in the English top flight for over half a century; the 1925–26 season was the last season that famed giant goalkeeper Albert Iremonger played for the club. Legend among Notts County supporters it has been said he had "hands like the claws of a JCB and was a seven foot tall monster"; the club suspended all fixtures during the 1941–42 season after Meadow Lane was hit by enemy bombing. In the 1946–47 season, the ground was used temporarily by Nottingham Forest after the River Trent flooded both Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Forest again used Meadow Lane in 1968.
The'golden age' of the club came just after the end of World War II. County stunned the footballing world by signing Tommy Lawton from Chelsea for £20,000 a then-record fee. Lawton's arrival increased crowds by over 10,000. One incident during this period saw 10,000 fans locked outside the ground. In the 1949–5
Mark Hudson (footballer, born 1982)
Mark Alexander Hudson is an English former professional footballer, a coach at Premier League club Huddersfield Town, was caretaker manager in January 2019. A centre-back, he began his professional career with Fulham after progressing through the club's youth academy, he made his senior debut in a League Cup match in 2000 but made just two further first team appearances for Fulham. He spent two spells on loan with Oldham Athletic in 2003 before joining Crystal Palace on loan after Oldham manager Iain Dowie moved between the two clubs, he joined Palace on a permanent basis soon after as they spent one season in the Premier League before establishing himself in the first team following their return to the Championship. In 2008, he joined Charlton Athletic following the expiration of his contract where he was appointed captain of the side but suffered relegation to League One during his only season at the club, he instead was appointed captain on his arrival. He helped the side reach the play-offs in his first three seasons, suffering defeat each time, before they won promotion to the Premier League by winning the Championship in 2013.
However, Hudson was dropped following promotion in favour of new signings and made only nine further appearances in over a year before departing for Huddersfield Town. He again took over the captaincy soon after his arrival and made over 100 appearances for the club during a three-year spell, helping them win promotion to the Premier League in his final season, he announced his retirement from playing at the end of the 2016–17 season and was appointed manager of the club's under-23 squad. Born in Guildford, Hudson played for Farncombe Youth as a child; as a teenager, he played for Swindon Town before joining Fulham when he was 14, which he reflected on, stating, "I was at Swindon when I was about 13. I came to the club at about 14 but took a year out because I wasn't enjoying it; when I came back I wasn't offered a YTS. I took the knock-back and stayed at college because it's always useful to have an academic side to fall back on. I was told that I was going to be given a professional contract and it's gone from there."After progressing through the ranks at the Fulham Academy, Hudson was involved in the Fulham first team and made his senior debut, being named in the starting line-up for a 1–0 defeat against Chesterfield in the first leg of a League Cup tie on 19 September 2000.
Hudson made another League Cup appearance for Fulham in the return leg on 27 September 2000, in a 4–0 win. In December 2001, Hudson spent two days on trial with Grimsby Town in preparation for a possible loan move, the transfer was not completed. At the end of the 2001–02 season, Hudson signed a one-year contract with Fulham, he did not make another senior appearance for the side until 6 November 2002, when he played in a 3–1 win over Bury in the League Cup. In total, Hudson made three appearances for all in the League Cup. Ahead of the 2003–04 season, Hudson was promoted to the first team by manager Chris Coleman, but was loaned out to Second Division side Oldham Athletic in August 2003 on an initial one-month loan deal, he made his debut for Oldham in a 2–1 loss against Brentford on 25 August 2003. His loan spell with Oldham was extended for another month. After his initial loan spell ended in late–October, Hudson re–joined them on loan the following month, he went on to make four more appearances for the side before returning to his parent club in December.
In January 2004, Hudson was loaned out again, joining Crystal Palace on a three-month loan deal where he was reunited with former Oldham manager Iain Dowie, who had moved to Selhurst Park one month before. He was signed by the club as a replacement for the injured Curtis Fleming who had suffered a broken bone in his leg, he made his debut for Palace in a 5–1 win over Watford on 17 January 2004. He established himself in the first team and impressed manager Dowie once again; as a result, his loan spell with the club was extended for a further two months. Hudson started in six consecutive matches following his debut until he was sent–off in a 1–0 win over Gillingham for committing a professional foul in the penalty area, although Nicky Southall was unable to convert the resulting penalty. After serving a one match suspension, he returned to his parent club following his last appearance in a 1–1 draw against Wigan Athletic on 17 April 2004, he made 14 appearances for the side during his loan spell as Palace went on to defeat West Ham United in the play-off final to win promotion to the Premiership.
After his loan spell at Palace came to an end, local newspaper News Shopper compared Hudson to former loan signing Ashley Cole, writing that, like Cole, he would be seen "as a big star of the future who came of age at Palace."Following their promotion, Dowie returned to sign Hudson on a permanent basis for the start of the 2004–05 season. His first game after his signing came in the opening game of the season, a 1–1 draw against Norwich City. In their following match, a 3–1 loss against Everton, Hudson scored his first goal for the club when he converted a Wayne Routledge cross in the opening ten minutes of the match. However, he suffered ankle injury soon after and, after featuring for the reserve side, he was further sidelined by a hernia problem, his next appearance came seven months on 2 April 2005 in a 1–0 loss against Middlesbrough. Hudson went on to finish his first season with eight appearances and one goal in all competitions as Palace were relegated from the Premier League on the final day of the season.
Hudson made his first appearance of the 2005–06 season in
Charlton Athletic F.C.
Charlton Athletic Football Club is an English professional association football club based in Charlton, south-east London. They play in the third tier of English football; the club was founded on 9 June 1905 when a number of youth clubs in south-east London, including East Street Mission and Blundell Mission, combined to form Charlton Athletic. The club play at the Valley in Charlton, where they have played since 1919, apart from one year in Catford, during 1923–24, seven years at Crystal Palace and West Ham United between 1985 and 1992. Charlton turned professional in 1920 and first entered the Football League in 1921. Since they have had four separate periods in the top flight of English football: 1936–1957, 1986–1990, 1998–1999, 2000–2007. Charlton's most successful period was the 1930s, when the club's highest league finishes were recorded, including runners-up of the First Division in 1937. After World War II, the club reached the FA Cup Final twice, losing in 1946 and winning in 1947; the club's traditional kit consists of red shirts, white shorts and red socks, their most used nickname is The Addicks.
The club share local rivalries with Millwall. Charlton Athletic F. C. were formed on 9 June 1905 by a group of 15- to 17-year-olds in East Street, now known as Eastmoor Street and no longer residential. Charlton spent most of the years before the First World War playing in youth leagues, they became a senior side in 1913 the same year that nearby Woolwich Arsenal relocated to North London. After the war, they joined the Kent League for one season before becoming professional, appointing Walter Rayner as the first full-time manager, they were accepted by the Southern League and played just a single season before being voted into the Football League. Charlton's first Football League match was against Exeter City in August 1921, which they won 1–0. In 1923, Charlton became "giant killers" in the FA Cup beating top flight sides Manchester City, West Bromwich Albion, Preston North End before losing to eventual winners Bolton Wanderers in the Quarter-Finals; that year, it was proposed that Charlton merge with Catford Southend to create a larger team with bigger support.
In the 1923–24 season Charlton played in Catford at The Mount stadium and wore the colours of "The Enders", light and dark blue vertical stripes. However, the move fell through and the Addicks returned to the Charlton area in 1924, returning to the traditional red and white colours in the process. Charlton finished second bottom in the Football League in 1926 and were forced to apply for re-election, successful. Three years the Addicks won the Division Three championship in 1929 and they remained at the Division Two level for four years. After relegation into the Third Division south at the end of the 1932–33 season the club appointed Jimmy Seed as manager and he oversaw the most successful period in Charlton's history either side of the Second World War. Seed, an ex-miner who had made a career as a footballer despite suffering the effects of poison gas in the First World War, remains the most successful manager in Charlton's history, he is commemorated in the name of a stand at the Valley. Seed was an innovative thinker about the game at a time when tactical formations were still unsophisticated.
He recalled "a simple scheme that enabled us to pull several matches out of the fire" during the 1934–35 season: when the team was in trouble "the centre-half was to forsake his defensive role and go up into the attack to add weight to the five forwards." The organisation Seed brought to the team proved effective and the Addicks gained successive promotions from the Third Division to the First Division between 1934 and 1936, becoming the first club to do so. Charlton secured promotion to the First Division by beating local rivals West Ham United at the Boleyn Ground, with their centre-half John Oakes playing on despite concussion and a broken nose. In 1937, Charlton finished runners up in the First Division, in 1938 finished fourth and 1939 finished third, they were the most consistent team in the top flight of English football over the three seasons before the Second World War. This continued during the war years and they won the "war" cup and appeared in finals. Charlton lost 4 -- 1 to Derby County at Wembley.
Charlton's Bert Turner scored an own goal in the eightieth minute before equalising for the Addicks a minute to take them into extra time, but they conceded three further goals in the extra period. When the full league programme resumed in 1946–47 Charlton could finish only 19th in the First Division, just above the relegation spots, but they made amends with their performance in the FA Cup, reaching the 1947 FA Cup Final; this time they were successful, beating Burnley 1–0, with Chris Duffy scoring the only goal of the day. In this period of renewed football attendances, Charlton became one of only thirteen English football teams to average over 40,000 as their attendance during a full season; the Valley was the largest football ground in the League, drawing crowds in excess of 70,000. However, in the 1950s little investment was made either for players or to The Valley, hampering the club's growth. In 1956, the board undermined Jimmy Seed and asked for his resignation. From the late 1950s until the early 1970s, Charlton remained a mainstay of the Second Division before relegation to the Third Division in 1972 caused the team's support to drop, a promotion in 1975 back to the second division did little to re-invigorate the team's support and finances.
In 1979–80 Charlton were relegated again to the Third Division, but won immed
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Islington, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. It has won 13 League titles, a record 13 FA Cups, two League Cups, the League Centenary Trophy, 15 FA Community Shields, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893, they reached the First Division in 1904. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, have won the second-most top-flight matches in English football history. In the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970 -- 71, they won their first FA Cup Double. Between 1989 and 2005, they won five FA Cups, including two more Doubles, they completed the 20th century with the highest average league position. Herbert Chapman died prematurely, he helped introduce the WM formation and shirt numbers, added the white sleeves and brighter red to Arsenal's kit.
Arsène Wenger won the most trophies. He won a record 7 FA Cups, his title-winning team set an English record for the longest top-flight unbeaten league run at 49 games between 2003 and 2004, receiving the nickname The Invincibles, a special gold Premier League trophy. In 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the club crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, becoming close neighbours of Tottenham Hotspur, creating the North London derby. In 2006, they moved to the nearby Emirates Stadium. In terms of revenue, Arsenal is the ninth highest-earning football club in the world, earned €487.6m in 2016–17 season. Based on social media activity from 2014 to 2015, Arsenal's fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2018, Forbes estimated the club was the third most valuable in England, with the club being worth $2.24 billion. In October 1886, Scotsman David Danskin and his fellow 15 munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with each member contributing sixpence and Danskin adding another three shillings to help form the club.
Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the whole complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C.'s first home was Plumstead Common, though they spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead, at the Manor Ground. Royal Arsenal won Arsenal's first trophies in 1890 and 1891, these were the only football association trophies Arsenal won during their time in South East London. In 1891, Royal Arsenal became the first London club to turn professional. Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893, they registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended that year. Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers and the arrival of more accessible football clubs elsewhere in the city, led the club close to bankruptcy by 1910.
Businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall became involved in the club, sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, North London; this saw their third change of name: the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to The Arsenal. In 1919, The Football League voted to promote The Arsenal, instead of relegated local rivals Tottenham Hotspur, into the newly enlarged First Division, despite only listing the club sixth in the Second Division's last pre-war season of 1914–15; some books have speculated. That year, The Arsenal started dropping "The" in official documents shifting its name for the final time towards Arsenal, as it is known today. With a new home and First Division football, attendances were more than double those at the Manor Ground, Arsenal's budget grew rapidly, their location and record-breaking salary offer lured star Huddersfield Town manager Herbert Chapman in 1925. Over the next five years, Chapman built a new Arsenal.
He appointed enduring new trainer Tom Whittaker, implemented Charlie Buchan's new twist on the nascent WM formation, captured young players like Cliff Bastin and Eddie Hapgood, lavished Highbury's income on stars like David Jack and Alex James. With record-breaking spending and gate receipts, Arsenal became known as the Bank of England club. Transformed, Chapman's Arsenal claimed their first national trophy, the FA Cup, in 1930. Two League Championships followed, in 1930–31 and 1932–33. Chapman presided over multiple off the pitch changes: white sleeves and shirt numbers were added to the kit. In the middle of the 1933–34 season, Chapman died of pneumonia, his work was left to Joe Shaw and George Allison, who saw out a hat-trick with the 1933–34 and 1934–35 titles, won the 1936 FA Cup and 1937–38 title. World War II meant The Football League was suspended for seven years, but Arsenal returned to win it in the second post-war season, 1947–48; this was Tom Whittaker's first season as manager, after his promotion to succeed Allison, the club had equalled the champions of England record.
They won a third FA Cup in 1950, won a record-breaking seven