Lewes is the county town of East Sussex and by tradition of all of Sussex. Lewes remains the police and judicial centre for all of Sussex and is home to Sussex Police, East Sussex Fire & Rescue Service, Lewes Crown Court and HMP Lewes, it is a civil parish and is the centre of the Lewes local government district as well as the seat of East Sussex County Council at East Sussex County Hall. The population of Lewes is now around 17,000; the settlement is a traditional market town and centre of communications and, in 1264, it was the site of the Battle of Lewes. The town's landmarks include Lewes Castle, the remains of Lewes Priory, Bull House, Southover Grange and public gardens, a 16th century timber-framed Wealden hall house known as Anne of Cleves House. Other notable features of the area include the Glyndebourne festival, the Lewes Bonfire and the Lewes Pound. Archaeological evidence points to prehistoric dwellers in the area. Scholars think that the Roman settlement of Mutuantonis was here, as quantities of artefacts have been discovered in the area.
The Saxons built a castle. After the Norman invasion, William the Conqueror rewarded William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey, with the Rape of Lewes, a swathe of land along the River Ouse from the coast to the Surrey boundary, he built Lewes Castle on the Saxon site. Lewes was the site of a mint during the Late Anglo-Saxon period and thereafter a mint during the early years after the Norman invasion. In 1148 the town was granted a charter by King Stephen; the town became a port with docks along the River Ouse. The town was the site of the Battle of Lewes between the forces of Henry III and Simon de Montfort in the Second Barons' War in 1264, at the end of which de Montfort's forces were victorious; the battle took place in fields now just west of Landport. At the time of the Marian Persecutions of 1555–1557, Lewes was the site of the execution of seventeen Protestant martyrs, who were burned at the stake in front of the Star Inn; this structure is now the Town Hall. A memorial to the martyrs was unveiled on Cliffe Hill in 1901.
Through the 17th and 18th centuries, Lewes developed as the county town of Sussex, expanding beyond the line of the town wall. It was an active port and developed related iron and ship building industries. In 1846 the town became a railway junction, with lines constructed from the north and east to two railway stations; the development of Newhaven ended Lewes's period as a major port. During the Crimean War, some 300 Finns serving in the Russian army captured at Bomarsund were imprisoned at Lewes. Lewes became a borough in 1881; the name Lewes is the name of the parliamentary constituency and the local district council as well as Lewes Town Council. Lewes is where the East Sussex County Council has its main offices, located at County Hall in St Anne’s Crescent. Lewes District Council is administered from offices in Southover House on Southover Road. Lewes Town Council is based in the Town Hall on Lewes High Street. For many years, Lewes was dominated at local and national levels. In 1991, the Liberal Democrats won the District Council for the first time, the constituency returned a Liberal Democrat MP for the first time in 1997.
The Conservatives won control of the District Council in 2011, strengthened this position in 2015. They won back the parliamentary seat in the 2015 election with Maria Caulfield defeating the incumbent Liberal Democrat of 18 years, Norman Baker by 1,083 votes. In organisational terms, Lewes became one of the non-county boroughs within the Sussex, East county under the Local Government Act 1933. In 1974, Lewes District Council was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, was a merger of the former borough of Lewes along with Newhaven and Seaford urban districts and Chailey Rural District; the election in 2015 was the first time in which Green Councillors had been elected to the Lewes District Council, all from the wards in the town of Lewes. The Lewes Councillor elected to the District Council, Ruth O'Keeffe, was elected as Chairman of the Council; the town of Lewes became a civil parish with the title of town. Lewes Town Council is one of the 300 largest of the 9,800 parish councils in England and Wales, with expenditure budgeted at just over £1 million.
In the 2015 elections for Lewes Town Council, the Green Party were the largest party with 9 seats. But, they lost a seat to an Independent in a by-election and split. There are now 6 Liberal Democrats, 5 Greens, 4 Independents and 3 Independent Green members of Council; the Mayor for 2017/18 is Councillor Michael Chartier and the Deputy Mayor is Janet Baah, both Liberal Democrats. The representation from Lewes wards at local government levels, as at the latest elections, is as follows. On 31 March 2009 Hilary Benn, Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs, announced his decision to confirm the designation of the South Downs National Park, which came into being one year and includes the town of Lewes within its boundaries. You can see Lewes lying like a box of toys under a great amphitheatre of chalk hills... on the whole it is set down better than any town I have seen in England. Lewes is situated on the Greenwich Meridian, in a gap in the Sout
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Chevening is a village and civil parish in the Sevenoaks District of Kent, England. It was the location for the world's earliest known organised cricket match; the parish is located to the north west of Sevenoaks on the southern slopes of the North Downs. The parish is a small one, being 6.5 miles in length and 1 mile wide. It has a population of 2,762, increasing to 3,092 at the 2011 Census. Apart from the village the remaining area is rural. Chevening House is located here; the Pilgrims' Way crosses the parish. Close to Chevening, the path of Harold Godwinson's army en route to the Battle of Hastings in 1066, heading south along what is now Chipstead Lane, crosses William the Conqueror's route after the battle towards London along the Pilgrim's Way; the village of Chevening is small. It stands on the upper reaches of the River Darent; the village lies close to the M25 motorway. Its parish church is dedicated to St Botolph. Chevening was the venue for the world's earliest known organised cricket match.
The match can be deduced from a 1640 court case recording a "cricketing" of "Weald and Upland" against "Chalkhill" at Chevening "about thirty years since". The case concerned the land. Chevening was served by a halt on the Westerham Valley Branch Line running between Westerham and Dunton Green: the branch opened in 1881 but the halt at Chevening was not added until 1906 when steam railmotor services began on the line. Both line and halt closed in 1961. Location map and historical notes Chevening Parish Council website Chevening parish news
Harbledown is a village in Kent, England west of Canterbury and contiguous with the city. At local government level the village is designated as a separate civil parish, that of Harbledown and Rough Common; the High Street is a conservation area with many listed buildings, including a tall and intact Georgian terrace on the south side. The area includes several orchards for fruit on its outskirts, within the parish boundaries. Toponymists have determined that the village name means "Herebeald's hill". A popular story is that the place was dubbed "hobble down", after Henry II of England walked barefoot through Harbledown on a pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral, in repentance for his mistaken involvement in the murder of Thomas Becket. Another suggestion is that since the name has been recorded as Herbaldoun, it is possible that the name is related to the herbs growing in the hills. "The spot is remarked to be peculiarly healthful, herbalists are said to come every year to collect medicinal plants which grow only on that particular place."
For this reason the leprosy hospital was founded on this spot. The Parish Church of St Michael and All Angels is compact and attractive but more significant is the Hospital of St Nicholas: this is now an Almshouse with a range of cottages for elderly people, it was a leper hospital whose inmates supported themselves by displaying a slipper, worn by St Thomas Becket. As you enter the Hospital of St Nicholas a plaque reads: "This ancient Hospital of St Nicholas Harbledown was founded by Archbishop Lanfranc c. 1084 for the relief of Lepers. On the disappearance of Leprosy from England Lanfranc's foundation developed into the Almshouses of today; the main door of the church is kept locked for security reasons but the interior of the building can be seen by appointment with the Sub Prior. Visitors are invited to walk in the grounds of the Hospital." Aphra Behn, a pioneering female playwright, was baptized here on 14 December 1640. There is thought to be a reference to the village of Harbledown towards the close of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.
In the Prologue to the Manciple's tale, the pilgrims are said to near Bobbe-up-and-doun, | Under the Blee, in Canterbury Weye. Richard Culmer, a Puritan clergyman, suspended from his duties in 1635, was restored to the clergy in 1638 as a curate, he was sent to the Parish of Harbledown to assist the Reverend Austin. Culmer, known as "Blue Dick" because he always wore a blue gown, was vindictive towards drunkenness and Sabbath sports. Cricket at this time was played at an inter-parish level only in the south-eastern counties but there had been a number of ecclesiastical cases in which people playing the game on a Sunday were prosecuted. Whereas Culmer had managed to suppress Sabbath sport in other places, he was less successful in Harbledown where the parishioners provoked him by "crickit playing before his door, to spite him". Having failed to stop cricket in the village by private remonstrances, Culmer in 1640 publicly denounced the sport as "profane" if played on a Sunday; this is one of cricket's earliest known references.
At the 2001 UK census, the Harbledown electoral ward, which includes part of Chartham, had a population of 2,593. The ethnicity was 2.8 % Asian, 0.8 % black and 0.9 % other. The place of birth of residents was 88.1% United Kingdom, 0.8% Republic of Ireland, 3.1% other Western European countries, 8% elsewhere. Religion was recorded as 73.3% Christian, 0.5% Buddhist, 0.4% Hindu, 0.2% Sikh, 0.2% Jewish and 0.6% Muslim. 15.7% were recorded as having no religion, 0.7% had an alternative religion and 8.5% did not state their religion. The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 35.9% in full-time employment, 12.7% in part-time employment, 11.3% self-employed, 1.5% unemployed, 2.3% students with jobs, 8.3% students without jobs, 17.9% retired, 4.9% looking after home or family, 3.3% permanently sick or disabled and 1.9% economically inactive for other reasons. The industry of employment of residents was 15.1% retail, 8.2% manufacturing, 5.8% construction, 12% real estate, 10.8% health and social work, 24.1% education, 4.6% transport and communications, 6.7% public administration, 2.7% hotels and restaurants, 2.9% finance, 2.6% agriculture and 4.5% other.
Compared with national figures, the ward had a high proportion of workers in education and agriculture. There were a low proportion in manufacturing and restaurants, transport and communications. Of the ward's residents aged 16–74, 31.3% had a higher education qualification or the equivalent, compared with 19.9% nationwide. Upper Harbledown Harbledown Parish Council Website
Sidlesham is a small village and civil parish, on the Manhood Peninsula, five kilometres south of Chichester in the Chichester District of West Sussex, England. It has a small primary school; the area has had a prebendary since medieval times. The 13th-century church of St Mary Our Lady is built of stone rubble, not the usual flint of the area; the parish has a land area of 1753 hectares. In the 2001 census 1139 people lived in 448 households. At the 2011 Census the population had increased to 1,171; the parish has fertile soils on the flat Chichester plain and there are a large number of glasshouses around the village. An electoral list in the same name exists; this ward stretches North to Hunston with a total ward population at the 2011 Census of 2,428. The first definite mention of cricket in Sussex relates to ecclesiastical court records in 1611 which state that two parishioners of Sidlesham failed to attend church on Easter Sunday because they were playing cricket, they were made to do penance.
Sidlesham has a Non-League football club Sidlesham F. C. who play at The Memorial Recreation Ground. The Site of Special Scientific Interest known as Pagham Harbour falls within the parish; the harbour and surrounding land is of national importance for both fauna. The shingle spit is of geological interest. Media related to Sidlesham at Wikimedia Commons
Boxgrove is a village and civil parish in the Chichester District of the English county of West Sussex, about five kilometres north east of the city of Chichester. The village is just south of the A285 road; the parish has an area of 1,169 hectares. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 901 people living in 423 households of whom 397 were economically active; the 2011 Census indicated at population of 957. Included in the parish are the hamlets of Crockerhill and Halnaker. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward stretches northwest to West Dean with a total population taken at the 2011 census of 2,235. Boxgrove is best known for the Lower Palaeolithic archaeological site discovered in a gravel quarry known as Amey's Eartham Pit located near the village but in Eartham Parish. Parts of the site complex were excavated between 1983 and 1996 by a team led by Mark Roberts of University College London. Numerous Acheulean flint tools and remains of animals dating to around 500,000 years ago were found at the site.
The area was therefore used by some of the earliest occupants of the British Isles. Remains of Homo heidelbergensis were found on the site in 1994, the only postcranial hominid bone to have been found in Northern Europe. Teeth from another individual were found two years later. A Benedictine monastery was founded at Boxgrove by Robert de Haia early in the 12th century; the priory church remains as the Church of England parish church of St. Mary and St. Blaise, minus the original nave, dates from the 13th century. Several parishioners of Boxgrove were prosecuted for playing cricket in the churchyard in 1622. There were three reasons for the prosecution: one was that it contravened a local bye-law. McCann, Tim. Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century. Sussex Record Society. Media related to Boxgrove at Wikimedia Commons Historical information and sources on GENUKI
Horsted Keynes is a village and civil parish in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex, England. The village is about 5 miles north east in the Weald; the civil parish is rural, covering 1,581 hectares, has a population of 1,586. The Prime Meridian passes about 1 mile to the east of the village of Horsted Keynes. Guillaume de Cahaignes, a French knight who participated in the Norman conquest of England, lord of what is now Cahagnes, was given Milton in Buckinghamshire and the Sussex village of Horstede which became Horstede de Cahaignes and in time Horsted Keynes; the place name is first attested in the Domesday Book of 1086. The village has been formally twinned with the Normandy village of Cahagnes since 1971; the Horsted Cahagnes Society promotes social and cultural links, organises annual exchange visits between the two places. On Saturday, 28 August 1624, Horsted Keynes hosted what is believed to be the earliest known organised cricket match in Sussex. Knowledge of it stems from the death thirteen days of Jasper Vinall, on whom an inquest was held.
He had suffered a head injury during the game. Two months before being assassinated, U. S. President John F. Kennedy slept in the parish when he stayed one Saturday night at Birch Grove, the home of the former Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan; the American Secret Service closed the village that night, siting their communication hub in the Lounge Bar of The Crown Inn. On 1 July 2003 a lightning bolt struck the electricity pole beside The Crown public house on the village green which has stood there for at least 300 years and much longer; the roof and much of the building were destroyed in one of the largest fires in the area for many years. The fire did not spread to the petrol storage tanks of the adjacent Crown Garage. In May 2007 a telephone pole was struck. Several homes in Lewes Road were left without a telephone service for over one month whilst permission was sought to dig on private land to relay a cable; this part of Sussex was known for its iron industry long before the industrial revolution and the coming of the railways.
Little remains of this now, except for the hammer ponds and other traces of this activity dotted around the surrounding countryside, although iron working is remembered in many local place names. Horsted Keynes is centred on a village green with Post Office and village store; the Post Office was to be closed down for lack of use but was bought up by a group of villagers who invested in its continued use for the community. It now serves a large rural area. Like many other English villages Horsted Keynes is losing businesses that have been there for many years. After the closure of the main village store in 1992, the more recent loss of the butcher, village hairdresser and photographer, the village garage closed down in June 2007, it was only 20 years ago that the village had two garages, but now it has none, leaving the nearest petrol retailer more than 6 miles away. Planning permission was granted and the garage site has now been turned into residential accommodation; the two principal churches are: the Anglican Parish Church dedicated to St Giles and the Roman Catholic church of St Stephen, unoccupied and controlled from the nearest town, Haywards Heath.
Harold Macmillan was buried in the churchyard of St Giles after his death in December 1986, alongside his wife Dorothy, who died 20 years previously. The railway station, three-quarters of a mile from the village, is now owned and operated by the Bluebell Railway, run by volunteers and operates using vintage steam trains; the station also had a connection with Haywards Heath, between 1883 and 1963. Robert Leighton - buried here Harold Macmillan, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom - buried here, alongside his wife Dorothy Macmillan. HorstedKeynes.com - website for the village The Horsted Cahagnes Society