Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills is a non-ministerial department of the UK government, reporting to Parliament. Ofsted is responsible for inspecting a range of educational institutions, including state schools and some independent schools, it inspects childcare and fostering agencies and initial teacher training, regulates a range of early years and children’s social care services. The Chief Inspector is appointed by an Order-in-Council and thus becomes an office holder under the Crown. Amanda Spielman has been HMCI since 2017. In 1833, Parliament agreed an annual grant to the National Society for Promoting Religious Education and the British and Foreign School Society, which provided Church of England and non-denominational elementary schools for poor children. To monitor the effectiveness of the grant, two inspectors of schools were appointed in 1837, Seymour Tremenheere and the Rev. John Allen. Dr. James Kay-Shuttleworth secretary of the Privy Council education committee, ensured that the inspectors were appointed by Order-in-Council to guard their independence.
The grant and inspection system was extended in 1847 to Roman Catholic elementary schools established by the Catholic Poor School Committee. Inspectors were organised on denominational lines, with the churches having a say in the choice of inspectors, until 1876, when inspectors were re-organised by area. After the Education Act 1902, inspections were expanded to state-funded secondary schools along similar lines. Over time, more inspections were carried out by inspectors based in local education authorities, with HMI focussing on reporting to the Secretary of State on education conditions across the country; the government of John Major, concerned about variable local inspection regimes, decided to introduce a national scheme of inspections though a reconstituted HMI, which became known as the Office for Standards in Education. Under the Education Act 1992, HMI would supervise the inspection of each state-funded school in the country, would publish its reports for the benefit of schools and government instead of reporting to the Secretary of State.
In September 2001, Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools in England became responsible for registration and inspection of day care and childminding in England, the position was renamed Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Education, Children's Services and Skills. This was done by 150 local authorities, based on their implementation by 1992 of the Daycare Standards provisions of the 1989 Children Act. Schedule 11 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 changed the way in which Ofsted works without changing the provision. Since 2006 the structure of Ofsted has derived elements from business models, with a Chair, an executive board, regional officers, a formal annual report to Parliament in the light of concerns about schools, local authority children's services. In April 2007 the former Office for Standards in Education merged with the Adult Learning Inspectorate to provide an inspection service that includes all post-16 government funded education. At the same time it took on responsibility for the registration and inspection of social care services for children, the welfare inspection of independent and maintained boarding schools from the Commission for Social Care Inspection.
The services Ofsted inspects or regulates now include: local services, child day care, children's centres, children's social care, CAFCASS, state schools, independent schools and teacher training providers and learning and skills providers in England. It monitors the work of the Independent Schools Inspectorate. HMI are empowered and required to provide independent advice to the United Kingdom government and parliament on matters of policy and to publish an annual report to parliament on the quality of educational provision in England. Ofsted distributes its functions amongst its offices in London, Nottingham, Cambridge and Bristol. Ofsted only covers England; the current Chief Inspector is Amanda Spielman, appointed in January 2017 replacing Sir Michael Wilshaw. Ofsted directly employs Her Majesty's Inspectors; as of July 2009 there were 443 HMIs, of whom 82 were engaged in management, 245 in the inspection of schools, the rest in inspection of other areas for which Ofsted in responsible. All HMIs inspecting schools have teaching experience.
Most school inspections were carried out by Additional Inspectors employed by external companies known as Regional Inspection Service Providers. As of July 2009 there were 1,948 AIs. Although Ofsted claims that most of these have teaching experience, in 2012 it was forced to admit that it had done no quality control checks on these inspectors, that many of them – including lead inspectors – were not qualified teachers and many had no experience of working with children. A further scandal surrounded headteachers dismissed following poor OFSTED reports being hired as inspectors. In 2015, 40% of additional inspectors who wanted to continue working for OFSTED were not re-hired after a contractual change. Although OFSTED insisted that this was part of a quality control process and'should not be seen as an admi
Dartford is the principal town in the Borough of Dartford, England. It is located 18 miles south-east of Central London, is situated adjacent to the London Borough of Bexley to its west. To its north, across the Thames estuary, is Thurrock in Essex, which can be reached via the Dartford Crossing; the town centre lies in a valley through which the River Darent flows, where the old road from London to Dover crossed: hence the name, from Darent + ford. Dartford became a market town in medieval times and, although today it is principally a commuter town for Greater London, it has a long history of religious and cultural importance, it is an important rail hub. Dartford is twinned with Hanau in Gravelines in France. Dartford lies within the area known as the London Basin; the low-lying marsh to the north of the town consists of London Clay, the alluvium brought down by the two rivers—the Darent and the Cray—whose confluence is in this area. The higher land on which the town stands, through which the narrow Darent valley runs, consists of chalk surmounted by the Blackheath Beds of sand and gravel.
As a human settlement, Dartford became established as a river crossing-point with the coming of the Romans. As a result, the town's main road pattern makes the shape of letter'T'; the Dartford Marshes to the north, the proximity of Crayford in the London Borough of Bexley to the west, mean that the town's growth is to the south and east. Wilmington is contiguous with the town to the south. Within the town boundaries there are several distinct areas: the town centre around the parish church and along the High Street; the open spaces are Central Park, alongside the river. Like most of the United Kingdom, Dartford has an oceanic climate. In prehistoric times, the first people appeared in the Dartford area around 250,000 years ago: a tribe of prehistoric hunter-gatherers whose exemplar is called Swanscombe Man. Many other archaeological investigations have revealed a good picture of occupation of the district with important finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age; when the Romans engineered the Dover to London road, it was necessary to cross the River Darent by ford, giving the settlement its name.
Roman villas were built along the Darent Valley, at Noviomagus, close by. The Saxons may have established the first settlement. Dartford manor is mentioned in the Domesday Book, compiled after the Norman conquest, it was owned by the king. During the medieval period Dartford was an important waypoint for pilgrims and travellers en route to Canterbury and the Continent, various religious orders established themselves in the area. In the 12th century the Knights Templar had possession of the manor of Dartford. In the 14th century, a priory was established here, two groups of friars—the Dominicans and the Franciscans—built hospitals here for the care of the sick. At this time the town became a important market town. Wat Tyler, of Peasants' Revolt fame, might well have been a local hero, although three other towns in Kent all claim and there are reasons to doubt the strength of Tyler's connection to Dartford, though the existence of a town centre public house named after him could give credence to Dartford's claim.
Dartford, cannot claim a monopoly on public houses named after Tyler. It is probable that Dartford was a key meeting point early in the Peasants' Revolt with a detachment of Essex rebels marching south to join Kentish rebels at Dartford before accompanying them to Rochester and Canterbury in the first week of June 1381. Although lacking a leader, Kentishmen had assembled at Dartford around 5 June through a sense of county solidarity at the mistreatment of Robert Belling, a man claimed as a serf by Sir Simon Burley. Burley had abused his royal court connections to invoke the arrest of Belling and, despite a compromise being proposed by bailiffs in Gravesend, continued to demand the impossible £300 of silver for Belling's release. Having left for Rochester and Canterbury on 5 June, the rebels passed back through Dartford, swollen in number, a week on 12 June en route for London. In the 15th century, two kings of England became part of the town's history. Henry V marched through Dartford in November 1415 with his troops after fighting the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
In March 1452, Duke of York, camped at the Brent with ten thousand men, waiting for a confrontation with King Henry VI. The Duke surrendered to the king in Dartford; the place of the camp is marked today by Dartford. The 16th century saw significant changes to the hitherto agrarian basis of the market in Dartford, as new industries began to take shape; the priory was destroyed in 1538 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and a new manor house was subsequently constructed by King Henry VIII. In 1545, Henry held a series of meetings of his Privy Council in the town, from 21 to 25 June 1545 Dartford was the seat
William James Erasmus Wilson
Sir William James Erasmus Wilson FRCS FRS known as Sir Erasmus Wilson, was an English surgeon and dermatologist. Wilson was born in London, studied at Dartford Grammar School before St Bartholomew's Hospital in London, at Aberdeen, early in life became known as a skilful surgeon and dissector, it was his sympathy with the poor of London and a suggestion from Mr. Thomas Wakley of The Lancet, of which he acted for a time as sub-editor, which first led him to take up skin diseases as a special study; the cases of scrofula and blood-poisoning which he saw made him set to work to alleviate the suffering of persons so afflicted, he established a reputation for treating this class of patients. It was said. In the opinion of one of his biographers, we owe to Wilson in great measure the habit of the daily bath, he helped much to bring the Turkish bath into use in Great Britain, in the process writing a number of works on spas and thermo-therapy, all of which overlap in their content. Indeed his works on spas and thermo-therapy were directly related to his work on the health of skin.
His earliest such works on this topic outlined the relationship between various applications of water, vapour baths, the action of heat and cold through such media on the action of the skin, the relationship between this and health in general. Moreover, his works had a direct impact on the hydrotherapy movement of the time, the overlapping sanitary reform movement, he applauded the establishment of Public Baths and Wash-houses, as "amongst the noblest of the institutions…as they are one of the greatest discoveries of the present age", dedicated his 1854 book Healthy Skin to another sanitary reform proponent, Edwin Chadwick "In admiration of his strenuous and indefatigable labors in the cause of Sanitary Reform". Nor was Wilson shy of saying what needed to be said in the promotion of sanitary reform. In Metcalfe's work on sanitary reform and all the above-mentioned overlaps, he describes the Chinese vapour baths. After describing the bathing establishments as a whole, he describes the bathing room itself, "which is about thirty feet by twenty, is filled with hot steam or vapour": The entire floor, except a narrow space round the sides, is occupied by a hot-water bath from one to eighteen inches deep.
The furnace is outside, the flues are carried under the centre of the bath. In the hazy light of this room may be seen the perspiring Chinamen disperting themselves in the shallow water, when cleansed to their satisfaction, they return to the cooling room, there to regale themselves with cups of tea and pipes of tobacco. All classes of Chinese frequent these bathing establishments. Mr Ellis, in his "Journal of the Embassy to China," says of this Chinese cleansing apparatus, that it is "disgusting," but says Mr Erasmus Wilson, "What would Mr Ellis say of a country in which there existed no cleansing apparatus whatever? For example, his own. Wilson wrote much upon the diseases which specially occupied his attention, his books, A Healthy Skin and Student's Book of Diseases of the Skin, though they were not received without criticism at the time of their appearance, long remained text-books of their subject, he visited the East to study leprosy, Switzerland to investigate the causes of goitre, Italy with the purpose of adding to his knowledge of the skin diseases affecting an ill-nourished peasantry.
He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1881, died at Westgate-on-Sea, Kent in 1884. He had married Charlotte Mary Doherty in 1841. After the death of his wife, the bulk of his property, some £200,000, went to the Royal College of Surgeons, he made a large fortune by his successful practice and by skilful investments, since he had no family he devoted a great deal of his money to charitable and educational purposes. In 1869 he founded the chair and museum of dermatology in the Royal College of Surgeons, of which he was chosen president in 1881, which just before his death awarded him its honorary gold medal, founded in 1800 and only awarded on six previous occasions, he founded a professorship of pathology at the University of Aberdeen and paid for the vast medical library at the Hunterian Museum, London where his bust takes pride of place at the end of the library. In 1878 he earned the thanks of the nation on different grounds, by defraying the expense of bringing the Egyptian obelisk inaccurately called Cleopatra's Needle from Alexandria to London, where it was erected on the Thames Embankment.
The British Government had not thought it worth the expense of transportation. This is now one of London's best known landmarks. Erasmus Wilson was closely associated with the Royal Medical Benevolent College in Epsom, Surrey now Epsom College. One of the boarding houses'Wilson House' established in 1873 is named after him and carries his name on the foundation stone located to the north east corner of the building, right of the entrance. 1878: "When the Paris Exhibition closes, electric light will close with it and no more be heard of." Text above was based on an entry from the 1902 edition of Britannica, It may need some updating or revision Wilson, Erasmus. Practical and Surgical Anatomy. London: Longman, Brown, Green, & Longmans. Retrieved 8 November 2009. Full text at Internet Archive Wilson, Erasmus; the Anatomist's Vade Mecum: A System of Human Anatomy. London: John Churchill. Retrieved 8 November 2009. Full text at Internet Archive Wilson, Erasmus. On The Management of the Sk
Sir Arthur William Blomfield was an English architect. He became president of the Architectural Association in 1861, he was educated at Trinity College, where he read Architecture. He was the fourth son of Charles James Blomfield, Anglican Bishop of London, who began a programme of new church construction in the capital. Born in Fulham Palace, Arthur Blomfield was educated at Cambridge, he was articled as an architect to Philip Charles Hardwick, subsequently obtained a large practice on his own account. The young Thomas Hardy joined Blomfield's practice as assistant architect in April 1862, the writer remained friends with Blomfield, he became president of the Architectural Association in 1861. In 1889, he was knighted, he was awarded the Royal Gold Medal in 1891. He was twice married, his second wife, Lady Blomfield, was an author and humanitarian. He had two sons, Charles J. Blomfield and Arthur Conran Blomfield, whom he brought up to his own profession, of which they became distinguished representatives.
His nephew, Sir Reginald Blomfield, apprenticed under him, went on to design numerous buildings, public works, sculpture, including the Cross of Sacrifice or War Cross, for the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. These are in Commonwealth cemeteries in many countries. In 1882 Blomfield designed the Royal College of Music in London. In 1887 he became architect to the Bank of England and, in association with A. E. Street, designed the Law courts Branch in Fleet Street. A. E. Street was the son of the architect G. E. Street. In 1890–7 he rebuilt the nave of St. Saviour's parish church, replacing an earlier reconstruction of 1839–40, it is a notable example of his use of a Gothic Revival style. He was regarded as a restorer. I am confident that anyone, privileged to see the work, being done... would not withhold his subscriptions though he was as ardent an anti-restorer as your obedient servant."In 1899 he completed St. George's Anglican Cathedral in Georgetown, the tallest wooden church in the world until 2003 when the Peri Monastery near Săpânţa in northern Romania was completed.
St Leonard's Church, Shropshire, restoration, 1858 Christ Church, Crouch End 1862 Christ Church, East Sheen 1863 All Saints' parish church, Berkshire, 1862–64 St. Luke's chapel at the former Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, 1864 St. Mary's parish church, Oxfordshire: restoration 1864 Dartford Grammar School, Kent, 1864. St. Mary's parish church, Oxfordshire, 1865 St. Mark's parish church, Berkshire, 1866 St. Mary's parish church, Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire, 1867–68 St. John the Baptist parish church, Eton Wick, Buckinghamshire, 1867–69 All Saints' parish church, Upper Caldecote, Bedfordshire, 1868 St. Mary's Church, Kent, 1868 Vicarage House for Holy Trinity Church at Headington Quarry, Oxfordshire, 1868 St. Saviour's parish church, Berkshire, 1868 St. Mary Magdalen Church, Hampshire, 1868–69 St. Barnabas parish church, Oxford, 1869 St. Peter in Eastgate, Lincoln 1870 St. Stephen's Church, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, 1870. St. Saviour's parish church, Oxford Street, London 1870–73. St. John the Baptist, Bath, 1871 St. Nicholas Church, Chawton 1872–73.
St. James' parish church, Oxfordshire, 1872. Church of St. Mary and St. Ethelbert, Wiltshire, 1872 St. Andrew's parish church, Surrey 1872. St. John the Baptist parish church, Berkshire, 1873. Holy Innocents parish church, High Beach, Essex, 1873 Tyntesfield chapel, Somerset, 1873 St Peter's Church, Derbyshire 1874 St. Michael's parish church, Buckinghamshire, 1874–90. St. John the Baptist's Church, Kent, 1875. St. Michael and All Angels Church, Kent, 1876. Chapel Royal, internal structural repairs and reordering 1876. Holy Trinity Church, Privett, 1876–78 Haileybury and Imperial Service College Chapel, 1877. St Andrew's Church, Collingbourne Ducis, Wiltshire: restoration, 1877. All Saints' parish church, West Sussex, 1878. St. Mary Magdalene parish church, Oxfordshire: restoration, 1878 Trinity College, Cambridge Bishop's Hostel additions 1878. Denton Hall, Lincolnshire, rebuilt 1879-1883 All Saints Church, Fulham, 1880–81. St. Nicholas' parish church, Oxfordshire, 1880 St John the Evangelist's Church, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex Selwyn College, Cambridge, 1882.
Chester Cathedral restoration and additions, 1882. St Andrew's Church, West Sussex St Luke's Church, Queen's Park, Sussex, 1882–85. St Stephen's Church, North Mundham, West Sussex – Addition of a Chancel and re-ordering of interior. Charterhouse School, the Great Hall 1884. St Leodegar's Church, Sussex, 1885. St. Wystan's Church, Repton restoration 1885–1886. Wellington College, Berkshire: chapel apse and dormitories, 1886. St. Alban's Anglican C
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
His Royal Highness Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, is a member of the British royal family. He is a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II through their fathers, Prince George, Duke of Kent, King George VI, he has held the title of Duke of Kent for over 76 years, since the death of his father in a plane crash in 1942. The Duke of Kent carries out engagements on behalf of the Queen, he is president of the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, presenting the trophies to the Wimbledon champion and runner-up, served as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment, retiring in 2001. He is president of The Scout Association, the Royal United Services Institute, the Royal Institution of Great Britain, since 1967 Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, he is patron of the Institute of Advanced Motorists, an independent road safety charity which specialises in training and advice for post-licence drivers and riders. Since his mother, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, was a cousin of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Edward is both a second cousin and first cousin once removed to Prince Charles and his siblings.
Prince Edward was born on 9 October 1935, at London. Home Secretary Sir John Simon was present to verify the birth. Prince Edward's father was Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen Mary, his mother was Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, the daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. He was baptised in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace on 20 November 1935 by the Archbishop of Canterbury Cosmo Lang, his godparents were his grandparents King George V, Queen Mary and Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark. Prince Edward began his schooling at Ludgrove, a preparatory school in Berkshire, before going on to Eton College and Le Rosey in Switzerland. After school he entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst where he won the Sir James Moncrieff Grierson prize for foreign languages. Prince Edward speaks fluent French, having been raised in a house where, according to the words of his younger brother Prince Michael of Kent, his mother and aunts spoke French as a matter of preference.
On 25 August 1942, Prince Edward's father, the Duke of Kent, was killed when his plane crashed in bad weather in Caithness. Prince Edward, seven, succeeded his father as Duke of Kent, Earl of St Andrews and Baron Downpatrick; as a member of the royal family, Prince Edward began performing engagements at an early age. In 1952, at the age of 16, he walked behind the coffin of his uncle, George VI, at his state funeral, the first time he saw his uncle, the former Edward VIII, who had left the country after having abdicated when the young prince was just twelve months old. In 1953, he attended the coronation of his cousin, Elizabeth II, paying homage at her throne after her coronation. On 29 July 1955, the Duke of Kent graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Scots Greys, the beginning of a military career, to last over 20 years, he was promoted to captain on 29 July 1961. From 1962 to 1963, the Duke of Kent served in Hong Kong serving on the staff in Eastern Command.
He was promoted to Major on 31 December 1967. In 1970, the Duke commanded a squadron of his regiment serving in the British Sovereign Base Area in Cyprus, part of the UN force enforcing peace between the Greek and Turkish parts of the divided island. During the early 1970s, the Duke served in Northern Ireland with his Regiment, he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel on 30 June 1973. The Duke retired from the Army on 15 April 1976, he was subsequently promoted to Major-General on 11 June 1983 and to Field Marshal on 11 June 1993. The Duke of Kent married Katharine Worsley at York Minster on 8 June 1961. Katharine is the only daughter of Sir William Arthrington Worsley, 4th Bt. and his wife, Joyce Morgan Brunner. They have three living children: Earl of St Andrews, born 26 June 1962 at Coppins; because this conversion occurred after their marriage, it did not cause the Duke to lose his place in the line of succession, as the Act of Settlement 1701 only applied where the spouse was a Catholic at the time of marriage.
The couple's son, Nicholas converted to Catholicism and he is excluded from the line of succession in accordance with the Succession to the Crown Act 2013. The Duke and Duchess of Kent reside at Kensington Palace, in London; the Duke had a mild stroke on the morning of 18 March 2013. In April 2015, he suffered from a hip injury and was hospitalised at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary for further treatments; the Duke of Kent has performed engagements on behalf of the Queen, for over 50 years. The Duke has represented the Queen during independence celebrations in the former British colonies of Sierra Leone, Guyana and most Ghana, for its 50th independence anniversary celebration, he has acted as Counsellor of State during periods of the Queen's absence abroad. One of the Duke's major public roles for many years was Vice-Chairman of British Trade International known as the British Overseas Trade Board, as the United Ki
Academy (English school)
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual Academy Funding Agreements. Most academies are secondary schools; however more than 25% of primary schools, as well as some of the remaining first and secondary schools, are academies. Academies are self-governing non-profit charitable trusts and may receive additional support from personal or corporate sponsors, either financially or in kind, they do not have to follow the National Curriculum, but do have to ensure that their curriculum is broad and balanced, that it includes the core subjects of mathematics and English. They are subject to inspection by Ofsted; the following are all types of academy: Sponsored academy: A maintained school, transformed to academy status as part of a government intervention strategy. They are run by a Government-approved sponsor, they are sometimes referred to as traditional academies.
Converter academy: A maintained school that has voluntarily converted to academy status. It is not necessary for a converter academy to have a sponsor. Free school: Free schools are new academies established since 2011 via the Free School Programme. From May 2015, usage of the term was extended to new academies set up via a Local Authority competition; the majority of free schools are similar in shape to other types of academy. However, the following are distinctive sub-types of free school:Studio school: A small free school with around 300 pupils, using project-based learning University Technical College: A free school for the 14-18 age group, specialising in practical, employment focused subjects, sponsored by a university, employer or further education college. Faith academy:An academy with an official faith designation. Co-operative academy: An academy that uses an alternative co-operative academy agreement. An academy trust that operates more than one academy is known as an Academy Chain, although sometimes the terms Academy Group or Academy Federation are used instead.
An Academy Chain is a group of schools working together under a shared academy structure, either an Umbrella Trust or a Multi-Academy Trust. An academy is governed by the Academy Agreement it makes with the Department for Education, at that point it severs connections with the local education authority; the current advisory text is the Academy and free school: master funding agreement dated March 2018. The governors of the academy are obliged to publish an annual report and accounts, that are open to scrutiny. All academies are expected to follow a broad and balanced curriculum but many have a particular focus on, or formal specialism in, one or more areas such as science. Although academies are required to follow the National Curriculum in the core subjects of maths and science, they are otherwise free to innovate. Like other state-funded schools, academies are required to adhere to the National Admissions Code, although newly established academies with a faith designation are subject to the 50% Rule requiring them to allocate at least half of their places without reference to faith.
In terms of their governance, academies are established as companies limited by guarantee with a Board of Directors that acts as a Trust. The Academy Trust has exempt charity status, regulated by the Department for Education; the trustees are but not financially, accountable for the operation of the academy. The Trust serves as the legal entity; the trustees oversee the running of the school, sometimes delegating responsibility to a local governing body which they appoint. The day-to-day management of the school is, as in most schools, conducted by the Head Teacher and their senior management team. In Sponsored Academies, the sponsor is able to influence the process of establishing the school, including its curriculum, ethos and building; the sponsor has the power to appoint governors to the academy's governing body. The Labour Government under Tony Blair established academies through the Learning and Skills Act 2000, which amended the section of the Education Act 1996 relating to City Technology Colleges.
They were first announced in a speech by David Blunkett Secretary of State for Education and Skills, in 2000. He said that their aim was "to improve pupil performance and break the cycle of low expectations." As of 2018 many academies are running deficits. The chief architect of the policy was Andrew Adonis in his capacity as education advisor to the Prime Minister in the late 1990s. Academies were known as City Academies for the first few years, but the term was changed to Academies by an amendment in the Education Act 2002; the term Sponsored Academies was applied retrospectively to this type of academy, to distinguish it from other types of academy that were enabled later. Sponsored Academies needed a private sponsor who could be an individual, organisations such as the United Learning Trust, mission-driven businesses such as The Co-operative Group or outsourcing for-profit businesses such as Amey plc); these sponsors were expected to bring "the best o