The Mabinogion are the earliest prose literature of Britain. The stories were compiled in Middle Welsh in the 12th–13th centuries from oral traditions. The two main source manuscripts were created c, 1350–1410, as well as some earlier fragments. The title covers a collection of prose stories of widely different types. The highly sophisticated complexity of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi defy categorisation, the list is so diverse a leading scholar has challenged them as a true collection at all. Early scholars from the 18th century to the 1970s predominantly viewed the tales as fragmentary pre-Christian Celtic mythology and they are now seen as a sophisticated narrative tradition, both oral and written, with ancestral construction from oral storytelling, and overlay from Anglo-French influences. The first modern publications were English translations of several tales by William Owen Pughe in journals 1795,1821,1829, however it was Lady Charlotte Guest 1838–45 who first published the full collection, and bilingually in both Welsh and English.
She is often assumed to be responsible for the name Mabinogion, indeed, as early as 1632 the lexicographer John Davies quotes a sentence from Math fab Mathonwy with the notation Mabin. in his Antiquae linguae Britannicae. The Guest translation of 1877 in one volume, has been widely influential, the most recent translation is a compact version by Sioned Davies. John Bollard has published a series of volumes between with his own translation, with photography of the sites in the stories. The tales continue to inspire new fiction, dramatic retellings, visual artwork, the name first appears in 1795 in William Owen Pughes translation in the journal Cambrian Register, The Mabinogion, or Juvenile Amusements, being Ancient Welsh Romances. The name appears to have been current among Welsh scholars of the London-Welsh Societies and it was inherited as the title by the first publisher of the complete collection, Lady Charlotte Guest. The form mabynnogyon occurs once at the end of the first of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi in one manuscript and it is now generally agreed that this one instance was a mediaeval scribal error which assumed mabinogion was the plural of mabinogi.
But mabinogi is already a Welsh plural, which occurs correctly at the end of the three branches. The word mabinogi itself is something of a puzzle, although derived from the Welsh mab. Eric P. Hamp of the school traditions in mythology, found a suggestive connection with Maponos the Divine Son. Mabinogi properly applies only to the Four Branches, which is a tightly organised quartet very likely by one author, each of these four tales ends with the colophon thus ends this branch of the Mabinogi, hence the name. Lady Charlotte Guests work was helped by the research and translation work of William Owen Pughe
A Haubarg, rarely Hauberg, is the typical farmhouse of the Eiderstedt peninsula on the northwest coast of Germany and is a type of Gulf house. It emerged in the late 16th century when West Frisian immigrants brought with them the Gulf type of farm building, in the Netherlands these houses are called stolpboerderij. The word Haubarg means a place for piling or stacking hay, as a byre-dwelling and animal lived for centuries in haubargs under one roof, albeit in separate rooms. Haubargs have a floor plan, which is square in the case of four-post buildings. In rare cases, no longer seen today, there were as many as ten posts and this method of construction meant, inter alia, that the house was resistant to the forces of nature, especially storms and their associated surges. Even if a storm surge collapses the walls, the posts will still support the roof, the basic structure of the house remains undamaged. This design simplified the renovation of the walls, which began to salt out after about 100 years and had to be replaced.
The four posts in the centre of a form a square or Vierkant, in which the straw. The hay, which gave this type of house its name, was kept above the Boos, before being threshed, sheaves from the harvest were stacked above the Loo on a sort of slatted floor. Outside the harvest season, the Loo acted as a shed for wagons, another feature is the thatched roof, often 15 or 20 metres high, under which hay for the winter was stored. Where coastal defences were inadequate, haubargs were built on mounds, called warfts. Until the 18th century, haubargs were built in an east-west direction, mostly for representational reasons, no new haubargs have been built for about 100 years. When the Adolf Hitler Koog was dyked in Dithmarschen during the Nazi era, in order to create a model Germanic settlement there, in 1860 there were still 360 haubargs, but by 2008 only about 100 were left. Although haubargs had originally built for their economic usefulness, they had since become too expensive for their rural owners.
The thatched roof in particular, that often had an area of around 1, as a result, most farmers have moved into other buildings to continue farming. The haubargs have mostly been sold to other, non-local owners, who preserve the exterior appearance, some haubargs in private hands may be viewed from inside as well. The best known historic haubarg is the Roter Haubarg, with 99 windows, in addition to a restaurant, it houses a museum in its historic rooms which offers an insight into the life and work of its former owners. The Tofthof in Westerhever is one of the few haubargs, that has used for farming since 2005
A farmhouse is a building that serves as the primary residence in a rural or agricultural setting. Historically, farmhouses were often combined with space for animals called a housebarn, other farmhouses may be connected to one or more barns, built to form a courtyard, or with each farm building separate from each other. Types of farmhouses in Europe include the following, A Bresse house is a type of farmhouse found in the Bresse region that is characterized by its length, brick walls. A Mas is a traditional farmhouse unique to Provence and Southern France, historically there were three main types of German farmhouses, many of which survive today. The Low German house or Niedersachsenhaus is found mainly on the North German Plain and it is a large structure with a sweeping roof supported by two to four rows of internal posts. The large barn door at the gable end opens into a hall, or Deele, with cattle stalls and barns on either side. The Middle German house may be a unit, but access is from the side.
Later this type of mitteldeutsches Haus was expanded to two or more buildings around a farmyard, often with a second story. The South German house is found in southern Germany and has two variants, the Swabian or Black Forest house and the Bavarian farmstead. A Cascina a corte is a building whose arrangement is based on the Roman villa found in the Po Valley of northern Italy. A house called Casa colonica in Italy is a type of farmhouse where the work the land. Ta Tabibu farmhouse and Ta Xindi Farmhouse are two typical Maltese farmhouses built in the times with the use of Limestone material. In Maltese a farmhouse is called Razzett, other examples of Maltese farmhouses are the Ta Cisju Farmhouse and The Devils Farmhouse. Norwegian farmhouses used timber or logs and built using Scandinavian vernacular architecture, the first examples are traced back to the 13th century. In some cases farmhouses are built on steep hillsides of the such as the Me-Åkernes farm. An Alqueria is a complex named from the historical, Muslim region of Al-Andalus.
The Baserri is found in the Basque Country in Northern Spain, the Cabaña pasiega is a two-level dwelling for farmers and livestock found in Cantabria. The Masia originates from the Catalan Countries, and the Palloza is a primitive, a Hacienda occasionally functioned as a farmhouse
Brittany is a cultural region in the north-west of France. Brittany has referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain. It is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and its land area is 34,023 km². Since reorganisation in 1956, the administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments. The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, at the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71% lived in the region of Brittany, while 29% lived in the Loire-Atlantique department, in 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic, the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means Britons land.
This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain and this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC. This term probably comes from a Gallic word, which close to the sea. Another name, was used until the 12th century and it possibly means wide and flat or to expand and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany, Llydaw. Later, authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor, breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin. Breton can be divided into two dialects, the KLT and the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it, the official spelling is a compromise between both variants, with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, on its side, Gallo language has never had a widely accepted writing system and several ones coexist.
For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic. This population was scarce and very similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe and their only original feature was a distinct culture, called Colombanian. One of the oldest hearths in the world has found in Plouhinec
A linhay is a type of farm building found particularly in Devon, south-west England. It is characterised as a building with an open front, with tallet or hay-loft above. It often has a roof, and the front generally consists of regularly spaced pillars or columns. Cattle linhays were used to house cattle in the winter with hay storage above, due to the wide open front hay was easily thrown up into the tallet by use of a pitch-fork by a man standing on a hay-cart for storage after haymaking operations. A cart linhay stored carts and other machinery in place of livestock. These modern structures make possible feeding and mucking-out with large tractors, a rare form is the circular linhay, found for example on Braunton Burrows in Devon. In Newfoundland English a linney is a space, kitchen. In American English a linhay is an open lean-to shed attached to a farm yard, linhay in Barn#Other farm buildings often associated with barns
Slate industry in Wales
The existence of a slate industry in Wales is attested since the Roman period, when slate was used to roof the fort at Segontium, now Caernarfon. Penrhyn and Dinorwig were the two largest slate quarries in the world, and the Oakeley mine at Blaenau Ffestiniog was the largest slate mine in the world. Slate is mainly used for roofing, but is produced as thicker slab for a variety of uses including flooring, worktops. Towards the close of the century, the landowners began to operate the quarries themselves, after the government abolished slate duty in 1831, rapid expansion was propelled by the building of narrow gauge railways to transport the slates to the ports. The slate industry dominated the economy of north-west Wales during the half of the 19th century. In 1898, a force of 17,000 men produced half a million tons of slate. Slate production continues on a reduced scale. The Slate industry in North Wales is on the tentative World Heritage Site list, the slate deposits of Wales belong to three geological series, Cambrian and Silurian.
The Cambrian deposits run south-west from Conwy to near Criccieth, these deposits were quarried in the Penrhyn and Dinorwig quarries, there are smaller outcrops elsewhere, for example on Anglesey. The Ordovician deposits run south-west from Betws-y-Coed to Porthmadog, these were the deposits mined at Blaenau Ffestiniog. There is another band of Ordovician slate further south, running from Llangynnog to Aberdyfi, quarried mainly in the Corris area, with a few outcrops in south-west Wales, the Silurian deposits are mainly further east in the Dee valley and around Machynlleth. The virtues of slate as a building and roofing material have been recognized since the Roman period, the Roman fort at Segontium, was originally roofed with tiles, but the levels contain numerous slates, used for both roofing and flooring. The nearest deposits are about five miles away in the Cilgwyn area, during the mediaeval period, there was small-scale quarrying of slate in several areas. The Cilgwyn quarry in the Nantlle Valley dates from the 12th century, Aberllefenni Slate Quarry may have started operating as a slate mine as early as the 14th century.
The earliest confirmed date of operating dates from the early 16th century when the local house Plas Aberllefenni was roofed in slates from this quarry, transport problems meant that the slate was usually used fairly close to the quarries. There was some transport by sea, a poem by the 15th century poet Gutor Glyn asks the Dean of Bangor to send him a shipload of slates from Aberogwen, near Bangor, to Rhuddlan to roof a house at Henllan, near Denbigh. The wreck of a ship carrying finished slates was discovered in the Menai Strait and is thought to date from the 16th century. By the second half of the 16th century, there was an export trade of slates to Ireland from ports such as Beaumaris
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff. It is used to remove weevils or other pests from stored grain, the loosening of grain or seeds from the husks and straw, is the step in the chaff-removal process that comes before winnowing. In its simplest form it involves throwing the mixture into the air so that the wind blows away the lighter chaff, techniques included using a winnowing fan or using a tool on a pile of harvested grain. In Callimachus Hymn to Zeus, Adrasteia lays the infant Zeus in a golden líknon, her goat suckles him and he is given honey. In the Odyssey, the dead oracle Teiresias tells Odysseus to walk away from Ithaca with an oar until a wayfarer tells him it is a winnowing fan, and there to build a shrine to Poseidon. In Ancient China the method was improved by mechanisation with the development of the winnowing fan. This was featured in Wang Zhens book the Nong Shu of 1313 AD, ruth 3,2 Now Boaz, with whose women you have worked, is a relative of ours.
Tonight he will be winnowing barley on the threshing floor, proverbs 20,8 When a king sits on his throne to judge, he winnows out all evil with his eyes. Proverbs 20,26 A wise king winnows out the wicked, isaiah 41,16 You will winnow them, the wind will pick them up, and a gale will blow them away. But you will rejoice in the Lord and glory in the Holy One of Israel, I will bring bereavement and destruction on my people, for they have not changed their ways. Jeremiah 51,2 I will send foreigners to Babylon to winnow her and to devastate her land, in Matthew 3,12, a sentence introduces the separation of wheat and chaff by His winnowing fan is in his hand. In Saxon settlements such as one identified in Northumberland as Bedes Ad Gefrin the buildings were shown by a reconstruction to have opposed entries. In barns a draught created by the use of these opposed doorways was used in winnowing, the technique developed by the Chinese was not adopted in Europe until the 18th century, when winnowing machines used a sail fan.
The rotary winnowing fan was exported to Europe, brought there by Dutch sailors between 1700 and 1720, apparently they had obtained them from the Dutch settlement of Batavia in Java, Dutch East Indies. The Swedes imported some from south China at about the same time, until the beginning of the 18th century, no rotary winnowing fans existed in the West. The development of the winnowing barn allowed rice plantations in South Carolina to increase their yields dramatically, in 1737 Andrew Rodger, a farmer on the estate of Cavers in Roxburghshire, developed a winnowing machine for corn, called a Fanner. These were successful and the family sold them throughout Scotland for many years, as the Industrial Revolution, the winnowing process was mechanized by the invention of additional winnowing machines, such as fanning mills. Threshing Rice huller Rice pounder Sieving Winnowing engine machine Winnowing Winnowing machine The dictionary definition of winnowing at Wiktionary
Ulex is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae. The genus comprises about 20 species of evergreen shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. The species are native to parts of western Europe and northwest Africa, gorse is closely related to the brooms, and like them, has green stems and very small leaves and is adapted to dry growing conditions. The leaves of plants are trifoliate, but in mature plants they are reduced to scales or small spines. All the species have flowers, generally showy, some with a very long flowering season. The most widely familiar species is common gorse, the species native to much of western Europe. It is the largest species, reaching 2–3 metres in height and this latter species is characteristic of highly exposed Atlantic coastal heathland and montane habitats. In the eastern part of Great Britain, dwarf furze replaces western gorse, ulex minor grows only about 30 centimetres tall, a habit characteristic of sandy lowland heathland. Common gorse flowers a little in late autumn and through the winter, western gorse and dwarf furze flower in late summer.
Between the different species, some gorse is almost always in flower, hence the old country phrase, When gorse is out of blossom, gorse flowers have a distinctive coconut scent, experienced very strongly by some individuals, but weakly by others. The burnt stumps readily sprout new growth from the roots, where fire is excluded, gorse soon tends to be shaded out by taller-growing trees, unless other factors like exposure apply. Typical fire recurrence periods in gorse stands are 5–20 years, gorse thrives in poor growing areas and conditions including drought, it is sometimes found on very rocky soils, where many species cannot thrive. Moreover, it is used for land reclamation, where its nitrogen-fixing capacity helps other plants establish better. Gorse is a plant for wildlife, providing dense thorny cover ideal for protecting bird nests. In Britain and Ireland, it is noted for supporting Dartford warblers and European stonechats. The flowers are eaten by the caterpillars of the double-striped pug moth.
The dry wood of dead gorse stems provides food for the caterpillars of the concealer moth Batia lambdella, common gorse is an invasive species in the montane grasslands of Horton Plains National Park in Sri Lanka. Gorse stands are managed by regular burning or flailing, allowing them to regrow from stumps or seed
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid, often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk. Slurries behave in ways like thick fluids, flowing under gravity but are capable of being pumped if not too thick. It contains large amount of catalyst, in form of sediments hence the denomination of slurry. C, a General Theory of the Hydraulic Transport of Solids in Full Suspension Ravelet, F. Bakir, F. Khelladi, S. Rey, R. Experimental study of transport of large particles in horizontal pipes. Ming, G. Ruixiang, L. Fusheng, N. Liqun, X. Hydraulic Transport of Coarse Gravel—A Laboratory Investigation Into Flow Resistance
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the system used, which reflects climate, material availability. A gable wall or gable end more commonly refers to the wall, including the gable. A variation of the gable is a gable, which has a stairstep design to accomplish the sloping portion. Gable ends of more recent buildings are often treated in the way as the Classic pediment form. But unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the ends of many buildings are actually bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing can be ambiguous or misleading, gable style is used in the design of fabric structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how much snowfall is expected. Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the Gothic and classical Greek styles of architecture, the opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a V-roof or butterfly roof. While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a building faces it with its cullis.
The terms are used in architecture and city planning to determine a building in its urban situation, front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the medieval gothic period, while Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are often side-gabled. In America, front-gabled houses, such as the Gablefront house, were primarily between the early 19th century and 1920. A wimperg is a German and Dutch word for a Gothic ornamental gable with tracery over windows or portals and it was a typical element in Gothic Architecture especially in cathedral architecture. Wimpergs often had crockets or other elements in the Gothic style. The intention behind the wimperg was the perception of increased height, the gable end roof is a poor design for hurricane regions, as it easily peels off in strong winds. The part of the roof overhangs the triangular wall very often creates a trap that can catch wind like an umbrella. A series of ornamental timber gables, from existing examples in England and France of the 16th Century
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, rushes, heather, or Palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. Since the bulk of the vegetation stays dry, and is densely packed - trapping air - thatching functions as a quite significant insulation material and it is a very old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates. Thatch is still employed by builders in developing countries, usually with low-cost, in some equatorial countries, thatch is the prevalent local material for roofs, and often walls. There are diverse building techniques from the ancient Hawaiian hale shelter made from the local ti leaves, Palm leaves are often used. For example, in Na Bure, thatchers combine fan palm leave roofs with layered reed walls, feathered palm leaf roofs are used in Dominica. Alang-alang thatched roofs are used in Hawaii and Bali, in Southeast Asia, mangrove nipa palm leaves are used as thatched roof material known as attap dwelling.
In Bali, the fibres of Arenga pinnata called ijuk is used as thatched roof materials, usually used in Balinese temple roof. Sugar cane leaf roofs are used in Kikuyu tribal homes in Kenya, many indigenous people, such as the Maya, the Inca, and the Triple Alliance, lived in thatched buildings. Evidence of the complex buildings with fiber-based roofing material was not rediscovered until the early 2000s. French and British settlers built temporary thatched dwellings with local vegetation as soon as arrived in New France and New England. In most of England, thatch remained the only roofing material available to the bulk of the population in the countryside, in towns and villages. Commercial production of Welsh slate began in 1820, and the mobility provided by canals, thatch became a mark of poverty, and the number of thatched properties gradually declined, as did the number of professional thatchers. Thatch has become more popular in the UK over the past 30 years. Although thatch is popular in Germany, The Netherlands, parts of France, Sicily and Ireland, good quality straw thatch can last for more than 50 years when applied by a skilled thatcher.
Traditionally, a new layer of straw was simply applied over the surface. The straw is bundled into yelms before it is taken up to the roof and is attached using staples, known as spars, almost all of these roofs are thatched with wheat, rye, or a maslin mixture of both. Medieval wheat grew to almost 6 feet tall in very poor soils and produced durable straw for the roof, technological change in the farming industry significantly affected the popularity of thatching. The availability of good quality thatching straw declined in England after the introduction of the harvester in the late 1930s and 1940s
In historic and modern usage, a hearth /ˈhɑːrθ/ is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace, with or without an oven, used for heating and originally used for cooking food. In a medieval hall, the hearth commonly stood in the middle of the hall, such hearths were moved to the side of the room and provided with a chimney. In fireplace design, the hearth is the part of the fireplace where the fire burns, usually consisting of masonry at floor level or higher, the word hearth derives from an Indo-European root, *ker-, referring to burning and fire. In archaeology, a hearth is a firepit or other feature of any period. Hearths are common features of many eras going back to prehistoric campsites and they were used for cooking and the processing of some stone, wood and floral resources. Farming or excavation—deform or disperse hearth features, making difficult to identify without careful study. Lined hearths are easily identified by the presence of fire-cracked rock, often present are fragmented fish and animal bones, carbonized shell, charcoal and other waste products, all embedded in a sequence of soil that has been deposited atop the hearth.
Unlined hearths, which are easily identified, may include these materials. Because of the nature of most of these items, they can be used to pinpoint the date the hearth was last used via the process of radiocarbon dating. Although carbon dates can be affected if the users of the hearth burned old wood or coal. This was the most common way to cook, and to interior spaces in cool seasons. Kapnikon was a tax raised on households without exceptions for the poor, in England, a tax on hearths was introduced on 19 May 1662. Householders were required to pay a charge of two shillings per annum for each hearth, with half the payment due at Michaelmas and half at Lady Day. Exemptions to the tax were granted, to those in receipt of relief, those whose houses were worth less than 20 shillings a year. Also exempt were charitable institutions such as schools and almshouses, and industrial hearths with the exception of smiths forges, the returns were lodged with the Clerk of the Peace between 1662 and 1688.
A revision of the Act in 1664 made the tax payable by all who had more than two chimneys The tax was abolished by William III in 1689 and the last collection was for Lady Day of that year and it was abolished in Scotland in 1690. Hearth tax records are important to historians as they provide an indication of the size of each assessed house at the time. The numbers of hearths are generally proportional to the size of the house, the assessments can be used to indicate the numbers and local distribution of larger and smaller houses