United States Secretary of State
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, as head of the United States Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U. S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Secretary of State is nominated by the President of the United States and, following a confirmation hearing before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, is confirmed by the United States Senate; the Secretary of State, along with the Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, are regarded as the four most important Cabinet members because of the importance of their respective departments. Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Pompeo replaced Rex Tillerson whom President Trump dismissed on March 13, 2018.
Tillerson's last day at the State Department was March 31, 2018. Pompeo was confirmed by the Senate on April 26, 2018 and was sworn in that day; the stated duties of the Secretary of State are as follows: "Supervises the United States Foreign Service" and "administers the Department of State" Advises the President on matters relating to U. S. foreign policy including the appointment of diplomatic representatives to other nations and on the acceptance, recall, or dismissal of representatives from other nations "Negotiates, interprets, or terminates treaties and agreements" and "conducts negotiations relating to U. S. foreign affairs" "Personally participates in or directs U. S. representatives to international conferences and agencies" Provides information and services to U. S. citizens living or traveling abroad such as providing credentials in the form of passports Ensure the protection of the U. S. government to U. S. citizens and interests in foreign countries "Supervises the administration of the U.
S. immigration policy abroad" Communicates issues relating the U. S. foreign policy to Congress and to U. S. citizens "Promotes beneficial economic intercourse between the U. S. and other countries"The original duties of the Secretary of State include some domestic duties such as: Receipt, publication and preservation of the laws of the United States Preparation and recording of the commissions of Presidential appointees Preparation and authentication of copies of records and authentication of copies under the Department's seal Custody of the Great Seal of the United States Custody of the records of former Secretary of the Continental Congress except for those of the Treasury and War departmentsMost of the domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, the drafting of certain proclamations; the Secretary negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries.
Under Federal Law, the resignation of a president or of a vice president is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the secretary of state. Accordingly, the resignations in disgrace of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in instruments delivered to the Secretary of State; as the highest-ranking member of the cabinet, the secretary of state is the third-highest official of the executive branch of the Federal Government of the United States, after the president and vice president, is fourth in line to succeed the presidency, coming after the vice president, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tempore of the Senate. Six secretaries of state have gone on to be elected president. Others, including Henry Clay, William Seward, James Blaine, William Jennings Bryan, John Kerry, Hillary Clinton have been unsuccessful presidential candidates, either before or after their term of office as Secretary of State.
The nature of the position means. The record for most countries visited in a secretary's tenure is 112 by Hillary Clinton. Second is Madeleine Albright with 96; the record for most air miles traveled in a secretary's tenure is 1,417,576 miles by John Kerry. Second is Condoleezza Rice's 1,059,247 miles, third is Clinton's 956,733 miles. Official website
Daniel Webster was an American statesman who represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts in the United States Congress and served as the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore. He was a prominent attorney during the period of the Marshall Court. Throughout his career, he was a member of the Federalist Party, the National Republican Party, the Whig Party. Born in New Hampshire in 1782, Webster established a successful legal practice in Portsmouth, New Hampshire after undergoing a legal apprenticeship, he emerged as a prominent opponent of the War of 1812 and won election to the United States House of Representatives, where he served as a leader of the Federalist Party. Webster relocated to Boston, Massachusetts, he became a leading attorney before the Supreme Court of the United States, winning cases such as Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden. Webster became a key supporter of President John Quincy Adams.
He won election to the United States Senate in 1827 and worked with Henry Clay to build the National Republican Party in support of Adams. After Andrew Jackson defeated Adams in the 1828 presidential election, Webster became a leading opponent of Jackson's domestic policies, he objected to the theory of Nullification espoused by John C. Calhoun, his Second Reply to Hayne speech is regarded as one of the greatest speeches delivered in Congress. Webster supported Jackson's defiant response to the Nullification Crisis, but broke with the president due to disagreements over the Second Bank of the United States. Webster joined with other Jackson opponents in forming the Whig Party, unsuccessfully ran in the 1836 presidential election, he supported Harrison in the 1840 presidential election and was appointed secretary of state after Harrison took office. Unlike the other members of Harrison's Cabinet, he continued to serve under President Tyler after Tyler broke with congressional Whigs; as secretary of state, Webster negotiated the Webster–Ashburton Treaty, which settled border disputes with Britain.
Webster resumed his status as a leading congressional Whig. During the Mexican–American War, he emerged as a leader of the "Cotton Whigs," a faction of Northern Whigs that emphasized good relations with the South over anti-slavery policies. In 1850, President Fillmore appointed Webster as secretary of state, Webster contributed to the passage of the Compromise of 1850, which settled several territorial issues and enacted a new fugitive slave law; the Compromise proved unpopular in much of the North and undermined Webster's standing in his home state. Webster sought the Whig nomination in the 1852 presidential election, but a split between supporters of Fillmore and Webster led to the nomination of General Winfield Scott. Webster is regarded as an important and talented attorney and politician, but historians and observers have offered mixed opinions on his moral qualities and ability as a national leader. Daniel Webster was born on January 18, 1782, in Salisbury, New Hampshire, at a location within the present-day city of Franklin.
He was the son of Abigail and Ebenezer Webster, a farmer and local official who served in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. Ebenezer's ancestor, the Scottish-born Thomas Webster, had migrated to the United States around 1636. Ebenezer had three children from a previous marriage who survived to maturity, as well as five children from his marriage to Abigail. Webster was close to his older brother, born in 1780; as a youth, Webster helped work the family farm, but was in poor health. With the encouragement of his parents and tutors, Webster read works by authors such as Alexander Pope and Isaac Watts. In 1796, Webster attended a preparatory school in Exeter, New Hampshire. After studying the classics and other subjects for several months under a clergyman, Webster was admitted to Dartmouth College in 1797. During his time at Dartmouth, Webster managed the school newspaper and emerged as a strong public speaker, he was chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, the college town, in 1800, in his speech appears the substance of the political principles for the development of which he became famous.
Like his father, like many other New England farmers, Webster was devoted to the Federalist Party and favored a strong central government. Webster was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa honor society. After he graduated from Dartmouth, Webster apprenticed under Salisbury lawyer Thomas W. Thompson. Though unenthusiastic about studying the law, Webster believed that becoming a lawyer would allow him to "live comfortably" and avoid the bouts of poverty that had afflicted his father. In order to help support his brother Ezekiel's study at Dartmouth, Webster temporarily resigned from the law office to work as a schoolteacher at Fryeburg Academy in Maine. In 1804, he obtained a position in Boston under the prominent attorney Christopher Gore. Clerking for Gore –, involved in international and state politics – Webster learned about many legal and political subjects and met numerous New England politicians, he grew to love Boston. After winning admission to the bar, Webster set up a legal practice in Boscawen, New Hampshire.
He became involved in politics and began to speak locally in support of Federalist causes and candidates. After his father's death in 1806, Webster handed over his pr
Article One of the United States Constitution
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress. Under Article One, Congress is a bicameral legislature consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Article One grants Congress various enumerated powers and the ability to pass laws "necessary and proper" to carry out those powers. Article One establishes the procedures for passing a bill and places various limits on the powers of Congress and the states. Article One's Vesting Clause grants all federal legislative power to Congress and establishes that Congress consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. In combination with the Vesting Clauses of the Article Two and Article Three, the Vesting Clause of Article One establishes the separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government. Section 2 of Article One addresses the House of Representatives, establishing that members of the House are elected every two years, with congressional seats apportioned to the states on the basis of population.
Section 2 includes various rules for the House of Representatives, including a provision stating that individuals qualified to vote in elections for the largest chamber of their state's legislature have the right to vote in elections for the House of Representatives. Section 3 addresses the Senate, establishing that the Senate consists of two senators from each state, with each senator serving a six-year term. Section 3 required that the state legislatures elect the members of the Senate, but the Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, provides for the direct election of senators. Section 3 lays out various other rules for the Senate, including a provision that establishes the Vice President of the United States as the president of the Senate. Section 4 of Article One grants the states the power to regulate the congressional election process, but establishes that Congress can alter those regulations or make its own regulations. Section 4 requires Congress to assemble at least once per year.
Section 5 lays out various rules for both houses of Congress, grants the House of Representatives and the Senate the power to judge their own elections, determine the qualifications of their own members, punish or expel their own members. Section 6 establishes the compensation and restrictions of those holding congressional office. Section 7 lays out the procedures for passing a bill, requiring both houses of Congress to pass a bill for it to become law, subject to the veto power of the President of the United States. Under Section 7, the president can veto a bill, but Congress can override the president's veto with a two-thirds vote of both chambers. Section 8 lays out the powers of Congress, it includes several enumerated powers, including the power to lay and collect taxes and tariffs for the "general welfare" of the United States, the power to borrow money, the power to regulate interstate and international commerce, the power to set naturalization laws, the power to coin and regulate money, the power to establish federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court, the power to raise and support military forces, the power to declare war.
Section 8 provides Congress the power to establish a federal district to serve as the national capital, gives Congress the exclusive power to administer that district. In addition to various enumerated powers, Section 8 grants Congress the power to make laws necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated powers and other powers vested in it. Section 9 places various limits on the power of Congress, banning bills of attainder and other practices. Section 10 places limits on the states, prohibiting them from entering into alliances with foreign powers, impairing contracts, taxing imports or exports above the minimum level necessary for inspection, keeping armies, or engaging in war without the consent of Congress. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section 1 is a vesting clause that bestows federal legislative power to Congress. Similar clauses are found in Articles II and III.
The former confers executive power upon the President alone, the latter grants judicial power to the federal judiciary. These three articles create a separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government; this separation of powers, by which each department may exercise only its own constitutional powers and no others, is fundamental to the idea of a limited government accountable to the people. The separation of powers principle is noteworthy in regard to the Congress; the Constitution declares that the Congress may exercise only those legislative powers "herein granted" within Article I. It by implied extension, prohibits Congress from delegating its legislative authority to either of the other branches of government, a rule known as the nondelegation doctrine. However, the Supreme Court has ruled that Congress does have latitude to delegate regulatory powers to executive agencies as long as it provides an "intelligible principle" which governs the agency's exercise of the delegated regulatory authority.
That the power assigned to each branch must remain with that branch, may be expressed only by that branch, is central to the theory. The nondelegation doctrine is used now as a way of interpreting a congressional delegation of authority narrowly, in that the courts presume Congress intended only to delegate that which it could have, unless it demonstrates it intended to "test the waters" of what the courts would allow it to do. Although not mentioned in the Constitution, Congress has long asserted the power to i
John Holt (Lord Chief Justice)
Sir John Holt was an English lawyer and served as Lord Chief Justice of England from 17 April 1689 to his death. He is credited with playing a major role in ending the prosecution of witches in English law. Holt was born in Abingdon in Berkshire, the son of Sir Thomas Holt, MP for that town, his wife, the daughter of John Peacock of Chieveley in Berkshire, he was educated at John Roysse's Free School in Abingdon from 1652-1658, Gray's Inn and Oriel College, Oxford. He purchased Redgrave Manor in Suffolk, the seat of the Bacon family in 1702, when debts forced the fifth baronet, Sir Robert Bacon, to sell the estate. A letter in the Bodleian Library reads: "The celebrated Dr Radcliffe, the physician... took special pains to preserve the life of LCJ Holt's wife, whom he attended out of spite to her husband, who wished her dead." Sir John Holt's sister Susan was married to Francis Levett, Esq. tobacco merchant and brother of Sir Richard Levett, Lord Mayor of London. Holt's father, Sir Thomas Holt, possessed a small patrimonial estate, but in order to supplement his income had adopted the profession of law, in which he was not successful, although he was appointed serjeant-at-law in 1677, afterwards for his political services to the Tories was rewarded with a knighthood.
Sir Thomas Holt's father was Rowland Holt, identical to the merchant Rowland Holt, murdered by muggers in Clerkenwell Fields in January 1635. The crime was notorious in the ballads and broadsheets of the time. After attending for some years the free school of the town of Abingdon, of which his father was recorder, young Holt in his sixteenth year entered Oriel College, Oxford, he is said to have spent a dissipated youth, to have been in the habit of taking purses on the highway, but after entering Gray's Inn about 1660 he applied himself with exemplary diligence to the study of law. He was called to the bar in 1663. A supporter of civil and religious liberty, he distinguished himself in state trials by the manner in which he supported the pleas of the defendants. In 1685–1686 Holt was appointed recorder of London, about the same time he was made king's serjeant and received the honour of knighthood, his giving a decision adverse to the pretensions of the king to exercise martial law in time of peace led to his dismissal from the office of recorder, but he was continued in the office of king's serjeant in order to prevent him from becoming counsel for accused persons.
Having been one of the judges who acted as assessors to the peers in the Convention parliament, he took a leading part in arranging the constitutional change by which William III was called to the throne, after his accession he was appointed Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. He is best known for the firmness with which he upheld his own prerogatives in opposition to the authority of the Houses of Parliament. While in sympathy with the Whig party, Holt maintained on the bench political impartiality, held himself aloof from political intrigue. On the retirement of Somers from the chancellorship in 1700 Holt was offered the Great Seal, but declined it, he was buried in the chancel of Redgrave church. Crosse v Gardner Cart. 90, Lord Holt CJ held that ‘An affirmation at the time of a sale is a warranty, provided it appears on evidence to be so intended.’ Robert Charnock Turberville v Stampe 91 ER 1072 Medina v Staughton 1 Salk. 210, again on affirmations and warranties. Rose case Coggs v Bernard 2 Ld Raym 909 Ashby v White 2 Ld Raym 938 Cole v Turner 87 ER 907 Walden v Holman 6 Mod 115, Ld Raym.
1015, 1 Salk. 6 Cockcroft v Smith 11 Mod 43, self-defence Smith v Gould 2 Salk 666, but see 91 ER 566 Keeble v Hickeringill 11 East 574, Holt 19 List of Old Abingdonians Reports of Cases determined by Sir John Holt appeared at London in 1738. See Burnet's Own Times. Will of Sir John Holt, The Life of the Right Honourable Sir John Holt, Lord Chief justice of the Court of King's-Bench, J. R. Printed for the Author and Sold by J. Worrall, 1764 Sir John Holt: a biographical sketch, with especial reference to his witchcraft trials Sir John Holt, in: Welsby, W. N.: Lives of eminent English judges of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Board of Trustees of Dartmouth College
The Board of Trustees of Dartmouth College is the governing body of Dartmouth College, an Ivy League university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. As of September 5, 2008, the Board includes twenty-three people; the current Chair of the Board is Stephen Mandel Jr.. The Board of Trustees describes itself as having "ultimate responsibility for the financial and academic affairs of the College". Among its responsibilities are the appointment of the President of the College and the approval of institutional policies. Of the twenty-three current members, two are traditionally described as trustees ex officio, eight as alumni trustees, thirteen as charter trustees; the Charter mandates that the Governor of New Hampshire always be a trustee ex officio, the Board traditionally makes the current President of Dartmouth College a member in a similar capacity. Both trustees ex officio may participate in Board affairs, although most Governors do not. All but the Governor are elected by majority vote of the Board.
The trustees other than the Governor and the president are known as the "elected Trustees". Eight of the elected Trustees are nominated by alumni of the College and thirteen are nominated by a committee within the Board; the process of nomination and election involves several steps. When an existing alumni trustee nears the end of his or her four-year term, or when a new alumni trustee seat is created, the Dartmouth Alumni Council proposes two candidates to fill the vacancy. If there are two vacancies, the Council suggests three candidates. Any alumnus/na who collects at least 500 alumni signatures may join the candidates on the ballot as a petition candidate; the Association of Alumni polls all Dartmouth alumni by paper and electronic ballots, using a preference voting system, to select the nominee or nominees. The Board traditionally elects the alumni nominee; the system of alumni balloting to determine a nominee dates to the late nineteenth century. In 1876, Dartmouth's Board of Trustees resolved to fill some upcoming vacancies with alumni.
Vacancies were rare at the time and the number of alumni seated was small. In 1891, in what came to be known as "The 1891 Agreement", the Board of Trustees resolved to elect five trustees, nominated by the alumni of five years' standing; the nomination process would be handled by the Association of Alumni of Dartmouth College, of which every matriculated student becomes a member automatically when his or her class graduates. Soon after the Board issued its 1891 resolution, five members resigned to open seats for the new nominees, Dartmouth's first effective means of granting alumni influence on the composition of its Board was under way; the Board has expanded three times since it was created as a twelve-person organization in 1769. The New Hampshire Legislature approved an amendment to the Charter that expanded the Board to sixteen in 1961. In 2003, the Board grew to stated plans to reach twenty-two; this expansion was the Board's first act under its new authority to amend its own charter, an authority granted by the Legislature during the same period.
During each expansion, the Board described half of the newly created seats as being those of "alumni trustees". The Board amended the Charter again to expand its maximum size to twenty-six in 2008. During the early twentieth century, much of the contact alumni had with the College was through Dartmouth's Class Secretaries Association, a group made up of the secretaries of the various alumni class organizations. In 1913, the Class Secretaries Association recommended that the Association of Alumni create a group to advise the general Association; the group was called the Alumni Council, in 1915 the Association transferred to it the authority to put the names of potential alumni trustees on the ballot for the alumni to select as their nominee to the Board. The Alumni Council retains that authority today; the Board of Trustees has made changes to the process over time. The Board no longer restricts the voting for nominees to the alumni of the particular schools listed in the 1891 resolution, nor does it prohibit alumni of less than five years' standing from participation.
In 1961, the Board permitted the Association to nominate a further two alumni, it added a third in 2003. In 1990, the Board resolved to re-elect some alumni nominees for second terms in the future; the Association of Alumni made a corresponding amendment to its constitution at the same time in order to avoid the possibility that a nomination process would start upon the conclusion of a re-elected alumni trustee's first term. In 2004, T. J. Rodgers sought the alumni nomination as a petition candidate and won the balloting, after which the Board elected him as its newest trustee, his nomination by petition was an unusual occurrence, since alumni candidates are nominated by the Alumni Council. The only previous petition candidate to be seated on the Board was John Steel in 1980. In 2005, petition candidates Todd Zywicki and Peter Robinson won nominations to the Board; because they were critical of the College administration and were described as "outsiders," the conservative student paper The Dartmouth Review called their election "The Lone Pine Revolution" and described it as "the most significant event in recent history".
Stephen Smith, the fourth petition candidate critical of the direction of the College, won the nomination in 2007. In 2006, an Alumni Association committee p
William Plumer was an American lawyer, Baptist lay preacher, politician from Epping, New Hampshire. He is most notable for his service as a Federalist in the United States Senate, Governor of New Hampshire as a Democratic-Republican. Plumer was born in Newburyport, Province of Massachusetts Bay on June 25, 1759, the son of farmer and merchant Samuel Plumer and Mary Plumer, his family moved to Epping, New Hampshire in 1768, he was raised at his father's farm on Epping's Red Oak Hill. Plumer attended the Red Oak Hill School until he was 17. Frequent ill health left him unsuited for military service during the American Revolution or life as a farmer, after a religious conversion experience in his late teens, Plumer was trained as a Baptist exhorter. For several years he traveled throughout the state to deliver sermons to Baptist churches and revival meetings, he considered a career as a doctor, began to study medicine. Deciding on a legal career, he studied law with attorneys Joshua Atherton of Amherst and John Prentice of Londonderry.
While studying under Atherton, his fellow law clerks included William Coleman, who remained a lifelong friend. Plumer attained admission to the bar in 1787, began to practice in Epping. In addition to practicing law, Plumer was active in local politics and government, he held several town offices, including selectman. Plumer served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1785 to 1786, in 1788, from 1790 to 1791, from 1797 to 1800. In 1791 and 1797 he served as Speaker of the House. Plumer was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1791-1792. Plumer was elected to the United States Senate as a federalist, filling the vacancy caused when James Sheafe resigned, he served from June 17, 1802 to March 3, 1807, was not a candidate for reelection. In 1803, Plumer was one of several New England Federalists who proposed secession from the United States due to lack of support for Federalists, rising influence of Jeffersonian Democrats and the diminished influence of the North due to the Louisiana Purchase.
Recalling his involvement in the secession scheme in 1827, Plumer said, "This was, I think, the greatest political error of my life: & would, had it been reduced to practise, instead of releiving, destroyed New England.... For my own reputation the erroneous opinion I formed produced no bitter fruits to myself or my country." Plumer served in the New Hampshire Senate in 1810 and 1811, was chosen in both years to serve as the Senate's president. By now a Democratic-Republican, in 1812, Plumer was the party's successful nominee for Governor of New Hampshire, he served until 1813, he returned to office in 1816, served until 1819. In the 1820 presidential election, Plumer was one of New Hampshire's electoral college members, he cast the only dissenting vote in the Electoral College against incumbent President James Monroe, voting instead for John Quincy Adams. While some accounts say that this was to ensure that George Washington remained the only American president unanimously chosen by the Electoral College, others assert that he was instead calling attention to his friend Adams as a potential future presidential candidate, or protesting against the "wasteful extravagance" of the Monroe Administration.
Plumer eschewed voting for Daniel D. Tompkins for Vice President as "grossly intemperate" and having "not that weight of character which his office requires," and "because he grossly neglected his duty" in his "only" official role as president of the Senate by being "absent nearly three-fourths of the time." Plumer instead voted for Richard Rush. Plumer was the first president of the New Hampshire Historical Society, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1815. Plumer was buried at the Plumer Family Cemetery in Epping. In 1788, Plumer married Sarah "Sally" Fowler of New Hampshire, they were the parents of six children -- William, Samuel, George Washington, John Jay, Quintus. William Plumer Jr. was an author and attorney who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1819 to 1825. Paper Money Riot Works by William Plumer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Plumer at Internet Archive A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787–1825United States Congress.
"William Plumer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Plumer at Find a Grave William Plumer at National Governors Association Memoir of William Plumer, Senior, by Albert Harrison Hoyt. 1871
Articles of incorporation
Articles of incorporation referred to as the certificate of incorporation or the corporate charter, are a document or charter that establishes the existence of a corporation in the United States and Canada. They are filed with the Secretary of State or other company registrar. An equivalent term for limited liability companies in the United States is articles of organization. For terms with similar meaning in other countries, see articles of association; the articles of incorporation outline the governance of a corporation along with the corporate bylaws and the corporate statutes in the state where articles of incorporation are filed. The articles of incorporation include the name of the corporation, the type of corporate structure, the registered agent, the number of authorized shares, the effective date, the duration, the names and signatures of the incorporators; the state fee to file articles of incorporation to incorporate a profit corporation range from $50 - $300, to incorporate a nonprofit corporation range from $0 -$125.
Articles of association The Companies Regulations 2008 Articles of organization Certificate of incorporation Charter Bylaws Mission statement Operating agreement