A. J. Liebling
Abbott Joseph "A. J." Liebling was an American journalist, associated with The New Yorker from 1935 until his death. Liebling was born into a well-off family on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, where his father worked in New York's fur industry, his mother, Anna Adelson Slone, was from San Francisco. After early schooling in New York, Liebling was admitted to Dartmouth College in the fall of 1920, his primary activity during his undergraduate career was as a contributor to the Jack-O-Lantern, Dartmouth's nationally known humor magazine. He left Dartmouth without graduating claiming he was "thrown out for missing compulsory chapel attendance", he enrolled in the School of Journalism at Columbia University. After finishing there, he began his career as a journalist at the Evening Bulletin of Providence, Rhode Island, he worked in the sports department of The New York Times, from which he was fired for listing the name "Ignoto" as the referee in results of games. In 1926, Liebling's father asked if he would like to suspend his career as a journalist to study in Paris for a year.
I sensed my father's generous intention and, fearing that he might change his mind, I told him that I didn't feel I should go, since I was indeed thinking of getting married. "The girl is ten years older than I am," I said, "and Mother might think she is kind of fast, because she is being kept by a cotton broker from Memphis, who only comes North once in a while. But you are a man of the world, you understand that a woman can't always help herself..." Within the week, I had a letter of credit on the Irving Trust for two thousand dollars, a reservation on the old Caronia for late in the summer, when the off-season rates would be in effect. Liebling wrote that the unsuitable proposed marriage was a fiction intended less to swindle his father than to cover his own pride at being the recipient of such generosity, thus in summer 1926, Liebling sailed to Europe where he studied French medieval literature at the Sorbonne in Paris. By his own admission his devotion to his studies was purely nominal, he seeing the year as a chance to absorb French life and appreciate French food.
Although he stayed for little more than a year, this interval inspired a lifelong love for France and the French renewed in his war reporting. He returned to Providence in autumn 1927 to write for the Journal, he moved to New York, where he proceeded to campaign for a job on Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, which carried the work of James M. Cain and Walter Lippmann and was known at the time as "the writer's paper." In order to attract the attention of the city editor, James W. Barrett, Liebling hired an out-of-work Norwegian seaman to walk for three days outside the Pulitzer Building, on Park Row, wearing sandwich boards that read Hire Joe Liebling, it turned out that Barrett habitually used a different entrance on another street, never saw the sign. He wrote for the World-Telegram. Liebling joined The New Yorker in 1935, his best pieces from the late thirties are collected in Back Where I Came From and The Telephone Booth Indian. During World War II, Liebling was active as a war correspondent, filing many stories from Africa and France.
His war began when he flew to Europe in October 1939 to cover its early battles, lived in Paris until June 10, 1940, returned to the United States until July 1941, when he flew to Britain. He sailed to Algeria in November 1942 to cover the fighting on the Tunisian front, his articles from these days are collected in The Road Back to Paris. He participated in the Normandy landings on D Day, he wrote a memorable piece concerning his experiences under fire aboard a U. S. Coast Guard-manned landing craft off Omaha Beach, he afterwards spent two months in Normandy and Brittany, was with the Allied forces when they entered Paris. He wrote afterwards: "For the first time in my life and the last, I have lived for a week in a great city where everybody was happy." Liebling was awarded the Cross of the Légion d'honneur by the French government for his war reporting. Following the war he returned to regular magazine fare and for many years after he wrote a New Yorker monthly feature called "Wayward Press", in which he analyzed the US press.
Liebling was an avid fan of boxing, horse racing and food, wrote about these subjects. In 1947 he published The Wayward Pressman, a collection of his writings from The New Yorker and other publications. During the late forties, he vigorously criticized the House Un-American Activities Committee and became friends with Alger Hiss. In 1949, he published Of Mink and Red Herring, a "second book of critical articles on New York newspapers," which included his critique of the "scurrilous journalism" applied to victims of "Elizabeth Bentley and her ilk." On July 23, 1949, the New Yorker magazine published an article by Liebling entitled "Spotlight on the Jury" in which he opened by stating "The trial of Alger Hiss, which produced some of the best and some of the worst newspaper copy of our time" and concluded "This sort of thing and lessens the chance of a fair trial next time. The secrecy of the jury room, like that of the voting booth, should be protected by law." In 1961, Liebling published The Earl of Louisiana published as a series of articles in The New Yorker in which he covered the trials and tribulations of the governor of Louisiana, Earl K. Long, the younger brother of the Louisiana politician Huey Long.
He married Ann Beatrice McGinn, a former movie theater ticket taker he had met while she was working in Providence, Rhode Island, on July 28, 1934. McGinn suffere
Esquire is an American men's magazine, published by the Hearst Corporation in the United States. Founded in 1933, it flourished during the Great Depression under the guidance of founders Arnold Gingrich, David A. Smart and Henry L. Jackson. Esquire was first issued in October 1933; the magazine was first headquartered in Chicago and in New York City. It was edited by David A. Smart, Henry L. Jackson and Arnold Gingrich. Jackson died in the crash of United Airlines Flight 624 in 1948, while Gingrich led the magazine until his own death in 1976. Smart died in 1952, although he left Esquire in 1936 to found a different magazine, Coronet; the founders all had different focuses. Additionally, Jackson's Republican political viewpoints contrasted with the liberal Democratic views of Smart, which allowed for the magazine to publish debates between the two; this grew heated in 1943 when the Democratic United States Postmaster General Frank Comerford Walker brought charges against the magazine on behalf of the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
The administration alleged that Esquire had used the US Postal Service to promote "lewd images". Republicans opposed the lawsuit and in 1946 the United States Supreme Court found in Esquire v. Walker that Esquire's right to use the Postal Service was protected by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. Esquire started in 1933 as a quarterly press run of a hundred thousand copies, it cost fifty cents per copy. It transformed itself into a more refined periodical with an emphasis on men's fashion and contributions by Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Alberto Moravia, André Gide, Julian Huxley. In the 1940s, the popularity of the Petty Girls and Vargas Girls provided a circulation boost. In the 1960s, Esquire helped pioneer the trend of New Journalism by publishing such writers as Norman Mailer, Tim O'Brien, John Sack, Gay Talese, Tom Wolfe, Terry Southern. In the mid 1960s, Esquire partnered with Verve Records to release a series of "Sound Tour" vinyl LPs that provided advice and music for traveling abroad.
In August 1969, Esquire published Normand Poirier's piece, "An American Atrocity", one of the first reports of American atrocities committed against Vietnamese civilians. Under Harold Hayes, who ran it from 1961 to 1973, it became as distinctive as its oversized pages; the magazine shrank to the conventional 8½×11 inches in 1971. The magazine was sold by the original owners to Clay Felker in 1977, who reinvented the magazine as a fortnightly in 1978, under the title of Esquire Fortnightly. However, the fortnightly experiment proved to be a failure, by the end of that year, the magazine lost US$5 million. Felker sold Esquire in 1979 to the 13-30 Corporation, a Tennessee publisher, whose owners refocused the magazine into a monthly. During this time, New York Woman magazine was launched as something of a spinoff version of Esquire aimed at female audience. 13-30 split up in 1986, Esquire was sold to Hearst at the end of the year, with New York Woman going its separate way to American Express Publishing.
David M. Granger was named editor-in-chief of the magazine in June 1997. Since his arrival, the magazine has received numerous awards, including multiple National Magazine Awards. Prior to becoming editor-in-chief at Esquire, Granger was the executive editor at GQ for nearly six years, its award-winning staff writers include Tom Chiarella, Scott Raab, Mike Sager, Chris Jones, John H. Richardson, Cal Fussman, Lisa Taddeo, Tom Junod. Famous photographers have worked for the magazine, among which fashion photographer Gleb Derujinsky, Richard Avedon. In January 2009 Esquire launched a new blog—the Daily Endorsement Blog; each morning the editors of the magazine recommend one thing for readers' immediate enjoyment: "not a political candidate or position or party, but a breakthrough idea or product or Web site." The concept of the "Daily Endorsement Blog" was said to have emerged from Esquire's November 2008 issue called the "Endorsement Issue", in which, after 75 years, Esquire publicly endorsed a presidential candidate for the first time.
The Daily Endorsement Blog was discontinued on April 2011. From 1969 to 1976, Gordon Lish served as fiction editor for Esquire and became known as "Captain Fiction" because of the authors whose careers he assisted. Lish helped establish the career of writer Raymond Carver by publishing his short stories in Esquire over the objections of Hayes. Lish is noted for publishing the short stories of Richard Ford. Using the influential publication as a vehicle to introduce new fiction by emerging authors, he promoted the work of such writers as T. Coraghessan Boyle, Barry Hannah, Cynthia Ozick and Reynolds Price. In February 1977, Esquire published "For Rupert – with no promises" as an unsigned work of fiction: this was the first time it had published a work without identifying the author. Readers speculated that it was the work of J. D. Salinger, the reclusive author best known for The Catcher in the Rye. Told in first-person, the story features events and Glass family names from the story "For Esmé – with Love and Squalor".
Gordon Lish is quoted as saying, "I tried to borrow Salinger's voice and the psychological circumstances of his life, as I imagine them to be now. And I tried to use those things to elaborate on certain circumstances and events in his fiction to deepen them and add complexity."Other authors appearing in Esquire at that time included William F. Buckley, Truman Capote, Murray Kempton, Malcolm Muggeridge, Ron Rosenbaum, Andrew Vachss and Ga
21 Jump Street (film)
21 Jump Street is a 2012 American buddy cop action comedy film directed by Phil Lord and Christopher Miller, written by Jonah Hill and Michael Bacall, starring Hill and Channing Tatum. An adaptation of the 1987–91 television series of the same name by Stephen J. Cannell and Patrick Hasburgh, the film follows two police officers who are forced to relive high school when they are assigned to go undercover as high school students to prevent the outbreak of a new synthetic drug and arrest its supplier; the film was released theatrically on March 16, 2012 by Columbia Pictures and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, grossed $201 million against a budget of $54.7 million. A sequel, titled 22 Jump Street, was released on June 13, 2014. A female-led spin-off is in development. In 2005, scholarly student Morton Schmidt and popular underachieving jock Greg Jenko miss their school prom. Seven years 2012, the duo meets again at the Police Academy and become friends and partners on bicycle patrol, they catch a break when they arrest Domingo, the leader of a one-percenter motorcycle gang, but are forced to release him after they failed to read him his Miranda rights.
The duo is reassigned to a revived scheme from the 1980s, which specializes in infiltrating high schools. Captain Dickson assigns them to contain the spread of a synthetic drug called HFS at Sagan High School, he gives them new identities and enrolls them as students, giving them class schedules fitting their previous academic performances. Schmidt gets a lead on HFS from classmate Molly, he and Jenko meet the school's main dealer, popular student Eric; the two take HFS in front of him to maintain their cover. After experiencing the drug's effects, the duo discovers that Schmidt's intelligence now makes him popular, while Jenko's lax attitude is frowned upon. Eric takes a liking to Schmidt. Jenko becomes friends with the students in his AP Chemistry class and finds himself becoming more interested in geeky hobbies and academic pursuits. Schmidt and Jenko throw a party at Schmidt's parents' house, where they are living during the course of their assignment, invite Eric. During the party, a fight breaks out between Schmidt and some party crashers.
Schmidt wins the fight, gaining Eric's trust. Jenko's friends hack Eric's phone to enable them to listen in on his conversations. At a party at Eric's house, using the phone hack and his friends overhear information about an upcoming meeting between Eric and his supplier, but catch Schmidt making disparaging comments about Jenko; the rift between the duo grows as their new school life intrudes upon their official police work. Schmidt and Jenko track Eric to a cash transaction with the distributors of HFS – the motorcycle gang from the park – and a chase ensues on the freeway, they return to school and begin fighting, which disrupts the school play. They are fired from the Jump Street program. Eric and terrified, recruits Schmidt and Jenko as security for a deal taking place at the school prom. While dressing for the prom and Jenko rekindle their friendship. At the prom, they discover that the supplier is the physical education teacher, Mr. Walters, who created the drug accidentally and started selling it to the students to supplement his teacher's salary.
Having caught Eric smoking marijuana, he was able to persuade him into being his dealer. The motorcycle gang arrives for the deal but Molly interrupts them and starts arguing with Schmidt; as a result, gang leader Domingo recognizes Schmidt and Jenko, orders his men to kill them. Two of the gang members reveal themselves as undercover DEA agents Tom Hanson and Doug Penhall, former members of the 21 Jump Street program. In the ensuing gunfight and Penhall are fatally wounded. Mr. Walters and Eric escape with Molly as a hostage. Jenko uses it to kill the gang. Mr. Walters shoots at Schmidt but Jenko takes the bullet to his arm. In response, Schmidt shoots Mr. Walters, unintentionally severing his penis; as they arrest Mr. Walters and Eric and Jenko reconcile their relationship and Schmidt and Molly share a kiss. Both officers are congratulated and reinstated in Jump Street as Dickson gives them a new assignment: infiltrating a college. Jonah Hill as Officer Morton Schmidt / Doug McQuaid, a awkward yet smart police officer.
Channing Tatum as Officer Greg Jenko / Brad McQuaid, a slow-witted yet handsome cop. Brie Larson as Molly Tracey, one of Eric's friends and Schmidt's love interest. Dave Franco as Eric Molson, a student, one of the H. F. S. Dealers. Rob Riggle as Mr. Walters, a physical education teacher. DeRay Davis as Domingo, the leader of the One-Percenters. Ice Cube as Captain Dickson, a coarse police captain. Chris Parnell as Mr. Gordon, a drama teacher. Ellie Kemper as Ms. Griggs, a science teacher who has a sexual interest towards Jenko and doesn't know he is a cop. Jake Johnson as Principal Dadier, the principal of Sagan High. Nick Offerman as Deputy Chief Hardy. Holly Robinson Peete as Officer Judy Hoffs. Lindsey Broad as Lisa. Johnny Simmons as Billiam Willing-ham, a Sagan High student who died due to H. F. S. Spencer Boldman as French Samuels Rye Rye as Jr. Jr. Caroline Aaron as Annie Schmidt Dakota J
The Ivy League is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States. The term Ivy League is used to refer to those eight schools as a group of elite colleges beyond the sports context; the eight members are Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, Yale University. Ivy League has connotations of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, social elitism. While the term was in use as early as 1933, it became official only after the formation of the NCAA Division I athletic conference in 1954. Seven of the eight schools were founded during the colonial period, thus account for seven of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the other two colonial colleges Rutgers University and the College of William & Mary became public institutions instead. Ivy League schools are viewed as some of the most prestigious, are ranked among the best universities worldwide by U.
S. News & World Report. All eight universities place in the top fourteen of the 2019 U. S. News & World Report national university rankings, including four Ivies in the top three. In the 2019 U. S. News & World Report global university rankings, three Ivies rank in the top ten and six in the top twenty. Undergraduate-focused Ivies such as Brown University and Dartmouth College rank 99th and 197th, respectively. U. S. News has named a member of the Ivy League as the best national university in each of the past 18 years ending with the 2018 rankings: Princeton eleven times, Harvard twice, the two schools tied for first five times. Undergraduate enrollments range from about 4,000 to 14,000, making them larger than those of a typical private liberal arts college and smaller than a typical public state university. Total enrollments, including graduate students, range from 6,400 at Dartmouth to over 20,000 at Columbia, Cornell and Penn. Ivy League financial endowments range from Brown's $3.5 billion to Harvard's $34.5 billion, the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the world.
The Ivy League has drawn many comparisons to other elite grouping of universities in other nations such as Oxbridge and the Golden Triangle in the United Kingdom, C9 League in China, Group of Eight in Australia, Imperial Universities in Japan. These counterparts are referred to in the American media as the "Ivy League" of their respective nations. Additionally, groupings of schools use the "Ivy" nomenclature to denote a perceived comparability, such as American liberal arts colleges, lesser known schools, public universities, schools in the Southern United States. Ivy League universities have some of the largest university financial endowments in the world, which allows the universities to provide many resources for their academic programs and research endeavors; as of 2017, Harvard University has an endowment of $37.1 billion, the highest of any US university Additionally, each university receives millions of dollars in research grants and other subsidies from federal and state governments.
Note: Six of the eight Ivy League universities consider their founding dates to be the date that they received their charters and thus became legal corporations with the authority to grant academic degrees. Harvard University uses the date that the legislature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony formally allocated funds for the creation of a college. Harvard was chartered in 1650, although classes had been conducted for a decade by then; the University of Pennsylvania considered its founding date to be 1750. In Penn's early history, the university changed its recognized founding date to 1749, used for all of the nineteenth century, including a centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, Penn's board of trustees formally adopted a third founding date of 1740, in response to a petition from Penn's General Alumni Society. Penn was chartered in 1755, the same year. "Religious affiliation" refers to financial sponsorship, formal association with, promotion by, a religious denomination. All of the schools in the Ivy League are private and not associated with any religion.
Students have long revered the ivied walls of older colleges. "Planting the ivy" was a customary class day ceremony at many colleges in the 1800s. In 1893, an alumnus told The Harvard Crimson, "In 1850, class day was placed upon the University Calendar.... The custom of planting the ivy, while the ivy oration was delivered, arose about this time." At Penn, graduating seniors started the custom of planting ivy at a university building each spring in 1873 and that practice was formally designated as "Ivy Day" in 1874. Ivy planting ceremonies are reported for Yale, Bryn Mawr and many others. Princeton's "Ivy Club" was founded in 1879; the first usage of Ivy in reference to a group of colleges is from sportswriter Stanley Woodward. A proportion of our eastern ivy colleges are meeting little fellows another Saturday before plunging into the strife and the turmoil; the first known instance of the term Ivy League being used appeared in The Christian Science Monitor on February 7, 1935. Several sportswriters and other journalists used the term shortly to refer to the older colleges, those along the northeastern seaboard of the United States, chiefly the nine institutions with origins dating from the colonial era, together with th
Theodor Seuss Geisel was an American children's author, political cartoonist, animator. He is known for his work writing and illustrating more than 60 books under the pen name Doctor Seuss, his work includes many of the most popular children's books of all time, selling over 600 million copies and being translated into more than 20 languages by the time of his death. Geisel adopted the name "Dr. Seuss" as an undergraduate at Dartmouth College and as a graduate student at Lincoln College, Oxford, he left Oxford in 1927 to begin his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair and various other publications. He worked as an illustrator for advertising campaigns, most notably for FLIT and Standard Oil, as a political cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM, he published his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street in 1937. During World War II, he took a brief hiatus from children's literature to illustrate political cartoons, he worked in the animation and film department of the United States Army where he wrote, produced or animated many productions – both live-action and animated – including Design for Death, which won the 1947 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.
After the war, Geisel returned to writing children's books, writing classics like If I Ran the Zoo, Horton Hears a Who!, If I Ran the Circus, The Cat in the Hat, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Green Eggs and Ham. He published over 60 books during his career, which have spawned numerous adaptations, including 11 television specials, five feature films, a Broadway musical, four television series. Geisel won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958 for Horton Hatches the Egg and again in 1961 for And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. Geisel's birthday, March 2, has been adopted as the annual date for National Read Across America Day, an initiative on reading created by the National Education Association. Geisel was born and raised in Springfield, the son of Henrietta and Theodor Robert Geisel, his father managed the family brewery and was appointed to supervise Springfield's public park system by Mayor John A. Denison after the brewery closed because of Prohibition. Mulberry Street in Springfield, made famous in his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, is near his boyhood home on Fairfield Street.
The family was of German descent, Geisel and his sister Marnie experienced anti-German prejudice from other children following the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Geisel attended Dartmouth College, graduating in 1925. At Dartmouth, he joined the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and the humor magazine Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern rising to the rank of editor-in-chief. While at Dartmouth, he was caught drinking gin with nine friends in his room. At the time, the possession and consumption of alcohol was illegal under Prohibition laws, which remained in place between 1920 and 1933; as a result of this infraction, Dean Craven Laycock insisted that Geisel resign from all extracurricular activities, including the Jack-O-Lantern. To continue working on the magazine without the administration's knowledge, Geisel began signing his work with the pen name "Seuss", he was encouraged in his writing by professor of rhetoric W. Benfield Pressey, whom he described as his "big inspiration for writing" at Dartmouth. Upon graduating from Dartmouth, he entered Lincoln College, intending to earn a D.
Phil. in English literature. At Oxford, he met Helen Palmer, who encouraged him to give up becoming an English teacher in favor of pursuing drawing as a career, she recalled that "Ted's notebooks were always filled with these fabulous animals. So I set to work diverting him. Geisel left Oxford without earning a degree and returned to the United States in February 1927, where he began submitting writings and drawings to magazines, book publishers, advertising agencies. Making use of his time in Europe, he pitched a series of cartoons called Eminent Europeans to Life magazine, but the magazine passed on it, his first nationally published cartoon appeared in the July 16, 1927, issue of The Saturday Evening Post. This single $25 sale encouraged Geisel to move from Springfield to New York City; that year, Geisel accepted a job as writer and illustrator at the humor magazine Judge, he felt financially stable enough to marry Helen. His first cartoon for Judge appeared on October 22, 1927, the Geisels were married on November 29.
Geisel's first work signed "Dr. Seuss" was published in Judge about six months after he started working there. In early 1928, one of Geisel's cartoons for Judge mentioned Flit, a common bug spray at the time manufactured by Standard Oil of New Jersey. According to Geisel, the wife of an advertising executive in charge of advertising Flit saw Geisel's cartoon at a hairdresser's and urged her husband to sign him. Geisel's first Flit ad appeared on May 31, 1928, the campaign continued sporadically until 1941; the campaign's catchphrase "Quick, the Flit!" became a part of popular culture. It was used as a punch line for comedians such as Fred Allen and Jack Benny; as Geisel gained notoriety for the Flit campaign, his work was in demand and began to appear in magazines such as Life and Vanity Fair. The money Geisel earned from his advertising work and magazine submissions made him wealthier than his most successful Dartmouth classmates; the increased income allowed the Geisels to move to better quarters and to socialize in higher social circles.
They became friends with the wealthy
Thayer School of Engineering
Thayer School of Engineering offers graduate and undergraduate education in engineering sciences at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, United States. The school was established in 1867 with funds from Brig. Gen. Sylvanus Thayer, known for his work in establishing an engineering curriculum at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Located in a two-building complex along the Connecticut River on the Dartmouth campus, the Thayer School today offers undergraduate, master's, doctoral degrees, as well as dual-degree programs with institutions throughout the US. Over 500 students are enrolled at Thayer, overseen by a faculty of 56 and preceded by over 4,500 living alumni of the school. In 2016 Thayer became the first US national research university with a graduating class of engineering undergraduates, over 50% female. Thayer School is named for Sylvanus Thayer, an alumnus of Dartmouth in the class of 1807. Thayer was known as "the father of West Point" for his sixteen-year superintendency of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, where he developed an extensive engineering curriculum unlike any other in the United States at the time.
After thirty years of professional service in the Army Corps of Engineers, Thayer endowed Dartmouth College with $40,000 in 1867 for the establishment of a school of engineering called the Thayer School of Civil Engineering. The school opened four years in 1871, with six students; the curriculum borrowed from the model which Thayer himself had developed at West Point. Though Robert Fletcher, the first director and dean of the school, was its only instructor for several years, the enrollment and faculty of the School increased markedly throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Under the administration of Frank Warren Garran, Thayer experienced extensive expansion and modernization. Thayer's curriculum expanded to incorporate mechanical engineering and electrical engineering, as well as a dual business/engineering administration degree from the Tuck School of Business. Garran oversaw the establishment of Cummings Hall, the Thayer School's first dedicated physical plant, the institution of the school's first major research program, in radiophysics.
Dean William P. Kimball continued the school's growing emphasis on research and established the first master's degrees for students wishing to earn more than a Bachelor of Engineering. In 1961, Myron Tribus became dean of the School, placing a heavy emphasis on the practical, problem-solving aspects of engineering as well as the traditional, theoretical base of the discipline. Tribus developed an integrated curriculum and introduced design courses to the school to provide Thayer students with real-life experience in creative applications of engineering. Under Tribus, the Thayer School offered its first doctorates in engineering. From the 1970s to the first decade of the 21st century, the Thayer School saw expansion into new fields such as nanotechnology and biochemical engineering, as well as collaboration with such nearby institutions as Dartmouth Medical School, the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. In the early first decade of the 21st century, the core curriculum for undergraduates was revamped under Dean Lewis Duncan, making the school's offerings more accessible to non-major Dartmouth students.
The MacLean Engineering Sciences Center, completed in 2006, was a $21 million project to expand the school's classrooms and research centers. The Thayer School is located on the campus of Dartmouth College, situated in the rural, Upper Valley New England town of Hanover, New Hampshire; the campus of the Thayer School sits in a complex on the west side Dartmouth's campus near the Connecticut River. When classes first began in 1871, Sylvanus Thayer's endowment had not provided for a physical plant; the school was an itinerant institution for many years, occupying parts of various College buildings and, at one point, a former structure of the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. In 1938, Dartmouth president Ernest Martin Hopkins lobbied the Board of Trustees to construct an independent facility for the school. $200,000 were spent to build Horace Cummings Memorial Hall, which with several major additions served as Thayer's only facility for nearly 70 years. In 2004, construction began on the MacLean Engineering Sciences Center, completed in 2006.
At the cost of nearly $21 million, the new center adds both classroom and research space to the Thayer School. The Thayer School shares the Murdough Center with the adjacent Tuck School of Business; the Thayer School serves as both Dartmouth College's undergraduate department of engineering, as well as a graduate school offering advanced degrees. Undergraduate majors can receive their Bachelor of Arts degree in engineering at the school, may choose to continue on to earn a Bachelor of Engineering degree in an additional year or less. Thayer offers a dual-degree program for undergraduates at other colleges who wish to earn their bachelor's degree at their home institution and their B. E. at Thayer. As a College academic department, the school's undergraduate offerings are open to any Dartmouth student, including non-majors. Thayer offers several graduate degree programs, including a Master of Engineering in Biomedical Engineering, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy in engineering; the school of
AOL is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand marketed by Verizon Media; the service traces its history to an online service known as PlayNET, which hosted multi-player games for the Commodore 64. PlayNET licensed their software to a new service, Quantum Link, who went online in November 1985. PlayNET shut down shortly thereafter; the initial Q-Link service was similar to the original PlayNET, but over time Q-Link added many new services. When a new IBM PC client was released, the company focussed on the non-gaming services and launched it under the name America Online; the original Q-Link was shut down on November 1, 1995, while AOL grew to become the largest online service, displacing established players like CompuServe and The Source. By 1995, AOL had about 20 million active users. AOL was one of the early pioneers of the Internet in the mid-1990s, the most recognized brand on the web in the United States, it provided a dial-up service to millions of Americans, as well as providing a web portal, e-mail, instant messaging and a web browser following its purchase of Netscape.
In 2001, at the height of its popularity, it purchased the media conglomerate Time Warner in the largest merger in U. S. history. AOL declined thereafter due to the decline of dial-up and rise of broadband. AOL was spun off from Time Warner in 2009, with Tim Armstrong appointed the new CEO. Under his leadership, the company invested in media brands and advertising technologies. On June 23, 2015, AOL was acquired by Verizon Communications for $4.4 billion. In the following months, AOL made a deal with Microsoft. AOL began in 1983, as a short-lived venture called Control Video Corporation, founded by William von Meister, its sole product was an online service called GameLine for the Atari 2600 video game console, after von Meister's idea of buying music on demand was rejected by Warner Bros. Subscribers paid a one-time US$15 setup fee. GameLine permitted subscribers to temporarily download games and keep track of high scores, at a cost of US$1 per game; the telephone disconnected and the downloaded game would remain in GameLine's Master Module and playable until the user turned off the console or downloaded another game.
In January 1983, Steve Case was hired as a marketing consultant for Control Video on the recommendation of his brother, investment banker Dan Case. In May 1983, Jim Kimsey became a manufacturing consultant for Control Video, near bankruptcy. Kimsey was brought in by his West Point friend Frank Caufield, an investor in the company. In early 1985, von Meister left the company. On May 24, 1985, Quantum Computer Services, an online services company, was founded by Jim Kimsey from the remnants of Control Video, with Kimsey as Chief Executive Officer, Marc Seriff as Chief Technology Officer; the technical team consisted of Marc Seriff, Tom Ralston, Ray Heinrich, Steve Trus, Ken Huntsman, Janet Hunter, Dave Brown, Craig Dykstra, Doug Coward, Mike Ficco. In 1987, Case was promoted again to executive vice-president. Kimsey soon began to groom Case to take over the role of CEO, which he did when Kimsey retired in 1991. Kimsey changed the company's strategy, in 1985, launched a dedicated online service for Commodore 64 and 128 computers called Quantum Link.
The Quantum Link software was based on software licensed from Inc.. The service was different from other online services as it used the computing power of the Commodore 64 and the Apple II rather than just a "dumb" terminal, it provided a fixed price service tailored for home users. In May 1988, Quantum and Apple launched AppleLink Personal Edition for Apple II and Macintosh computers. In August 1988, Quantum launched PC Link, a service for IBM-compatible PCs developed in a joint venture with the Tandy Corporation. After the company parted ways with Apple in October 1989, Quantum changed the service's name to America Online. Case promoted and sold AOL as the online service for people unfamiliar with computers, in contrast to CompuServe, well established in the technical community. From the beginning, AOL included online games in its mix of products. In the early years of AOL the company introduced many innovative online interactive titles and games, including: Graphical chat environments Habitat and Club Caribe from LucasArts.
The first online interactive fiction series QuantumLink Serial by Tracy Reed. Quantum Space, the first automated play-by-mail game. In February 1991, AOL for DOS was launched using a GeoWorks interface followed a year by AOL for Windows; this coincided with growth in pay-based online services, like Prodigy, CompuServe, GEnie. 1991 saw the introduction of an original Dungeons & Dragons title called Neverwinter Nights from Stormfront Studios. During the early 1990s, the average subscription lasted for about 25 months and accounted for $350 in total revenue. Advertisements invited modem owners to "Try America Online FREE", promising free software and trial membership. AOL discontinued Q-Link and PC Link in late 1994. In September 1993, AOL added Usenet access to its features; this is referred to as the "Eternal September", as Usenet's cycle of new users was dominated by smaller numbers of college and university freshmen gaining access in September