Wakhan District is one of the 28 districts of Badakhshan Province in eastern Afghanistan. The total population for the district is about 13,000 residents; the district has three international borders: Tajikistan to the north, Pakistan to the south, Afghanistan's only border with China to the east. The capital of the district is the village of Khandud, which has a population of 1,244. Wakhan Wakhan Corridor Map at the Afghanistan Information Management Services
Tajikistan the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km2 and an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of 2016. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, China to the east; the traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilisation, Andronovo culture, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam; the area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Russian Empire, subsequently the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.
On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the country, led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, has been criticised by a number of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom and widespread violations of human rights. Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group. Many Tajiks speak Russian as their second language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Ishkashimi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken.
Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy, dependent on remittances and cotton production. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as an NATO PfP partner. Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks"; the suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of" or "country" and Tajik is, most the name of a pre-Islamic tribe. According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian: "Таджикистан". In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/, therefore дж, or dzh, is used. Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is used in English literature derived from Russian sources.
"Tadjikistan" is the spelling in French and can be found in English language texts. The way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is: تاجیکستان. Cultures in the region have been dated back to at least the 4th millennium BCE, including the Bronze Age Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, the Andronovo cultures and the pro-urban site of Sarazm, a UNESCO World Heritage site; the earliest recorded history of the region dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all, of modern Tajikistan was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Some authors have suggested that in the 7th and 6th century BCE parts of modern Tajikistan, including territories in the Zeravshan valley, formed part of Kambojas before it became part of the Achaemenid Empire. After the region's conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, a successor state of Alexander's empire. Northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states, overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BCE.
The Silk Road passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi commercial relations between Han China and Sogdiana flourished. Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade and worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers and woodcarvers; the Kushan Empire, a collection of Yuezhi tribes, took control of the region in the first century CE and ruled until the 4th century CE during which time Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity and Manichaeism were all practised in the region. The Hephthalite Empire, a collection of nomadic tribes, moved into the region and Arabs brought Islam in the early eighth century. Central Asia continued in its role as a commercial crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north, the Islamic heartland, it was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from 650–680 and under the control of the Umayyads in 710. The Samanid Empire, 819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania (which corresponds wit
Fayzabad is a city in northeast Afghanistan, with a population of about 30,000 people. It serves as largest city of Badakhshan Province, it is situated in Fayzabad District and is at an altitude of 1,200 m.. Fayzabad is the main administrative center of the Pamir region; the Kokcha River runs alongside the city. The Fayzabad Airport is located next to the city; the Afghan Air Force has access to the airport. The city was called Jauz Gun until 1680 because of the number of nuts in the area; the name was changed to Faizabad, which can be translated as "abode of divine bounty and charity", when the robe of Muhammed was delivered to the city. Tradition states that it was brought here by Muhammad Shaykh Ziya and Shaykh Niyaz after Wais Quran brought it to Balkh. At that time the city replaced Munjan as the capital of Badakhshan. In 1768, Ahmad Durrani took the robe to Kandahar, established the Mosque of the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed there in 1695; the Sáhibzádas of Samarkand removed the relic of the prophet from the capital in 1734.
His clothing which came from the Turkish Campaign, was taken by Temorlane to Samarkand. Whilst the relic was being conveyed to India it was captured by Mír Yár Beg who deposited it at Fayzabad. Many visitors used to come to a shrine erected in the city; the Khoja community of Badakhshán were made attendants at the shrine. There are seven historical forts around the city, several of which are in ruins; these forts were built to help defend the roads leading in and out. In 1979 the town became a hotbed of guerrilla groups. Fayzabad became a base for the Soviet garrison. Many NGOs who work in the Badakhshan province have placed their headquarters in the new part of the city. Near the city Germany is leading the Provincial Reconstruction Team. Danish and Czech teams had been a part of the PRT but the Czechs left in 2007 and the Danes in 2008; the camp is based at an old Russian air strip. The city is located on the right bank of the Kokcha River near where the river exits from a gorge and before it reaches a large open plain.
Fayzabad has a hot summer Mediterranean continental climate. It has cold, moderately wet winters. Precipitation falls in spring and winter. Fayzabad has been isolated from other parts of the country because of the lack of paved roads. There are two active bazaars in the city where items as diverse as cotton, cotton cloth and goods, sugar, tea and cutlery are traded, it has been two years since the asphalted ring road of Afghanistan reached Fayzabad. The cost of the road connecting Fayzabad with Taloqan and Kunduz was about $US 200 million, paid for by USAID. Several varieties of cash crops are grown in the vicinity including barley and rice and there are a number of gardens and orchards. There has been some success in panning for gold in the vicinity, beryl can be found and there is a salt mine located nearby; the city has a handicraft industry producing woolen goods and there are flour and rice mills. There is a working power station in the city and there is considerable potential for expansion of hydroelectric power.
The majority of the inhabitants are Tajiks, while there are minority communities of Pashtuns, Uzbeks and Turkmens. Eleven languages are spoken in the city, including Dari, Munji, Ishkashimi, Sarikoli, Rushani and Turkmen. There are a number of shrines of historical importance in the city; the city has several schools including an all-girls school. There is a government hospital in the province. There are a number of commercial guesthouses in the city, Qasre Kokcha Hotel is the best among them which has security, central heating system and internet. There is a guest house called Lapis Lazuli for expatriates. 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes Badakhshan Province Faizabad Airport, Badakhshan Province on YouTube
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs is a United Nations body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182. The resolution was designed to strengthen the UN's response to complex emergencies and natural disasters. Earlier UN organizations with similar tasks were the Department of Humanitarian Affairs, its predecessor, the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator. In 1998, due to reorganization, DHA merged into OCHA and was designed to be the UN focal point on major disasters, it is a sitting observer of the political debate United Nations Development Group. After merging with the DHA, its mandate was expanded to encompass the coordination of humanitarian response, policy development and humanitarian advocacy; the agency's activities include organization and monitoring of humanitarian funding, as well as information exchange and rapid-response teams for emergency relief. Since May 2017, OCHA is led by Mark Lowcock as Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, appointed for a five-year term.
From 2013 to 2016, OCHA organized the World Humanitarian Summit, held in Istanbul, Turkey, on May 23 and 24, 2016. OCHA is headed by the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, since May 2017 by Mark Lowcock, it has 2 headquarters in New York and Geneva, 8 regional offices, 32 field offices, 23 humanitarian adviser teams, 3 liaison offices. As of June 2016, OCHA has 2,300 staff spread across the world in over 60 countries. Major OCHA country offices are located in all continents, among others in Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Palestinian territories, Sri Lanka, Sudan and Zimbabwe, while regional offices are located in Panama City, Cairo and Bangkok. OCHA has some liaison and support staff in New York and Geneva. OCHA has built up a range of services in the execution of its mandate; some of the larger ones are: IRIN, Integrated Regional Information Networks, a humanitarian news and analysis service Since 1 January 2015, IRIN now operates as an independent news service and is no longer affiliated with OCHA.
INSARAG, International Search and Rescue Advisory Group ReliefWeb, a leading source of time-critical humanitarian information on global crises and disasters. ReliefWeb is a 24/7 service that provides the latest reports, maps and videos from trusted sources, as well as jobs and training programs for humanitarians. Central Emergency Response Fund, a humanitarian fund established by the UN General Assembly to 1) promote early action and response to reduce loss of life. Who does What Where Database and Contact Management Directory: To ensure that appropriate and timely humanitarian response is delivered during a disaster or emergency, information must be managed efficiently; the key information that are important to assess and ensure that humanitarian needs are met in any emergency/disaster are, to know which organizations are carrying out what activities in which locations, universally referred to as the 3W. The integrated Contact Management Directory, complements the 3W database, making it easy for the user to navigate through the application.
Common and Fundamental Operational Datasets are critical datasets that are used to support the work of humanitarian actors across multiple sectors. They are considered a de facto standard for the humanitarian community and should represent the best-available datasets for each theme; the Fundamental Operational Datasets are datasets that are relevant to a humanitarian operation, but are more specific to a particular sector or otherwise do not fit into one of the seven COD themes. Since 2004, OCHA has partnered with the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance to facilitate OCHA's Civil Military Coordination course in the Asia-Pacific Region; the UN-CMCoord Course is designed to address the need for coordination between international civilian humanitarian actors UN humanitarian agencies, international military forces in an international humanitarian emergency. This established UN training plays a critical role in building capacity to facilitate effective coordination in the field by bringing together 30 practitioners from the spectrum of actors sharing operational space during a humanitarian crisis and training them on UN coordination mechanisms and internationally recognized guidelines for civil military coordination.
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian territory. OCHA's Country Office in the occupied Palestinian territory, established in 2002 to support international efforts to respond to the deteriorating humanitarian situation in the oPt; the OCHA encourages humanitarian innovation within organizations. For organizations, it is a way of identifying and solving problems while changing business models to adapt to new opportunities. In OCHA's occasional policy paper Humanitarian Innovation: The State of the Art, they list the reasons why organizations are moving toward providing their own kind of humanitarian service through innovation: Shifting business models based on public demand: There is a growing amount of humanitarian emergencies and the old model of respons
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, focused on academic publishing. It is a member of the Association of American University Presses. After the retirement of William P. Sisler in 2017, the university appointed as Director George Andreou; the press maintains offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts near Harvard Square, in London, England. The press co-founded the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Yale University Press. TriLiteral was sold to LSC Communications in 2018. Notable authors published by HUP include Eudora Welty, Walter Benjamin, E. O. Wilson, John Rawls, Emily Dickinson, Stephen Jay Gould, Helen Vendler, Carol Gilligan, Amartya Sen, David Blight, Martha Nussbaum, Thomas Piketty; the Display Room in Harvard Square, dedicated to selling HUP publications, closed on June 17, 2009. HUP owns the Belknap Press imprint, which it inaugurated in May 1954 with the publication of the Harvard Guide to American History; the John Harvard Library book series is published under the Belknap imprint.
Harvard University Press distributes the Loeb Classical Library and is the publisher of the I Tatti Renaissance Library, the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, the Murty Classical Library of India. It is distinct from Harvard Business Press, part of Harvard Business Publishing, the independent Harvard Common Press, its 2011 publication Listed: Dispatches from America's Endangered Species Act by Joe Roman received the 2012 Rachel Carson Environment Book Award from the Society of Environmental Journalists. Hall, Max. Harvard University Press: A History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-38080-6. Official website Blog of Harvard University Press
Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
The Kuhistani Badakhshan Autonomous Region (Tajik: Вилояти Мухтори Кӯҳистони Бадахшон, Viloyati Muxtori Köhistoni Badaxshon. Located in the Pamir Mountains, it makes up 45% of the land area of the country but only 3% of its population. Prior to 1895, the area of today's Gorno-Badakhshan A. R. consisted of several semi-self governing statelets, including Darwaz, Shughnun-Rushan, Wakhan, who ruled over territories that today are part of Gorno-Badakhshan A. R. in Tajikistan and Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan. The territory was claimed by the Emirate of Afghanistan; the Qing rulers of China claimed control of the entire Pamir Mountains, but Qing military units only controlled the passes just east of Tashkurgan. In the 1890s, the Chinese and Afghan governments signed a series of agreements that divided Badakhshan, but the Chinese continued to contest these borders, until it signed a 2002 agreement with the government of Tajikistan. Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region was created in January 1925.
It was attached to Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic after the republic's creation in 1929. During the 1950s, the native inhabitants of Gorno-Badakhshan, including many ethnic Pamiris, were forcibly relocated to southwestern Tajikistan. Gorno-Badakhshan absorbed some of the territory of the Gharm Oblast when that territory was dissolved in 1955; when the civil war broke out in Tajikistan in 1992, the local government in Gorno-Badakhshan declared independence from the Republic of Tajikistan. During the civil war, many Pamiris were targeted for killing by rival groups and Gorno-Badakhshan became a bastion for the opposition; the Gorno-Badakhshan government backed down from its calls for independence. Gorno-Badakhshan remains an autonomous region within Tajikistan. In 2011, Tajikistan ratified a 1999 deal to cede 1,000 km2 of land in the Pamir Mountains to the People's Republic of China, ending a 130-year dispute, the relinquishing of China's claims to over 28,000 km2 of Tajikistani territory. In 2012, the region saw a series of clashes between the Tajik military and militants loyal to former warlord Tolib Ayombekov after the latter was accused of murdering a Tajik general.
Darvoz District is the western'beak' of the province. West-central Gorno-Badakhshan is a series of east-west mountain ranges separated by valleys of rivers that flow into the Panj River; the districts correspond the river valleys. Murghob District occupies the eastern half of the province and is a desolate plateau with high mountains on the west. Darvoz District Vanj District Rushon District Shughnon District Roshtqal'a District Ishkoshim District Murghob District GBAO covers all the eastern part of the country and borders the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China in the east, the Badakhshan Province of Afghanistan in the south, Osh Region of Kyrgyzstan in the north. Within Tajikistan the region's western border is with the Districts of Republican Subordination and the tip of its south-western finger borders on Khatlon Region; the highest mountains are in the Pamirs, known as the roof of the world, three of the five 7,000 meter summits in Soviet Central Asia are located here, including Ismoil Somoni Peak, Ibn Sina Peak, on the border with Kyrgyzstan, Peak Korzhenevskaya.
The population of GBAO increased from 160,900 to 206,000 between the censuses in 1989 and 2000. The population as of 2017 is estimated at 223,600. According to the State Statistical Committee of Tajikistan, the main ethnic group in GBAO are Pamiris; the remainder of the population is other nationalities. The largest city in GBAO is Khorugh, population 29,000. GBAO is home to a number of distinct dialects of the Pamir languages group; the Pamiri language speakers represented in Gorno-Badakshan are speakers of Shughni, Wakhi, Sarikoli, Khufi and Oroshani. Vanji spoken in the Vanj River valley, became extinct in the 19th century. There is a sizable population of Kyrgyz speakers in the Murghab district. Russian and Tajik are widely spoken throughout GBAO; the majority religion in GBAO is Ismaili Shi'ite and adherence to the Aga Khan is widespread. Only two navigable roads connect GBAO to the outside world, Khorog-Osh and Khorog-Dushanbe, both of which are segments of the Pamir Highway. A third road from Khorog to Tashkurgan in China through the Kulma Pass is rough.
Gorno-Badakhshan is separated from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit Baltistan by the narrow, but nearly impassable, Wakhan Corridor. Another road leads from Khorog across the Afghan border. Khorog Airport is serviced by Tajik Air and as of 2014 had scheduled flights to Dushanbe. Khorugh is the location of highest altitude. Qimmatgul Aliberdiyeva Savsan Bandishoeva Nobovar Chanorov Akbarsho Iskandrov Davlat Khudonazarov Mirsaid Mirshakar Muboraksho Mirzoshoyev Nuqra Rahmatova Shodi Shabdolov Sabzajon Shoismoilova Shirinsho Shotemur Khudoyor Yusufbekov Gurminj Zavkibekov Badakhshan Province Kingdom of Balhara List of Chairmen of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province Hoeck, Tobias. "Rural energy
Tajik–Afghan Friendship Bridge
The Tajikistan–Afghanistan Friendship Bridge connects the two banks of Darvaz region across the Panj River separating Tajikistan and Afghanistan, at the town of Qal'ai Khumb. It was opened on 6 July 2004. Inaugurated by Tajikistan’s President Emomali Rahmon, Afghanistan’s Vice-President Nematullah Shahrani and Imam Aga Khan in July, 2004, the bridge was built at a cost of USD $500,000 by the Aga Khan Development Network with collaborative support from the governments of the United States and Norway, it was the second in a series of bridges being built between Tajikistan and Afghanistan by the AKDN along the Panj River. The 135-metre long suspension bridge has a single-track 3.5 meters wide and a carrying capacity of 25 metric tonnes. It carries both commercial and passenger traffic and represents a permanent overland link between the two countries; the first bridge crossing the Tajik-Afghan border was opened in November 2002, connecting Tem in Tajikistan and Demogan in Afghanistan. It too was constructed with assistance from the Aga Khan Foundation.
An additional bridge, connecting Tajikistan and Afghanistan, spanning the Panj river, at Panji Poyon, was opened on 26 August 2007. There are plans to span the border with an additional bridge, spanning the Panj river, in Gorno Badakhshan's Khumroghi area near Vanj. Tajik–Afghan bridge at Panji Poyon Tajik–Afghan bridge at Tem-Demogan Coordinates: 38°27′12″N 70°49′38″E