The Antofagasta Region is one of Chile's sixteen first-order administrative divisions. It comprises Antofagasta, El Loa and Tocopilla, it is bordered to the north by Tarapacá and by Atacama to the south and is the second-largest region of Chile. To the east it borders Argentina; the capital of the region is the port city of another important city being Calama. The main economic activity is copper mining in the giant porphyry copper systems located inland. Climate is arid albeit somewhat milder near the coast. Nearly all of the region is devoid of vegetation except close to the Loa River or at oasises such as San Pedro de Atacama. Much of the inland is covered by salt flats and lava flows; the coast exhibits prominent cliffs. The region was sparsely populated by indigenous Changos and Atacameños until massive Chilean immigration in conjunction with a saltpeter boom in the 19th century; the region used to be Bolivian until the War of the Pacific broke out in 1879. Antofagasta's history is divided, as the territory, in two sections, the coastal region and the highlands plateau or altiplano around the Andes.
In pre-Columbian times, the coastline was populated by nomadic fishing clans of Changos Indians, of which little is known, due to limited contact with the Spanish conquerors. The inland section was populated by the Atacaman culture around the great dry salt lake called Salar de Atacama, the Loa River basin and valleys and oasis across the altiplano, with the most important settlement being the village of San Pedro de Atacama; the Atacaman culture was influenced by Tiwanaku culture and fell under Inca rule. The Atacamans harvested corn and beans and developed trade as far as the Amazon basin and Pacific shores; the arrival of the Spaniards in the 16th century did not destroy the culture but transformed it through the process of mestizaje, in which both cultures mixed. Under Spanish rule, Atacaman territory was placed under the administration of the Audiencia Real de Charcas, though it is disputed whether the Audiencia Real de Charcas was to administer only the inland portion or the coast as well.
At the time of independence general Simón Bolívar integrated it into the new Republic of Bolivia, under the name of "Litoral Department". This decision was disputed by the Chilean Government and has been a source of conflict until present times. Chile claimed that according to the Uti possidetis of the Spanish crown, the coastal region belong to them and their territory bordered directly with Peru. Chileans explorers such as Juan López and José Santos Ossa discovered rich nitrate and guano deposits which produced a massive Chilean colonization of the coastline. Friction between the new settlers from both countries grew until 1879 when the War of the Pacific erupted. Antofagasta was permanently annexed by the Chilean government at the end of the war. Colonization by Chileans followed from the "Little North", into the new territories of Antofagasta and Tarapacá, nicknamed the Norte Grande or "the Great North". In the early 20th century the region became a significant base of Chile's union-organizing movements.
It continued to depend economically on the nitrate-extraction industry until its replacement by copper mining. Two of the largest and richest open pit mines in the world are located in Antofagasta: La Escondida and Chuquicamata; each province in the region is further subdivided into communes. The main river is the Loa; the average rainfall in the Antofagasta is just 1 millimetre per year. From the coast, east to the Chilean Coast Range, is the south-central part of the Atacama Desert, the driest desert in the world. Further to the east, it is part of the less arid Central Andean dry puna ecoregion; the surroundings of abandoned Yungay town have been named the driest place in the world. Most of the population lives on the coast in Antofagasta and Mejillones, or in Calama, Chile in the interior, the hub of the mining industry and the home of a large part of its work force. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, immigrant settlers arrived from Europe, from Arab countries such as Lebanon and Syria, plus smaller numbers from China, Korea and Bolivia.
Various immigration flows joined with the culture of the altiplano region creating the modern culture of the north of Chile, which arguably presents more Andean- and multi-European-features than the Central Valley and mainstream Chilean culture. The Antofagasta Region is the heart of Chile's main source of export revenue, it represents 53% of Chile's mining output, led by copper and followed by potassium nitrate, gold and lithium. The mining industry accounts for 93.7% of the region's exports. Fishing and manufacturing contribute to the income of the area; the availability of infrastructure and services, due to the region's mining boom, together with its abundance of beautiful natural scenery, have opened vast prospects for the travel industry, both in the interior and on the coast. Interesting tourist attractions include the small town of San Pedro de Atacama, once the center of the Atacameño culture, Atacama Salt Flat, the Valley of the Moon, the Quitor Pukará, the Puritama hot springs and the numerous astronomical observatories including the Very Large Telescope and ALMA.
2007 Tocopilla earthquake Atacama border dispute Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia War of the Pacific Norte Grande, natural region of Chile Gobierno Regional de Antofagasta Official website Touristic attractions in Antofagasta capelight.com (in English
Cambridge University Museum of Zoology
The University Museum of Zoology is a museum of the University of Cambridge and part of the research community of the Department of Zoology. The Museum houses an extensive collection of scientifically important zoological material; the collections were Designated in 1998 by the Museums and Archives Council as being of outstanding historical and international importance. The Museum of Zoology is on the New Museums Site, just north of Downing Street in central Cambridge, England. Admission is free; the Museum reopened on 23rd June 2018 after a major redevelopment, for which it had been awarded a grant of £1.8m by the Heritage Lottery Fund. The redevelopment aims to create displays and new interpretation to engage people with the wonders of animal diversity; the Museum is one of the eight museums of the University of Cambridge Museums consortium. Much of the Museum’s material derives from the great collecting expeditions of the 19th century, which provided the first documentation of the fauna in many parts of the world.
The earliest exhibits come from the Harwood anatomical collection, purchased in 1814. The museum added further collections including birds from Swainson and animals from the Cambridge Philosophical Society, to which Charles Darwin himself had contributed. Past Superintendents of the museum include: William Clark 1817-1866, John Willis Clark 1866-1892, Sidney Frederic Harmer 1892-1908, Reginald Crundall Punnett 1908-1909, Leonard Doncaster 1909-1914; the Museum was moved into the current purpose-designed building during 1968–70. Five separate stores house the collection of specimens. Many of the collections were assembled during the nineteenth century, a key period for the development of modern biology. Much of the material was accumulated between 1865 and 1915 through private collections and expeditions. Cambridge was a centre of major importance for the development of biology, several of the individuals associated with the Museum were central figures in the most active areas of scientific debate.
Collections and letters from various collectors are on display, including collections of: F. M. Balfour, Professor of Zoology George Robert Crotch, entomologist Charles Darwin, Naturalist Sir Clive Forster-Cooper, former Director of the Museum John Henry Gurney Sr. banker and amateur ornithologist James Hepburn, Ornithologist Reverend Leonard Jenyns chosen as the naturalist for the voyage of HMS Beagle Robert MacAndrew, amateur naturalist and shell-collector Alfred Newton and ornithologist. Hugh Strickland, ornithologist William Swainson, ornithologist Alfred Russel Wallace, co-originator of the theory of natural selection Henry Woodward, geologistBefore the redevelopment a 21.3 m finback whale skeleton, colloquially known as Bobby, was displayed at the entrance of the museum. The new interior entrance hall now contains this skeleton, extensively cleaned before being reassembled. Skeletons and preserved skins of many extinct animals are housed in the museum. Most of the fish specimens are stored in spirit, some of them having been collected by Darwin himself on the voyage of HMS Beagle from 1831 - 1836.
The bird collection consists of skins and skeletal material. There are skeletal remains from extinct birds such as the dodo from Mauritius and the solitaire from Rodrigues in the collection; the insect collection contains specimens collected by Darwin from around Cambridge. Collections of molluscs and other sea-dwellers offer insight into the biological diversity of the oceans. Natural history museums Museum website
The Puna grassland ecoregion, of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, is found in the central Andes Mountains of South America. It is considered one of the eight Natural Regions in Peru, but extends south, across Bolivia, as far as northern Argentina and Chile; the term puna encompasses diverse ecosystems of the high Central Andes above 3200–3400 m. The puna is found above the treeline at 3200–3500 m elevation, below the permanent snow line above 4500–5000 m elevation, it extends from central Peru in the north, across the Altiplano plateau of Peru and Bolivia, south along the spine of the Andes into northern Argentina and Chile. Other sources claim that it goes from 4000 m to the snow line of Puna grassland; the puna is a diverse ecosystem that comprises varied ecoregions labeled wet/moist puna, dry puna and desert puna. This ecoregion is a high elevation, montane grassland in the southern high Andes, occurring from northern Peru to northern Bolivia; the wet puna shares its border on the west with the Sechura desert and the east with the wet Peruvian Yungas.
The characteristically mountainous landscape contains high lakes, mountain valleys, snow-covered mountains, plateaux. The high elevation of the wet puna causes the area to have large temperature differences between night and day; the average annual temperature is low, ranging from 5 to 7 °C. Temperatures shift from characteristic summer highs in the drop to winter lows at night; this extreme temperature shift has caused selective adaptation to occur and many endemic plants such as the Culcitium and Polylepis center their diversity in the wet puna. The ecoregion contains snow-capped peaks, glacial lakes, several rivers that originate in the Cordilleras; the biggest lake in the ecoregion is Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable lake in the world, at an elevation of 3800 m. The Suches and Tiwanacu rivers in Bolivia are the lakes tributaries; the areas in the north surrounding Lake Titicaca have eight wet months, the areas in the south have one to two wet months. The average precipitation in this region ranges from 400 to 2000 mm.
This ecoregion is a dry, high elevation montane grassland of the southern high Andes. It extends into northern Chile and Argentina and east into western Bolivia occurring above 3500 m between the tree and permanent snow lines; the vegetation of the dry puna consists of tropical alpine herbs with dwarf shrubs. Within the dry puna are salt flats, high plateaus, snow-covered peaks and volcanoes. Dry puna is distinguished from the other types of puna by its diminished annual rainfall; the dry puna receives less than 400 mm of rainfall each year. The region lies at an elevation of 3500–5000 m above sea level; the dry puna is oligothermic as well. The average temperatures in this ecoregion range from 8 to 11 degrees Celsius and are lowest in the south; as a result of the elevation, varied temperatures and lack of rainfall, the Central Andean dry puna is a unique ecoregion with adapted flora and fauna. The southern region of the dry puna encompasses an drier puna known as the desert puna. In the desert puna the average rainfall ranges from only 51–406 mm.
The desert puna is dominated by the huge salt lakes and is known for the scattered halophytes around and in the depressions. These salt lakes are home to the endemic Andean flamingo; the World Wildlife fund defines three distinct puna sub-ecoregions: NT1003 Central Andean wet puna – With about 1000 mm of precipitation each year, it tends to be covered by grasses mixed with herbs, lichens and ferns. Wet areas rushes; the Polylepis forests of 10,000 years ago were cleared by fire for agriculture and grazing. Many areas are farmed, it extends from north-central Peru, adjacent to the páramos, reaches southeast to along the eastern altiplano of Bolivia. NT1002 Central Andean puna – Covering most of southern Peru, the region is dominated by shrublands and thickets of tola shrubs. NT1001 Central Andean dry puna – Mostly in the southern part of the Central Andes along the western cordillera of Bolivia. There is little agriculture. Puna soils are composed of a stony layer; the average soil profile is 33 cm deep.
The Puna ecosystem has a low diversity of bacteria in its soils. The rhizosphere of the grasses are dominated by the Bacillas species, these organisms are composed of dormant cells that enable them to survive in the extreme climatic conditions in the Puna ecosystem; the dormant bacterial community of Puna grasses is similar to those found in desert soils. The puna flora is characterized by its unique assemblages of mat forming species. Many of these species, most notably the large Azorella compacta has been harvested for fuel and medicinal use; the vegetation with the puna grassland displays complex patterns of spatial variation, despite the low cover and overall density. The puna belt which ranges from wet puna in the north of the Andes to dry puna to the southwestern Andes is composed by poaceae and shrubs of the asteraceae family. Other representative grasses include species Jarava ichu, Calamagrostis vicunarum, Festuca dolichophylla. There are several main rock unit formations in the Puna with distinct soil conditions that can be used to identify the main flora of each area.
Up to 3000 m above the desert, the arid vegetation of the mountainous steppe is characterized by columnar cacti, arid shrubs and herbs. Vegetation located be
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld; the prairie of North America is an example of a steppe, though it is not called such. A steppe may be semi-arid or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude; the term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is of chernozem type. Steppes are characterized by a semi-arid or continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C and in winter, −55 °C. Besides this huge difference between summer and winter, the differences between day and night are very great. In both the highlands of Mongolia and northern Nevada, 30 °C can be reached during the day with sub-zero °C readings at night; the mid-latitude steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 250–510 mm of precipitation per year.
Precipitation level alone is not. Two types of steppe can be recorded: Temperate steppe: the "true" steppe, found in continental areas of the world; the Eurasian Grass-Steppe of the temperate grasslands and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse, the wheel, the Indo-European languages. The Indo-European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe led to, e.g. the rise of Mycenaean Greece by amalgamation of Indo-Europeans with the autochthonous pre-Greek population and its destruction during the Dorian invasion in the Late Bronze Age collapse, followed by the demise of the Achaeans, the spread of the Sea Peoples, the rise of Archaic and Classical Greece. The world's largest steppe region referred to as "the Great Steppe", is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, neighbouring countries stretching from Ukraine in the west through Russia, China and Uzbekistan to the Altai, Koppet Dag and Tian Shan ranges; the inner parts of Anatolia in Turkey, Central Anatolia and East Anatolia in particular and some parts of Southeast Anatolia, as well as much of Armenia and Iran are dominated by cold steppe.
The Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in eastern Europe Hungary. Another large steppe area is located in the central United States, western Canada and northern part of Mexico; the shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region. The Channeled Scablands in Southern British Columbia and Washington State is an example of a steppe region in North America outside of the Great Plains. In South America, cold steppe can be found in Patagonia and much of the high elevation regions east of the southern Andes. Small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand. In Europe, some Mediterranean areas have a steppe-like vegetation, such as central Sicily in Italy, southern Portugal, parts of Greece in the southern Athens area, central-eastern Spain the southeastern coast, places cut off from adequate moisture due to rain shadow effects such as Zaragoza. In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent and the Badia of the Arabian peninsula.
In Australia, "subtropical steppe" can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges. In North America this environment is typical of transition areas between zones with a Mediterranean climate and true deserts, such as Reno, the inner part of California, much of western Texas and adjacent areas in Mexico. Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds by Manuel B. Morales, Santi Mañosa, Jordi Camprodón, Gerard Bota. International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of steppe-land birds. Lleida, Spain. December 2004. ISBN 84-87334-99-7 "The Steppes". Barramedasoft.com.ar. 1998–2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04