The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series; the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, the first to win it twice. Most the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball.
The 108-year drought was the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason nine times through the 2017 season; the Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field is located on the South Side. The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox; the Cubs began playing in 1870 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League in 1876 as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, Adrian "Cap" Anson, to join the team prior to the N. L.'s first season. The White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and established themselves as one of the new league's top teams.
Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first National League pennant, which at the time was the game's top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, Spalding, who had retired to start Spalding sporting goods, assumed ownership of the club; the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, Anson established himself as the game's first true superstar. In 1885 and'86, after winning N. L. pennants, the White Stockings met the champions of the short-lived American Association in that era's version of a World Series. Both seasons resulted in matchups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886; this was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886; as a result, Chicago's club nickname transitioned, by 1890 they had become known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes "Anson's Colts", referring to Cap's influence within the club.
Anson was the first player in history credited with collecting 3,000 career hits. After a disappointing record of 59–73 and a ninth-place finish in 1897, Anson was released by the Cubs as both a player and manager. Due to Anson's absence from the club after 22 years, local newspaper reporters started to refer to the Colts as the "Orphans". After the 1900 season, the American Base-Ball League formed as a rival professional league, incidentally the club's old White Stockings nickname would be adopted by a new American League neighbor to the south. In 1902, who by this time had revamped the roster to boast what would soon be one of the best teams of the early century, sold the club to Jim Hart; the franchise was nicknamed the Cubs by the Chicago Daily News in 1902, although not becoming the Chicago Cubs until the 1907 season. During this period, which has become known as baseball's dead-ball era, Cub infielders Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance were made famous as a double-play combination by Franklin P. Adams' poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon.
The poem first appeared in the July 1910 edition of the New York Evening Mail. Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, Jack Taylor, Ed Reulbach, Jack Pfiester, Orval Overall were several key pitchers for the Cubs during this time period. With Chance acting as player-manager from 1905 to 1912, the Cubs won four pennants and two World Series titles over a five-year span. Although they fell to the "Hitless Wonders" White Sox in the 1906 World Series, the Cubs recorded a record 116 victories and the best winning percentage in Major League history. With the same roster, Chicago won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first Major League club to play three times in the Fall Classic and the first to win it twice. However, the Cubs would not win another World Series until 2016; the next season, veteran catcher Johnny Kling left the team to become a professional pocket billiards player. Some historians think Kling's absence was significant enough to prevent the Cubs from winning a third straight title in 1909, as they finished 6 games out of first place.
When Kling returned the next year, the Cubs won the pennant again, but lost to the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series. In 1914, adver
New York Jets
The New York Jets are a professional American football team located in the New York metropolitan area. The Jets compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team is headquartered in New Jersey. In a unique arrangement for the league, the Jets share MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey with the New York Giants; the franchise is and corporately registered as New York Jets, LLC. The team was founded in 1959 as the Titans of New York, an original member of the American Football League; the team began to play in 1960 at the Polo Grounds. Under new ownership, the current name was adopted in 1963 and the franchise moved to Shea Stadium in 1964 and to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in 1984; the Jets advanced to the playoffs for the first time in 1968 and went on to compete in Super Bowl III where they defeated the Baltimore Colts, becoming the first AFL team to defeat an NFL club in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game.
Since 1968, the Jets have appeared in the playoffs 13 times, in the AFC Championship Game four times, most losing to the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2010. However, the Jets have never returned to the Super Bowl, making them one of three NFL teams to win their lone Super Bowl appearance, along with the New Orleans Saints and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Apart from the Cleveland Browns and Detroit Lions, who have never reached the Super Bowl, the Jets' drought is the longest among current NFL franchises; the team's training facility, Atlantic Health Jets Training Center, which opened in 2008, is located in Florham Park. The team holds their annual training camp sessions in Florham Park, New Jersey; the first organizational meeting of the American Football League took place on August 14, 1959. Harry Wismer, representing the city of New York at the meeting, proclaimed the state was ready for another professional football team and that he was more than capable of running the daily operations. Wismer was granted the charter franchise dubbed the Titans of New York as Wismer explained, "Titans are bigger and stronger than Giants."
He secured the Titans' home field at the decrepit Polo Grounds, where the team struggled financially and on the field during its first three years. By 1962, the debt continued to mount for Wismer, forcing the AFL to assume the costs of the team until season's end. A five-man syndicate, headed by Sonny Werblin, saved the team from certain bankruptcy, purchasing the lowly Titans for $1 million. Werblin renamed the team the New York Jets since the team would play in Shea Stadium near LaGuardia Airport; the new name was intended to reflect the modern approach of his team. The Jets' owners hired Weeb Ewbank as the general head coach. Ewbank and quarterback Joe Namath led the Jets to prominence in 1969, when New York defeated the favored Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III and solidified the AFL's position in the world of professional football; when the AFL and NFL merged, the team fell into a state of mediocrity along with their star quarterback, who only had three successful post-merger seasons after injuries hampered much of his career.
The Jets continued to spiral downward before enjoying a string of successes in the 1980s, which included an appearance in the 1982 AFC Championship Game, the emergence of the popular New York Sack Exchange. The early 1990s saw the team struggling. After firing coach Bruce Coslet, owner Leon Hess hired Pete Carroll who struggled to a 6–10 record and was promptly fired at the end of the season. Thereafter, Rich Kotite was selected to lead the team to victory. Kotite stepped down at the end of his second season forcing the Jets to search for a new head coach. Hess lured then-disgruntled New England Patriots head coach Bill Parcells to New York in 1997. Parcells led the team back to relevance and coached them to the AFC Championship Game in 1998. Hess died in 1999 while the team, plagued by injuries, produced an eight win record, falling short of a playoff berth. At the end of the season, Parcells stepped down as head coach deferring control to his assistant, Bill Belichick; the franchise obtained a new owner in Woody Johnson in 2000.
Additionally, through the 2000s the Jets visited the playoffs five times, a franchise record, under the direction of three different coaches. Rex Ryan was hired in January 2009. Ryan led the team to back-to-back AFC Championship appearances during his first two years but the team never made the playoffs again during his tenure. Harry Wismer, a businessman, had been interested in sports for much of his life when he was granted a charter franchise in the American Football League. A three-sport letterman, football stuck with Wismer who went on to play for the University of Florida and Michigan State University before a knee injury ended his playing career. Undeterred, Wismer began his career as a broadcaster with Michigan State and became a pioneer of the industry; as the Titans owner, Wismer formulated a league-wide policy which allowed broadcasting rights to be shared among the teams. Wismer, who had had a 25% stake in the Washington Redskins, was interested in the American Football League and was given a franchise to develop in New York.
Wismer, whose philosophy was who you knew mattered most, tried to make the team and the league a success. His efforts began to accrue debt as the Titans' first two
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport
Clovis High School (Clovis, California)
Clovis High School is a four-year high school founded in 1899. The school's current campus, located at 1055 Fowler Avenue in Clovis, opened in 1969. From the book, Images of an Age: "Community members tried unsuccessfully to form a high school district as early as 1889. At the time, families sent their sons to Santa Stockton to schools beyond eighth grade. Daughters went to San Jose. On June 6, 1899, Lee Beal, a Jefferson Colony Farmer, John Rutledge, a Clovis millman, led seven school districts to join in formation of one high school district; each of the seven elected one trustee to the board. The school was named Clovis High School, although it was the union of Red Banks, Jefferson Colony, Garfield Colony, Mississippi Settlement, Wolters Colony, Temperance Colony, Clovis. Seventeen high school students enrolled in classes at the Clovis school. Louis K. Webb and teacher, received $120 per month. Estelle Kellogg joined the staff in September. Two students, Emory Reyburn and R. E. L. Browne, graduated in the first class of 1902.
A separate Clovis High School was financed by bonds in 1903, east of the railroad track between Fourth and Fifth Streets. It was replaced in 1918." === In 1920, Clovis High School moved into new facilities on Fifth Street built by William Weeks. The High School remained in that building until 1969, when it moved to its current facilities on Fowler Avenue; the building on Fifth Street fell into a state of disrepair, despite its historical significance for the Clovis Community. This unique building had churrigueresque arches which were patterned after the detailed baroque architecture of Spain in the late 17th and early 18th centuries; these arches were taken down by State mandate after the 1952 Kern County earthquake for safety reasons. In 1995, San Joaquin College of Law met with city leaders and negotiated a deal to bring the Law School, founded in 1969, to Clovis from its Fresno site; this resulted in a multimillion-dollar renovation which not only preserved the historic exterior of the building, but preserved and reclaimed many of its unique and historic interior features.
In the 2006–07 school year, Clovis High School had an enrollment of 2,518, which has increased, an average class size between 22 and 33 people. The graduation rate in 2005–06 was 94.4%. The current Clovis High campus opened in 1969. Clovis High has a library media center and lecture halls, a drama room built like a small black-box theater. Clovis High School has two gymnasiums, tennis courts, an aquatics center, baseball field, Lamonica Stadium, shared with Clovis East High School. Clovis High's Aquatics Center was dedicated to former coach and teacher Jim Coiner on November 5, 2008. Clovis High School's facilities are 47 years old; when asked to grade how well the buildings and grounds are maintained at their child’s school, 78% of parents rated the grounds as “good” to “excellent”. The campus is technologically advanced, with a total of 349 computers, not all of which are available to students, 121 classrooms with internet. CHS was awarded a Career Technical Grant to create a construction careers pathway and new facilities.
The current principal at Clovis High School is Stephanie Hanks. The deputy principal is Carrie Carter. Clovis High School offers 13 Advanced Placement courses, as well as a variety of core and elective classes. Clovis High School is a part of the TRAC, or Tri-River Athletic Conference Girls water polo has won 4 Valley titles, with the most recent coming in 2015. Meanwhile, the boys water polo team has won 3 section championships. Boys' tennis won a valley championship in 1983. Baseball Central Section championship years include 1995, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2014, 2017. National Championships include 1997 and 1998; the baseball team was named California Team of the Year in 1997, 1998, 2014. Baseball coach James Patrick celebrated his 500th career coaching win in 2008, as well as going 33-5 in 2014 and winning the CIF D-I Team of the Year. Softball has won 8 valley titles with the most recent in 2017. While competing in one of the toughest leagues the girls managed to do what they do best, work as a team.
Some exciting things come in the future. Clovis High's football coach, Rich Hammond of Gilroy High, was hired in March 2009 to replace Jerry Campbell, who went a combined 2-19 in 2007 and 2008; the Cougs only faired a tiny bit better under Hammond's first term, going 3-7. Since 2010, Clovis has gone 62-24, racking up three TRAC titles and a section runner-up under Coach Hammond. 2017 will be Hammond's 9th season as head coach. League championship or co-championship years: 1970, 1974, 1980, 1984, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2011, 2012, 2015. Central Section championship years: 1970, 1974, 1979, 1984, 1991, 1997, 1999, 2002 with Clovis High being section runner-up in 1985, 1987, 1992, 1996, 2001 and 2015. Fresno High School alumnus Tim Simons joined the Clovis High coaching staff as an assistant in 1967 before becoming head coach in 1976. Simons led the Cougars to five section titles between 1979 and 1999. With the exception of a few, the nucleus of Coach Simons' coaching staff remained together throughout his tenure, with 20-year Assistant Coach Larry Kellom succeeding him after the 1999 season.
Kellom led Clovis to a section title in 2002 and a section runner-up in 2001 before resigning after the 2006 season. Alumni who play or did play in the NFL include Daryle Lamonica Keith Poole, Damon Andrew Thomas, Stephen Spach, Tyler Clutts, Zach Follett. CHS wrestling is all well known
George Frederick Blanda was an American football quarterback and placekicker who played professionally in the American Football League and National Football League. Blanda played 26 seasons of professional football, the most in the sport's history, had scored more points than anyone in history at the time of his retirement. Blanda retired from pro football in 1976 as the oldest player to play at the age of 48, he was one of only two players to play in four different decades, he holds the record for most extra points made and attempted. During his career, he played under head coaches Bear Bryant, George Halas, John Madden. Blanda was a kicker at Kentucky. Coach Paul "Bear" Bryant, who won fame and set countless records at Southeastern Conference rival Alabama, arrived in his sophomore year, following a 1–9 season; the Wildcats lost three games in each of the next three years. Blanda was the starting quarterback his last two seasons at Kentucky, compiling 120 completions in 242 passes, 1,451 yards and 12 touchdowns.
Blanda was signed by the Chicago Bears for $600 in 1949, an amount owner George Halas demanded back when he made the team, as Blanda was given a lucrative contract for much more money. While used as a quarterback and placekicker, Blanda saw time on the defensive side of the ball at linebacker, it was not until 1953 that Blanda emerged as the Bears' top quarterback, but an injury the following year ended his first-string status. For the next four years, he was used in a kicking capacity. Commenting on his testy relationship with Halas, Blanda noted, "he was too cheap to buy me a kicking shoe." Blanda reflected that by the 1950s the pro game had moved beyond Halas, who seemed to lack the interest he had earlier. Blanda retired after the 1958 NFL season because of Halas' insistence on only using him as a kicker, but returned in 1960 upon the formation of the American Football League, he signed with the Houston Oilers as both a kicker. He was derided by the sports media as an "NFL Reject", but he went on to lead the Oilers to the first two league titles in AFL history, he was the All-AFL quarterback and won AFL Player of the Year honors in 1961.
During that season, he led the AFL in passing yards and touchdown passes. His 36 touchdown passes in 1961 were the most thrown by any NFL/AFL quarterback in a single season, until matched by Y. A. Tittle of the NFL New York Giants two years in 1963. Blanda's and Tittle's mark remained the record until surpassed by Dan Marino's 48 touchdown passes in 1984. Blanda's 42 interceptions thrown in 1962 is a record. During 1962, he had two 400-yard passing days for the Oilers: a 464-yard effort against the Buffalo Bills on October 29, with four touchdown passes. Blanda passed for 36 touchdowns that season. On 13 occasions, he connected on four or more touchdown passes during a game, on November 1, 1964, unleashed 68 passes for Houston against the Buffalo Bills. From 1963 to 1965, Blanda led the AFL in passing attempts and completions, ranked in the top ten for attempts, completions and touchdowns during seven consecutive seasons. A four-time member of the American Football League All-Star team, Blanda's already-long career seemed over when he was released by the Oilers on March 18, 1967.
However, the Oakland Raiders signed him that July, seeing his potential as a contributing backup passer and a dependable kicker. In years, Blanda remained a strong supporter of AFL heritage, saying: "That first year, the Houston Oilers or Los Angeles Chargers could have beaten the NFL champion in a Super Bowl." Blanda said further: "I think the AFL was capable of beating the NFL in a Super Bowl game as far back as 1960 or'61. I just regret we didn't get the chance to prove it." In 1967, during Blanda's first season with the Raiders, his kicking skills helped him lead the AFL in scoring with 116 points. In two instances, his leg helped play a role in Raider victories: a trio of field goals helped upset the defending league champion Kansas City Chiefs on October 1; the Raiders went on to compete in Super Bowl II, but lost the final two AFL Championship games in the 10-year history of the league. In 1970, Blanda was released during the exhibition season, but bounced back to establish his 21st professional season.
During that season, Blanda, at age 43, had a remarkable five-game run. Against the Steelers, Blanda threw for three touchdowns in relief of an injured Daryle Lamonica. One week his 48-yard field goal with three seconds remaining salvaged a 17–17 tie with the Kansas City Chiefs. On November 8, he again came off the bench to throw a touchdown pass to tie the Cleveland Browns with 1:34 remaining kicked a 53-yard field goal with 0:03 left for the 23–20 win. After the winning field goal, Raiders radio announcer Bill King excitedly declared, "George Blanda has just been elected King of the World!" In the team's next game, Blanda replaced Lamonica in the fourth quarter and connected with Fred Biletnikoff on a touchdown pass with 2:28 left in the game to defeat the Denver Broncos, 24–19. The following week, Blanda's 16-yard field goal in the closing seconds defeated the San Diego Chargers, 20–17. In the AFC title game against
East–West Shrine Game
The East–West Shrine Game is a postseason college football all-star game, played annually since 1925. The game is sponsored by the fraternal group Shriners International, the net proceeds are earmarked to some of the Shrine's charitable works, most notably the Shriners Hospitals for Children; the game's slogan is "Strong Legs Run That Weak Legs May Walk". Teams consist of players from colleges in the Eastern United States vs. the Western United States. Players must be college seniors; the game and the practice sessions leading up to it attract dozens of scouts from professional teams. Since 1985, Canadian players playing in Canadian university football have been invited; as such, this is the only bowl or all-star game in either the Canadian or American college football schedules to include players from both Canadian and American universities. Since 1979, the game has been played in January, has been played on January 10 or since 1986; the game dates allow players from teams whose schools were involved in bowl games to participate, important, as these teams have some of the best players.
For most of its history, the game was played in the San Francisco Bay Area at San Francisco's Kezar Stadium or Stanford Stadium at Stanford University, with Pacific Bell Park/SBC Park as a host in its final years in Northern California. For more than half of the games played in the Bay Area, entertainment was provided by the marching band from Santa Cruz High School. In January 1942, the game was played in New Orleans, due to the December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; this one-year relocation was based upon fears that playing the game on the west coast could make the contest and the stadium a potential target for an additional attack. The game planned for January 1 in San Francisco, was played on January 3 at Tulane Stadium, two days after the 1942 Sugar Bowl was held there. In 2006, the game moved to Texas, leaving the San Francisco Bay area for the first time since 1942, was played at the Alamodome in San Antonio; the growth of cable television meant NFL scouts could now view players around the country, making postseason all-star games less important.
So, the Shrine Game's organizers relaxed efforts towards attracting top players to the game, meaning many of college football's best players went to the Senior Bowl, instead. In 2007, the game relocated to Houston and was played at Reliant Stadium, home of the NFL's Houston Texans, to be closer to one of the 22 Shriners Hospitals for Children; the 2008 and 2009 games were held at Robertson Stadium on the campus of the University of Houston. In 2010, the game moved to Florida, was held at the Citrus Bowl in Orlando. Television coverage moved from ESPN/ESPN2 starting with the 2011 game. After two years in Orlando, the 2012 game was held at Tropicana Field in St. Petersburg. Starting with the January 2017 game, the NFL now supplies coaching staffs for the game, drawing from assistant coaches of teams who did not advance to the NFL postseason, the game is now officiated by NFL officials; the game is played under NFL rules, with some restrictions, such as no motion or shifts by the offense, no stunts or blitzes by the defense.
A similar game, the North–South Shrine Game, was played in Miami from 1948 to 1973, a final time in Pontiac, Michigan, in 1976. Through the 2019 playing of the game, the West leads all-time with 51 wins to the East's 38 wins, while five games have tied. Errata For the December 1925 game, NCAA records list a 7–0 final score, while contemporary newspaper accounts report 6–0; the Shrine Game first named a Most Valuable Player for the January 1945 game, named a single MVP through the December 1952 game. Starting with the January 1954 game, two MVPs are selected for each game. Coffman was managing director of the game for 40 years, while Spaulding was one of the organizers of the first East–West Shrine Game. MVPs starting with the January 2000 game are listed below. Although the Shrine Game is an American football competition, players of Canadian university football, contested under Canadian football rules, have been invited every year since 1985, when Calgary Dinos offensive lineman Tom Spoletini played.
Canadian players on the West team come from Canada West schools, while Canadian players on the East team are from the other three Canadian conferences. One exception was Sean McEwen of the Calgary Dinos; the only Canadian team that competes under American football rules is the Simon Fraser Clan, in the NAIA from 1965 to 2001 spent several seasons in Canadian Interuniversity Sport, joined NCAA Division II in 2010. To date, the only Simon Fraser player to be invited to the Shrine Game is Ibrahim Khan, who played in 2004. Through the 2019 game, the Calgary Dinos have had the most invitees, with 13. A hall of fame was established with additional former players being added each year. Through 2019 inductees, there are 59 members of the hall of fame. Inductees range from having played in game 10 to game 77. Game 48 has had t
Clovis is a city in Fresno County, United States. The 2016 population was estimated to be 106,583. Clovis is located 6.5 miles northeast at an elevation of 361 feet. The city of Clovis began as a freight stop along the San Joaquin Valley Railroad. Organized on January 15, 1890, by Fresno businessmen Thomas E. Hughes, Fulton Berry, Gilbert R. Osmun, H. D. Colson, John D. Gray, William M. Williams, in partnership with Michigan railroad speculator Marcus Pollasky, the SJVRR began construction in Fresno on July 4, 1891, reached the farmlands of Clovis Cole and George Owen by October of that year; the railroad purchased right-of-way from both farmers, half from each – the east side from Cole and the west side from Owen – and ran tracks up the borderline between the two properties. The railroad agreed to establish a station on the west side of the tracks and to call it "Clovis"; the Clovis station, after which the town was named, was positioned on the Owen side of the track. Cole and Owen sold land to Marcus Pollasky for development of a townsite.
Fresno civil engineer Ingvart Tielman mapped the townsite on behalf of Pollasky on December 29, 1891. The original townsite featured streets named for the officers and principal investors of the railroad: Woodworth, Fulton, Hughes and Baron; the townsite, named Clovis by Pollasky, was laid out on what was Owen's land. The railroad was completed as far as the town of Hamptonville on the banks of the San Joaquin River, just 26 miles from its point of origin in Fresno. Articles of Incorporation for the San Joaquin Valley Railroad indicate that the corporation intended to build 100 miles of track, including sidings and spurs, through the agricultural acreage east of Fresno north to the timber and mineral resources of the Sierra foothills. At the time, Hamptonville was called "Pollasky". A celebration of the completion of track-laying was held at the Pollasky terminus on the Wednesday before Thanksgiving of 1891 with a reported 3,000 Fresnans attending; the railroad began official operation in January 1892.
The first year of operation of the railroad coincided with the beginnings of a deep national economic decline. Farmers were unable to get profitable return on their crops and railroads failed nationwide; the SJVRR was unable to generate sufficient revenues to pay its debt, was leased to the Southern Pacific Railroad and subsequently bought by SPRR in 1893. By reducing the railroad's schedule of operation and trimming costs, the Southern Pacific was able to turn a small profit in the first years after its acquisition. At the same time that the railroad was being planned, a group of Michigan lumbermen began acquiring thousands of acres of timber in the Sierra Nevada about 75 miles northeast of Fresno. A dam was built across Stevenson Creek to create a lake that would enable them to move freshly cut timber to a mill beside the lake, they constructed a 42-mile, 25-foot-high, V-shaped flume that started at the foot of the dam. As lumber was rough-cut at the mill, it was loaded into the flume and propelled by water to a planing mill east of the Clovis railroad station.
The lumber mill and yard had its own network of rails to move lumber around the yard and to connect with the SJVRR just south of Clovis station. The completion in 1894 of the lumber flume and commencement of mill operations provided the impetus for further development of the area around the Clovis Station; the town began to take shape. Service businesses and schools became necessary, the town was begun. Clovis's first post office opened in 1895. An 1896 newspaper article describes the town as having a population approaching 500 citizens. Clovis was incorporated as a city in February 1912. Principal streets in the town center were named for the railroad's officers. Fulton Street, was named Front Street Main Street, is now Clovis Avenue; the lumber mill was not rebuilt. The grounds are now occupied by the Clovis Rodeo Grounds. Clovis has a long history as a western town known for its slogan, "Clovis – A Way of Life". Since 1914, the Clovis Rodeo has been held on the last weekend in April, with a parade on Saturday morning, followed by the rodeo that afternoon and all day Sunday.
Contributing to the "Clovis way of life" are a number of street festivals, including Big Hat Days, ClovisFest, the weekly Friday Night Farmer's Market held between mid-May and mid-September every year. The last surviving structure built by the railroad is a depot now located near the site of the original Clovis Station. Earliest photos, from about 1910, show the depot situated in front of the Tarpey winery south of the intersection of Ashlan and Clovis Avenues. In 1999 it was moved to its present location in the town's center, at the northeast corner of Clovis Avenue and Fourth Street, was restored by the Clovis Big Dry Creek Historical Society with financing and materials donated by local businesses and contractors. Marcus Pollasky was a lawyer, living in Chicago just before he came to Fresno. Throughout his life he tried to create several projects similar to the SJVRR, including projects in Eureka, Virginia and Oklahoma. Few were actually built. In 1896, Pollasky sued Collis P. Huntington in Los Angeles courts over the money he lost in Fresno, "while engaged in a joint venture with the defendant, Huntington".
It has long been speculated that Pollasky was an agent of the Southern Pacific, this "joint venture" suit seems to prove that point. Many buildings in the town core have been renovated. Older storefronts on