Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock was a German poet. His best known work is the epic poem Der Messias. One of his major contributions to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models. Klopstock was born at the eldest son of a lawyer. Both in his birthplace and on the estate of Friedeburg on the Saale, which his father rented, he spent a happy childhood. Having been given more attention to his physical than to his mental development, he grew up strong and healthy and was considered an excellent horseman. In his thirteenth year, he returned to Quedlinburg and attended the gymnasium there, in 1739 went on to the famous classical school named Schulpforta. Here he soon became adept in Greek and Latin versification, wrote some meritorious idylls and odes in German, his original intention of making Henry the Fowler the hero of an epic was abandoned in favor of a religious epic, under the influence of Milton's Paradise Lost, with which he became acquainted through Bodmer's translation.
While still at school, he had drafted the plan of Der Messias on which most of his fame rests. On 21 September 1745 he delivered, on quitting school, a remarkable "departing oration" on epic poetry—Abschiedsrede über die epische Poesie, kultur- und literargeschichtlich erläutert—and next proceeded to Jena as a student of theology, where he drew up in prose the first three cantos of the Messias. Finding life at that university not to his liking, he transferred in the spring of 1746 to Leipzig, where he joined a circle of young men of letters who contributed to the Bremer Beiträge. In this periodical the first three cantos of Der Messias were published anonymously in hexameter verse in 1748. A new era in German literature had commenced, the identity of the author soon became known. In Leipzig he wrote a number of odes, the best known of, An meine Freunde, afterwards recast as Wingolf, he left the university in 1748 and became a private tutor in the family of a relative at Langensalza, where unrequited love for a cousin disturbed his peace of mind.
For that reason he gladly accepted in 1750 an invitation from Bodmer, the translator of Paradise Lost, to visit him in Zürich, where Klopstock was treated with every kindness and respect and recovered his spirits. Bodmer, was disappointed to find in the young poet of the Messias a man of strong worldly interests, a coolness sprang up between the two men. At this juncture Klopstock received from Frederick V of Denmark, on the recommendation of his minister Count von Bernstorff, an invitation to settle in Copenhagen with an annuity of 400 thalers, in the hope that he would complete Der Messias there; the offer was accepted. On his way to the Danish capital, Klopstock met in Hamburg the woman who in 1754 became his wife, Margareta Möller, the "Cidli" of his odes, she was an enthusiastic admirer of his poetry. His happiness was short, his grief at her loss finds pathetic expression in the fifteenth canto of the Messias. The poet subsequently published his wife's writings, Hinterlassene Werke von Margareta Klopstock, which give evidence of a tender and religious spirit.
See Memoirs of Frederick and Margaret Klopstock and her correspondence with Samuel Richardson, published 1818. Klopstock now relapsed into melancholy, he continued to live and work in Copenhagen and next, following Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg, turned his attention to northern mythology, which in his view should replace classical subjects in a new school of German poetry. In 1770, when King Christian VII dismissed Count Bernstorff from office, he retired with the latter to Hamburg but retained his pension, together with the rank of councillor of legation. In 1773 were published the last five cantos of the Messias. In the following year he published a scheme for the regeneration of German letters, Die Gelehrtenrepublik. In 1775 he traveled south, making the acquaintance of Goethe on the way, spent a year at the court of the Margrave of Baden at Karlsruhe. Thence, in 1776, with the title of Hofrath and a pension from the Margrave, which he retained along with that from the king of Denmark, he returned to Hamburg where he spent the remainder of his life.
His latter years he passed, as had always been his inclination, in retirement, only relieved by socializing with his most intimate friends, occupied in philological studies and taking scant interest in the new developments in German literature. However, he was enthusiastic about the American War of the French Revolution; the French Republic sent him a diploma of honorary citizenship. At the age of 67 he undertook a second marriage, to Johanna Elisabeth von Winthem, a widow and a niece of his late wife, who for many years had been one of his most intimate friends, he died in Hamburg on 14 March 1803, mourned throughout Germany, was buried with great ceremony next to his first wife in the churchyard of the village of Ottensen. The Messias follows from the aspirations to become an epic poet, which Klopstock nurtured in his early years; the leitmotif of the work is the Redemption, given an epic treatment. He resorted to Christian mythology in trying to circumscribe the subject-matter within the dogmas of the Church.
Milton's Paradise Lost was one of the models Klopstock had in mind in giving form to his poem. The poem took twenty-five ye
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language. It was published by the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences between 1875 and 1912 in 56 volumes, printed in Leipzig by Duncker & Humblot; the ADB contains biographies of about 26,500 people who died before 1900 and lived in the German language Sprachraum of their time, including people from the Netherlands before 1648. Its successor, the Neue Deutsche Biographie, was started in 1953 and is planned to be ready in 2019. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, Team Deutsche Biographie et al. From Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www.deutsche-biographie.de, in: BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World. Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9, 2015, ed. by. Serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399.
P. 13-19. Ebneth, Neue Deutsche Biographie, Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - full-text articles at German Wikisource. German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information
Prince-Bishopric of Münster
The Bishopric of Münster or Prince-Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony. From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, it was held in personal union with one or more of the nearby ecclesiastical principalities of Cologne, Osnabrück, Liège. Münster was bordered by the United Provinces to the west, by Cleves, Vest Recklinghausen, Mark in the south and Osnabrück in the east. In the north and north-east it bordered East Frisia and the Electorate of Hanover; as with all the other prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire, it is important to distinguish between the Prince-Bishopric of Münster and the Diocese of Münster although both entities were ruled by the same individual. The dioceses were larger than the corresponding prince-bishoprics and in the parts that extended beyond the prince-bishopric, the prince-bishop's authority was that of an ordinary bishop and limited to spiritual matters.
The Diocese of Münster was founded by Charlemagne towards the end of the Saxon War about 795, as a suffragan of Cologne. The first bishop was Ludger, since the year 787, had been a zealous missionary in five Frisian "hundreds", or districts; the territory of the Diocese of Münster was bounded on the west and north-west by the dioceses of Cologne and Utrecht, on the east and north-east by Osnabrück. The diocese included districts remote from the bulk of its territory, the five Frisian hundreds on the lower Ems. Most of the territory over which the bishop exercised sovereign rights lay north of the River Lippe, extending as far as the upper Ems and the Teutoburg Forest; the most important accession was in 1252, when the see purchased the Countship of Vechta and the district of Meppen. The country between these new districts was acquired later: in 1403 the district about Cloppenburg and Oyte was gained, in 1406 the manorial domain of Ahaus and the castle of Stromberg with its jurisdiction. According to the latter Prince-Bishop Ferdinand II, Baron of Fürstenberg granted Sweden a loan amounting to 100,000 rixdollars in return for the renewed pledge.
This last addition made the new territory, separate from the southern part of the bishopric, a compact body subsequently known as "the lower bishopric". The 12th century was marked by a considerable growth of the bishops' secular power. Bishop Ludwig I, Count of Tecklenburg, restored to the see the temporal jurisdiction over its domains exercised by the Counts of Tecklenburg. Hermann II, like his immediate predecessors, Frederick II, Count of Are, Ludwig I, was a partisan of Frederick Barbarossa. With the overthrow of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, the last obstacle in the way of the complete sovereignty of the bishops was removed, Hermann appears as a great feudatory of the empire. During the episcopate of his second successor, Dietrich III of Isenberg-Altena, the position of the bishop as a prince of the empire was formally acknowledged in 1220 by Frederick II. Hermann II was the last bishop directly appointed by the emperor. Dissensions arose about the election of his successor, Otto I, Count of Oldenburg, Emperor Otto IV decreed that thenceforward the cathedral chapter alone should elect the bishop.
The See of Cologne retained the right of confirmation, the emperor that of investiture. The bishop's temporal authority was limited in important matters. Among these, the cathedral chapter appears early in the 13th century. In course of time the cathedral chapter extended its rights by agreements made with bishops before election; the temporal power of the see increased during the episcopate of Bishop Otto II, Count of Lippe. The city, at the same time, struggled to become independent of the bishop, but was not successful, despite its alliance with the cathedral chapter; as early as the eleventh century the bishops all belonged to noble families to those possessing lands in the neighbourhood. The bishops were, in consequence involved in the quarrels of the nobility. Conditions were at their worst during; the arbitrary conduct of Bishop Henry II of Moers had aroused a bitter feeling in the city. After his death the majority of the cathedral chapter elected Walram of Moers, brother of Henry and Archbishop of Cologne, while the city and a minority of the chapter demanded the election of Eric of Hoya, brother of Count John of Hoya.
Although the election of Walram was confirmed by the pope, open war for the possession of the see broke out, Walram was unable to gain possession of the city of Münster. In 1457, after his death, a compact was made by which Eric of Hoya received a life income, the privileges of the city were confirmed, while both parties recognized the new bishop appointed by the pop
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg
The Archdiocese of Hamburg is a diocese in the north of Germany and covers the Federal States of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein as well as the Mecklenburgian part of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In terms of surface area it is the largest in Germany, it is characterized by its situation as a diocese in the Diaspora. Seat of the archbishop is the New St. Mary's Cathedral in Hamburg. On January 26, 2015 Stefan Heße, Generalvikar of the Archdiocese of Cologne, was appointed Archbishop of Hamburg. In 831 Hamburg was elevated to an archbishopric by Pope Gregory IV and in 834 the Benedictine monk Ansgar was elected as the first archbishop. After the looting of Hamburg by Vikings in 845 the archbishopric of Hamburg was united with the bishopric of Bremen, the archbishop's seat moved to Bremen. Still, there was a cathedral chapter in Hamburg with several special rights, which started to build St. Mary's Cathedral; the incumbents of the Hamburg-Bremen see are titled Archbishop of Hamburg and Bishop of Bremen between 848 and 1072, some archbishops continued the tradition of naming both dioceses until 1258.
During Reformation the bishopric underwent steady deterioration and with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, it ceased to exist. By the apostolic constitution Omnium Christifidelium of Pope John Paul II, of October 24, 1994 coming into effect on January 7, 1995, the archdiocese of Hamburg was erected again. Today it consists of territory that once belonged to the dioceses of Osnabrück, Hildesheim, namely the Free and Hanse-City of Hamburg, the State of Schleswig-Holstein and the half-State of Mecklenburg; the cathedral and the vicar-general are seated in the city-quarter Sankt Georg, located in the borough of Hamburg-Central. Theodor Hubrich † Ludwig Averkamp † Werner Thissen Stefan Heße Official site
Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg
The Diocese of Limburg is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany. It belongs to the ecclesiastical province Cologne, its territory encompasses parts of the States of Rhineland-Palatinate. Its cathedral church is St George's Cathedral Limburg an der Lahn; the diocese's largest church is St. Bartholomew. From October 2013, the administrator of the diocese during the suspension of Bishop Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst is Wolfgang Rösch; the Bishop resigned. The Cathedral Chapter elected and on July 1, 2016, Pope Francis appointed, the Vicar General of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier, Georg Bätzing, to serve as the next Bishop of the Diocese of Limburg, succeeding Bishop Tebartz-van Elst, he was consecrated by the Archbishop of Cologne Rainer Woelki on September 18, 2016. At the end of 2008 the diocese had 2,386,000 inhabitants. About 28 per cent of them were Catholics; the diocese is divided into multiple administrative districts. Each district is represented by a clerical dean. Frankfurt am Main Hochtaunus Lahn-Dill-Eder Limburg Main-Taunus Rheingau Rhein-Lahn Untertaunus Westerwald Wetzlar Wiesbaden The Diocese of Limburg was established in 1827, during the reorganization of Catholic diocese in the course of the secularization.
It was established as a suffragan diocese of the ecclesiastical province Upper Rhine with its metropolitan seat in Freiburg im Breisgau. Its territory had before been under what is today the Diocese of Diocese of Mainz; the diocese, therefore, is a rather young diocese. Today it encompasses the former territory of the Duchy of Nassau, the city of Frankfurt am Main, landgraviate Hesse-Homburg, the former county Biedenkopf. In 1929, it was subordinated to the ecclesiastical province Cologne, according to the so-called Prussian Concordat; the first bishop of Limburg was Jakob Brand. At that time, there were about 650.000 Catholics in the diocese. The bishop Franz Kamphaus founded five theme churches, he converted in 2005 three parish churches in 2005 to youth churches, two more parish churches were converted in 2007 to the Centre for Christian Meditation and Spirituality in the Holy Cross Church, Frankfurt-Bornheim and the Centre for Mourning Counselling in the church St. Michael, Frankfurt-Nordend in Frankfurt.
He stepped down after Pope Benedict XVI had accepted his retirement on 2 February 2007. He was succeeded by the auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Münster, Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst, elected by the cathedral chapter, he was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on 28 November 2007 and inaugurated by the Archbishop of Cologne Joachim Cardinal Meisner. In 2013 the Bishop of Limburg Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst was accused of lying and of squandering church money, he had a new episcopal headquarters built and was said to have lied about its cost, which has escalated from an initial 5.5 million euros to 31 million euros. He was accused of flying first class to India, where he went to help poor children, he rejected calls to resign and the Vatican sent Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo to try to resolve the situation. The accusations are under church investigation. In parallel, the attorney general of Cologne investigated the bishop. On 13 October the bishop travelled to Rome to discuss the situation with the Vatican Curia.
On 23 October 2013, Tebartz van-Elst was suspended by Pope Francis as bishop of Limburg, Wolfgang Rösch was named a new vicar general to administer the diocese in his absence. The "Synodal Way" was initiated by Bishop Wilhelm Kempf on 16 March 1969 in holding the first elections for a parish council; the basic idea is to have laity participate in important decisions concerning the diocese. “The main idea is to give every appointee a counterpart that consists of elected members who form a council. Both bodies are to discuss and decided certain issues." Accordingly, every appointed member of the clergy, such as a parish priest, faces a parish council that consists of elected members. On the next higher level, the pastoral realm, a clerical director faces the employees committee. On every "level" of the diocese and appointed officials work together. Jakob Brand Johann Wilhelm Bausch Peter Joseph Blum Johannes Christian Roos Karl Klein Dominikus Willi, O. Cist. Augustinus Kilian Antonius Hilfrich Ferdinand Dirichs Wilhelm Kempf Franz Kamphaus Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst Georg Bätzing Official homepage List of Bishops of Limburg History of the Diocese Limburg
A hymn is a type of song religious written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος, which means "a song of praise". A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist; the singing or composition of hymns is called hymnody. Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymn books. Hymns may not include instrumental accompaniment. Although most familiar to speakers of English in the context of Christianity, hymns are a fixture of other world religions on the Indian subcontinent. Hymns survive from antiquity from Egyptian and Greek cultures; some of the oldest surviving examples of notated music are hymns with Greek texts. Ancient hymns include the Egyptian Great Hymn to the Aten, composed by Pharaoh Akhenaten; the Western tradition of hymnody begins with the Homeric Hymns, a collection of ancient Greek hymns, the oldest of which were written in the 7th century BC, praising deities of the ancient Greek religions.
Surviving from the 3rd century BC is a collection of six literary hymns by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus. Patristic writers began applying the term ὕμνος, or hymnus in Latin, to Christian songs of praise, used the word as a synonym for "psalm". Modeled on the Book of Psalms and other poetic passages in the Scriptures, Christian hymns are directed as praise to the Christian God. Many refer to Jesus Christ either indirectly. Since the earliest times, Christians have sung "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs", both in private devotions and in corporate worship. Non-scriptural hymns from the Early Church still sung today include'Phos Hilaron','Sub tuum praesidium', and'Te Deum'. One definition of a hymn is "...a lyric poem and devotionally conceived, designed to be sung and which expresses the worshipper's attitude toward God or God's purposes in human life. It should be simple and metrical in form, genuinely emotional and literary in style, spiritual in quality, in its ideas so direct and so apparent as to unify a congregation while singing it."Christian hymns are written with special or seasonal themes and these are used on holy days such as Christmas and the Feast of All Saints, or during particular seasons such as Advent and Lent.
Others are used to encourage reverence for the Bible or to celebrate Christian practices such as the eucharist or baptism. Some hymns praise or address individual saints the Blessed Virgin Mary. A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist, the practice of singing hymns is called hymnody. A collection of hymns is called a hymnary; these may not include music. A student of hymnody is called a hymnologist, the scholarly study of hymns and hymnody is hymnology; the music to which a hymn may be sung is a hymn tune. In many Evangelical churches, traditional songs are classified as hymns while more contemporary worship songs are not considered hymns; the reason for this distinction is unclear, but according to some it is due to the radical shift of style and devotional thinking that began with the Jesus movement and Jesus music. Of note, in recent years, Christian traditional hymns have seen a revival in some churches more Reformed or Calvinistic in nature, as modern hymn writers such as Keith and Kristyn Getty and Sovereign Grace Music have reset old lyrics to new melodies, revised old hymns and republished them, or written a song in accordance with Christian hymn standards such as the hymn, In Christ Alone.
In ancient and medieval times, string instruments such as the harp and lute were used with psalms and hymns. Since there is a lack of musical notation in early writings, the actual musical forms in the early church can only be surmised. During the Middle Ages a rich hymnody developed in the form of Gregorian plainsong; this type was sung in unison, in one of eight church modes, most by monastic choirs. While they were written in Latin, many have been translated. Hymnody in the Western church introduced four-part vocal harmony as the norm, adopting major and minor keys, came to be led by organ and choir, it shares many elements with classical music. Today, except for choirs, more musically inclined congregations and a cappella congregations, hymns are sung in unison. In some cases complementary full settings for organ are published, in others organists and other accompanists are expected to transcribe the four-part vocal score for their instrument of choice. To illustrate Protestant usage, in the traditional services and liturgies of the Methodist churches, which are based upon Anglican practice, hymns are sung during the processional to the altar, during the receiving of communion, during the recessional, sometimes at other points during the service.
These hymns c
Resurrection of Jesus
The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian belief that God raised Jesus from the dead after his crucifixion. According to the Apostle Paul, as stated by Newbigin, "in the ministry and resurrection of Jesus God has acted decisively to reveal and effect his purpose of redemption for the whole world." According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, to the "right hand of God", will return again to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and establishment of the Kingdom of God. The earliest surviving Christian writings are the letters of Paul, written between 50-57 AD. In one of these, his First Epistle to the Corinthians, he passes on what he has been told of how, after his death and burial, the resurrected Jesus appeared to Peter to "the Twelve," to five hundred followers to James to "all the Apostles." He claims that Jesus subsequently appeared to him in the same way he did to the others, in 2 Corinthians 12 he tells of "a man in Christ who... was caught up to the third heaven", while the language is obscure it is plausible that he saw Jesus enthroned at the right hand of God.
In the Epistle to the Philippians he describes how the body of the resurrected Christ is utterly different to the one he wore when he had "the appearance of a man," and holds out a similar glorified state, when Christ "will transform our lowly body," as the goal of the Christian life - "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God," and Christians entering the kingdom will be "putting off the body of the flesh". According to N. T. Wright in his book The Resurrection of the Son of God, "There can be no question: Paul is a firm believer in bodily resurrection, he stands with his fellow Jews against the massed ranks of pagans. Habermas argues three facts in support of Paul's belief in a physical resurrection body: Paul is a Pharisee and therefore believes in a physical resurrection. In Philippians 3:11 Paul says "That I may attain to the ek anastasis" from the dead, which according to Habermas means that "What goes down is what comes up". In Philippians 3:20–21 "We look from heaven for Jesus who will change our vile soma to be like unto his soma".
According to Habermas, if Paul meant that we would change into a spiritual body Paul would have used the Greek pneuma instead of soma. According to Gary Habermas, "Many other scholars have spoken in support of a bodily notion of Jesus’ resurrection."Many scholars have contended that in discussion on the resurrection, the apostle Paul refers to a rabbinic style transmission of an early authoritative tradition that he received and has passed on to the church at Corinth. For this and other reasons, it is believed that this creed is of pre-Pauline origin. Geza Vermes writes that the creed is "a tradition he has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death and resurrection of Jesus"; the creed's ultimate origins are within the Jerusalem apostolic community having been formalised and passed on within a few years of the resurrection. Paul Barnett writes that this creedal formula, others, were variants of the "one basic early tradition that Paul "received" in Damascus from Ananias in about 34 " after his conversion.
All four gospels climax with the resurrection, preparing the reader by having Jesus predict it, or through allusions that only the reader will understand. The moment of resurrection is not described; the body of Jesus was buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea in accordance with Mosaic Law, which stated that a person hanged on a tree must not be allowed to remain there at night, but should be buried before sundown. When women followers of Jesus came to the tomb early on the third day they found the stone rolled away and the tomb empty. An angel told them that they should inform the remaining disciples. In Matthew and John, although not in Mark, the resurrection announcement is followed by post-resurrection appearances of Jesus to his followers - the number and location of these varies, from a single appearance in Galilee in Matthew to several appearances in Jerusalem in Luke to appearances in both Jerusalem and Galillee in John; the Apostle Paul records a series of post-resurrection appearances, the last being to himself - an appearance to Paul is recorded in detail in Acts, but it differs from that in the Pauline epistles.
These end with the ascension of Jesus to heaven - this is assumed in all the gospels and in other New Testament literature but described only in Acts, where it prepares the reader for the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and for the missionary task of the early church. Paul's proof of the resurrection is the appearances of the risen Lord to himself. At some point such appearances ceased - after a single day according to Luke, after forty according to Acts, although the Paul's experience was many years after that. In any event, the end of personal appearances meant that for the gospel-authors alternative proofs were needed; these were found in the narratives of the empty tomb, angelic announcement, witnesses to post-resurrection appearances on Earth rather than in heaven. In the process they moved from a Jewish to a Hellenistic and Roman paradigm in which Jesus dies and is buried, his body disappears, he returns in an immortalised physical body, able to appear and disappear at will like a