The Brahmani is a major seasonal river in the Odisha state of Eastern India. The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the Sankh and South Koel rivers, flows through the districts of Sundargarh, Angul, Cuttack and Kendrapara. Together with the riversBaitarani, it forms a large delta before emptying into the Bay of Bengal at Dhamra; the Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the rivers South Koel and Sankh near the major industrial town of Rourkela at 22 15'N and 84 47' E. The Sankh has its origins near the Jharkhand-Chhattisgarh border, not far from the Netarhat Plateau; the South Koel too arises in Jharkhand, near Lohardaga, on the other side of a watershed that gives rise to the Damodar River. Both of these sources are in the Chota Nagpur Plateau; the site of the Brahmani's origin is mythologically reputed to be the place where Sage Parashara fell in love with the fisherman's daughter, Satyavati who gave birth to Ved Vyasa, the compiler of the Mahabharata. The place is thus called Ved Vyasa.
After assuming the name of Brahmani, the river crosses the Tamra and Jharbera forests, skirting along National Highway 23. It passes the town of Bonaigarh in Sundargarh district before being dammed at Rengali in Anugul district. A large reservoir of the same name is created as a consequence, it flows through the towns of Talcher and Dhenkanal before splitting up into two streams. The main stream flows by the town of Jajpur Road beyond which it is crossed by National Highway 16 and the Kolkata-Chennai mainline of East Coast Railway; the branch stream called Kimiria receives the waters of the Birupa (a distributary of the Mahanadi and Genguti before re joining the main stream at Indupur. It flows crisscrossing through Pattamundai; the river receives the Kharsuan, on its left bank before merging with the Baitarani, a major river, to form the Dhamra estuary. A distributary called Maipara branches off here to join the Bay of Bengal a short distance away while the main stream proceeds northward for a few km more before meeting the sea near Chandbali at Palmyras Point.
The Brahmani delta is the site of the Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, famous for its estuarine crocodiles. At about 480 kilometres long, the Brahmani is the second longest river in Orissa after the Mahanadi; however if its constituent rivers are included its length extends to about 799 kilometres, of which 541 kilometres are in Orissa. It has a catchment area of about 39,033 square kilometres in Orissa alone. Apart from the Rengali dam mentioned above, there exists a barrage shortly before Talcher called Samal Barrage; the Jokadia and the Jenapur anicuts are the other irrigation projects on the river. Near its mouth, the river is crossed by the Orissa Coast Canal that takes water from it
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
For river in Africa see Kasai RiverKangsabati River rises from the Chota Nagpur plateau in the state of West Bengal and passes through the districts of Purulia and Paschim Medinipur in West Bengal before draining in the Bay of Bengal. After rising at Murguma near Jhalda in the Chota Nagpur plateau in Purulia district, it passes by Purulia and Ranibandh in Bankura district, enters Paschim Medinipur in the Binpur area, it is joined by Bhairabbanki. At Keshpur the river splits into two; the northern branch joins the Rupnarayan River. The other branch flows in a south-easterly direction and on joining the Kaliaghai River forms the Haldi River, which flows into the Bay of Bengal at Haldia. Kangshabati is created from the confluence of two smaller river streams namely Saharjhor and Girgiri and takes the name of Kangshabati near Tigra village of C. D. Block Jhalda II in district Puruliya. Purulia, Raipur, Binpur and Kharagpur are towns on or near the banks of this river; the Kangsabati Project was started in 1956 as part of the Indian Second Five-year Plan to provide water to 3,484.77 square kilometres of land in the districts of Midnapur and Hooghly.
It involves irrigation land using water from the Kangsabati River, as well as the Shilabati and the Bhoirobbanki rivers. As part of the project, a 38-metre high and 10,098-metre long dam, Mukutmanipur Dam, was constructed at Mukutmanipur on the river Kangsabati and Kumari about 3.2 km upstream of their Confluence. It is an earthen gravity dam with concrete saddle spillway at the border of Purulia and Bankura district. An anicut dam built on the Kangsabati River near Midnapore in 1872 was added to the operations of the project. List of rivers of India Rivers of India
Chota Nagpur Plateau
The Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau, the basin of the Mahanadi River lies to the south; the total area of the Chota Nagpur Plateau is 65,000 square kilometres. The name Nagpur is taken from Nagavanshis, who ruled in this part of the country. Chhota is the name of a village in the outskirts of Ranchi, which has the remains of an old fort belonging to the Nagavanshis; the Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a continental plateau—an extensive area of land thrust above the general land. The plateau has been formed by continental uplift from forces acting deep inside the earth; the Gondwana substrates attest to the plateau's ancient origin. It is part of the Deccan Plate, which broke free from the southern continent during the Cretaceous to embark on a 50-million-year journey, interrupted by the collision with the Eurasian continent.
The northeastern part of the Deccan Plateau, where this ecoregion sits, was the first area of contact with Eurasia. The Chhota Nagpur Plateau consists of three steps; the highest step is in the western part of the plateau, where pats, as a plateau is locally called, are 910 to 1,070 metres above sea level. The highest point is 1,164 metres; the next part contains larger portions of the old Ranchi and Hazaribagh districts and some parts of old Palamu district, before these were broken up into smaller administrative units. The general height is 610 metres; the topography in undulating with prominent gneissic hills dome-like in outline. The lowest step of the plateau is at an average level of around 300 metres, it covers the old Singhbhum districts. High hills are a striking part of this section - Parasnath Hills rise to a height of 1,370 metres and Dalma Hills to 1,038 metres; the large plateau is subdivided into several small sub plateaux. The western plateau with an average elevation of 1,000 metres above mean sea level merges into the plateau of the Surguja district of Chhattisgarh.
The flat topped plateaux, locally known as pats are characterized by level surface and accordance of their summit levels shows they are part of one large plateau. Examples include Jamira Pat, Khamar Pat, Rudni Pat and others; the area is referred to as Western Ranchi Plateau. It is believed to be composed of Deccan basalt lava; the Ranchi Plateau is the largest part of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau. The elevation of the plateau surface in this part is about 700 m and slopes down towards south-east into the hilly and undulating region of Singhbhum; the plateau is dissected. The Damodar River flows through a rift valley. To the north it is separated from the Hazaribagh plateau by the Damodar trough. To the west is a group of plateaux called pat. There are many waterfalls at the edges of the Ranchi plateau where rivers coming from over the plateau surface form waterfalls when they descend through the precipitous escarpments of the plateau and enter the area of lower elevation; the North Karo River has formed the 17 m high Pheruaghaugh Falls at the southern margin of the Ranchi plateau.
Such falls are called. Hundru Falls on the Subarnarekha River near Ranchi, Dassam Falls on the Kanchi River, east of Ranchi, Sadni Falls on the Sankh River are examples of scarp falls. Sometimes waterfalls of various dimensions are formed when tributary streams join the master stream from great heights forming hanging valleys. At Rajrappa, the Bhera River coming over from the Ranchi Plateau hangs above the Damodar River at its point of confluence with the latter; the Jonha Falls is another example of this category of falls. The Gunga River hangs over its master stream, the Raru River and forms the said; the Hazaribagh plateau is subdivided into two parts – the higher plateau and the lower plateau. Here the higher plateau is referred to as Hazaribagh plateau and the lower plateau as Koderma plateau; the Hazaribagh plateau on which Hazaribagh town is built is about 64 km east by west and 24 km north by south with an average elevation of 610 m. The north-eastern and southern faces are abrupt, it is separated from the Ranchi plateau by the Damodar trough.
The western portion of Hazaribagh plateau constitutes a broad watershed between the Damodar drainage on the south and the Lilajan and Mohana rivers on the north. The highest hills in this area are called after the villages of Kasiatu and Hudu, rise fronting the south 180 m above the general level of the plateau. Further east along the southern face a long spur projects right up to the Damodar river where it ends in Aswa Pahar, elevation 751 metres. At the south-eastern corner of the plateau is Jilinga Hill at 932 metres. Mahabar Jarimo at 666 m and Barsot at 660 m stand in isolation to the east, on the north-west edge of the plateau Sendraili at 670 m and Mahuda at 734 m are the most prominent features. Isolated on the plateau, in the neighbourhood of Hazaribagh town are four hills of which the highest Chendwar rises to 860 m. On all sides it has an exceedingly abrupt scarp, modified only on the south-east
The Jonha Falls is a waterfall located in Ranchi district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Situated at an edge of the Ranchi plateau, the Jonha Falls is an example of a hanging valley falls; the Gunga River hangs over its master stream, Raru River and forms the falls. One has to descend 722 steps to admire the surroundings. Water in the falls drops from a height of 43 metres; the Jonha Falls is an example of a nick point caused by rejuvenation. Knick point called a nick point or nick, represents breaks in slopes in the longitudinal profile of a river caused by rejuvenation; the break in channel gradient allows water to fall vertically giving rise to a waterfall. There is a tourist rest house. A temple and an ashram dedicated to Buddha was built atop Gautam Pahar by the sons of Raja Baldevdas Birla. A fair is organized in Saturday; the Jonha Falls is 40 kilometres from Ranchi. It is approachable by both train. Jonha Station is just 1.5 km from the fall. For travel by road, one has to take the Ranchi-Purulia Road and after travelling for about 20 miles one has to travel about 3 miles off the main road.
List of waterfalls in India List of waterfalls in India by height
Brahmani River (Birbhum)
The Brahmani River is a tributary of the Dwarka River. The Brahmani originates in the Santhal Parganas in Jharkhand and flows through Birbhum district, bisecting Rampurhat subdivision, it flows through Murshidabad district, where it joins the Dwarka River. It is a hill stream with beds full of yellow clay. Baidhara barrage on the Brahmani has a capacity of 540,000 cubic metres, Santhal Parganas List of rivers of India
The Lilājan River is a river that flows through the Chatra and Gaya districts in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Bihar. It is referred to as the Nilanjan, Niranjan or Falgu River; the Lilājan begins its journey north of Simaria in Chatra district on the Hazaribagh plateau, the western portion of which constitutes a broad watershed between the Damodar drainage on the south and the Lilājan and Mohana rivers on the north. It flows through a rocky channel until it reaches the neighbourhood of Jori. There the hills begin to recede and the stream flows sluggishly over a wide sandy bed. From this point to the Gaya border beyond Hunterganj the river becomes sandy, it is disastrous during the rains. About 10 kilometres south of Gaya it unites with the Mohana River to form the Falgu River; the water falls into natural reservoir in the Lilājan River. It is 11 kilometres west of Chatra – about half the distance is motorable, while the rest is only able to be traversed on foot. Before attaining Enlightenment, the prince Siddhārtha Gautama practiced asceticism for six years on the banks of the river, residing in a forest near the village of Uruvilvā.
After realizing that strict asceticism would not lead to Enlightenment, he recuperated after bathing in the river and receiving a bowl of milk-rice from the milkmaid Sujātā. He sat under the nearby pippala tree, where he achieved Enlightenment; this tree became known as the Bodhi Tree, the site became known as Bodh Gayā. A beautiful view of the river