French Air Force
The French Air Force Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army was made an independent military arm in 1934; the number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 225 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 117 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale; as of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve; the Chief of Staff of the French Air Force is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. French military aviation was born in 1909. After the approval of the law by the French National Assembly on March 29, 1912, French Military Aeronautics became part of the French Army, alongside the four traditional branches of the French Army, the infantry, cavalry and engineers.
France was one of the first states to start building aircraft. At the beginning of First World War, France had a total of 148 planes (8 from French Naval Aviation and 15 Airships. By the time of the armistice in November 1918, 3608 planes were in service. 5,500 pilots and observers were killed from the 17,300 engaged in the conflict, amounting to 31% of endured lossesMilitary Aeronautics was established as a "special arm" by the law of December 8, 1922. However, the remained under the auspices of the French Army, it wasn't until July 2, 1934, that the "special arm" became an independent service and was independent. The initial air arm was the cradle of French military parachuting, responsible for the first formation of the " Air Infantry Groups " Groupements de l'Infanterie de l'Air in the 1930s, out of which the Air Parachute Commandos descended; the French Air Force maintained a continuous presence across the French colonial empire from the 1920s to 1943. The French Air Force played an important role, most notable during the Battle of France of 1940.
The engagement of the Free French Air Forces from 1940 to 1943 the engagement of the aviators of the French Liberation Army, were marking episodes of the History of the French Air Force. The sacrifices of Commandant René Mouchotte and Lieutenant Marcel Beau illustrated their devotion; the Vichy French Air Force had a significant presence in the French Levant. After 1945, France rebuilt its aircraft industry; the French Air Force participated in several colonial wars during the Empire such as French Indochina after the Second World War. Since 1945, the French Air Force was notably engaged in Indochina; the French Air Force was active in Algeria from 1952 until 1962 and Suez later Mauritania and Chad, the Persian Gulf, ex-Yugoslavia and more in Afghanistan and Iraq. From 1964 until 1971 the French Air Force had the unique responsibility for the French nuclear arm via Dassault Mirage IV or ballistic missiles of Air Base 200 Apt-Saint-Christol on the Plateau d'Albion. Accordingly, from 1962, the French political leadership reprioritized its military emphasis on nuclear deterrence, implementing a complete reorganisation of the Air Force, with the creation of four air regions and seven major specialised commands, among which were the Strategic Air Forces Command, COTAM, the Air Command of Aerial Defense Forces, the Force aérienne tactique.
In 1964 the Second Tactical Air Command was created at Nancy to take command of air units stationed in France but not assigned to NATO. The Military Air Transport Command had been formed in February 1962 from the Groupement d'Unités Aériennes Spécialisées. Created in 1964 was the Escadron des Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air grouping all FCA units; the Dassault Mirage IV, the principal French strategic bomber, was designed to strike Soviet positions as part of the French nuclear triad. In 1985, the Air Force had four major flying commands, the Strategic Air Forces Command, the Tactical Air Forces Command, the Military Air Transport Command, CAFDA. CFAS had two squadrons of S2 and S-3 IRBMs at the Plateau d'Albion, six squadrons of Mirage IVAs, three squadrons of C-135F, as well as a training/reconnaissance unit, CIFAS 328, at Bordeaux; the tactical air command included wings EC 3, EC 4, EC 7, EC 11, EC 13, ER 33, with a total of 19 squadrons of Mirage III, two squadrons flying the Mirage 5F, a squadron flying the Mirage F.1CR.
CoTAM counted 28 squadrons, of which ten were fixed-wing transport squadrons, the remainder helicopter and liaison squadrons, at least five of which were overseas. CAFDA numbered 14 squadrons flying the Mirage F.1C. Two other commands had flying units, the Air Force Training Command, the Air Force Transmissions Command, with four squadrons and three trials units. Dassault Aviation led the way with delta-wing designs, which formed the basis for the Dassault Mirage III series of fighter jets; the Mirage demonstrated its abilities in the Six-Day War, Yom Kippur War, the Falklands War, the Gulf War, becoming one of the most popular jet fighters of its day, selling widely. In 1994 the Commandment of the Fusiliers Commandos de l'Air was reestablished under a different form; the French Air Force is replacing its aircraft inventory. The Air Force is awaiting th
Italian Air Force
The Italian Air Force is the air force of the Italian Republic. The Italian Air Force was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923 by King Victor Emmanuel III as the Regia Aeronautica. After World War II, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the Regia Aeronautica was given its current name. Since its formation, the service has held a prominent role in modern Italian military history; the aerobatic display team is the Frecce Tricolori. Italy was among the earliest adopters of military aviation, its air arm dates back to 1884, when the Italian Royal Army was authorised to acquire its own air component. The Air Service operated balloons based near Rome. In 1911, reconnaissance and bombing sorties during the Italo-Turkish War by the Servizio Aeronautico represented the first use of heavier-than-air aircraft in armed conflict. On 28 March 1923, the Italian Air Force was founded as an independent service by King Vittorio Emanuele III of the Kingdom of Italy; this air force was known as the Regia Aeronautica.
During the 1930s, the fledgling Regia Aeronautica was involved in its first military operations, first in Ethiopia in 1935, in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. After a period of neutrality, Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940 alongside Germany; the Regia Aeronautica could deploy more than 3,000 aircraft, although fewer than 60% were serviceable. It fought from the icy steppes of Russia to the sand of the North African desert, losing men and machines. After the armistice of 8 September 1943, Italy was divided into two sides, the same fate befell the Regia Aeronautica; the Air Force was split into the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force in the south aligned with the Allies, the pro-Axis Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana in the north until the end of the war. On 8 May 1945, the hostilities ended. A popular vote by the people resulted in the end of the Kingdom of Italy and the establishment of the Italian Republic on 18 June 1946. Hence the Regia Aeronautica lost its "Royal" designation, it became the Aeronautica Militare, a name that it has continued to hold since.
The Peace Treaty of Paris of 1947 placed severe restrictions on all of the Italian armed forces, but the establishment of NATO in 1949 with Italy as a founding member brought about the necessity for the modernization of all of the Italian armed forces, including the Italian Air Force. American military aid sent by the Mutual Defense Assistance Program brought about the introduction of American-made P-47 Thunderbolt and P-51 Mustang propeller-driven fighter planes. In 1952, the Italian Air Force was granted jet fighters for the first time, American F-84G Thunderjets and F-86D Sabres, followed by F-84F fighters and C-119 Flying Boxcar transport planes from the United States; the reborn Italian aviation industry began to develop and produce a few ingenious aircraft designs of its own, such as the Fiat G91, the Aermacchi MB-326, the Piaggio Aero P.166 and the line of Agusta-Bell helicopters. The first supersonic fighters added to the Italian Air Force were American-designed F-104 Starfighters that were produced by a group of several European aircraft companies, including Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm, Fiat, Fokker and SABCA.
During the 1970s, the Air Force acquired the Italian Aeritalia G222 and the modern American C-130 Hercules tactical transport planes, capable of carrying cargo or paratroopers. It received the new Lockheed-Aeritalia F-104S Starfighter fighters for ground attack and air-defence purposes. A push to expand the Italian aircraft industry led Italy into the huge trilateral project that developed the Panavia Tornado fighter-bomber and air-defence fighters along with West Germany and the United Kingdom. Tornado fighters were still in service with all three countries, plus a few more, as of 2012. Italian companies worked with the Embraer Company of Brazil in a smaller project to develop and produce the AMX International AMX aircraft. In 1990, after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, Italy joined the coalition forces, for the first time in 45 years Italian pilots and aircraft were assigned to combat operations. Needing to replace the obsolete F-104 Starfighters, Italy joined with Germany and the United Kingdom in the development of the Eurofighter Typhoon, expected to enter the Italian Air Force in 2000.
In 1994, with the Typhoon still some years from introduction to service, 24 Panavia Tornado Air Defense Variant interceptors were leased from the United Kingdom for a period of 10 years. The ADV Tornados served as fighter-interceptors to supplement and to replace the old F-104 Starfighters. However, delays in the production of the Typhoon forced the Italians to seek a supplement, replacement, for the leased Tornado ADVs. With the UK lease due to expire in 2004, the Italian government wished to avoid a costly lease extension and instead opted to lease 34 F-16 Fighting Falcon multi-role fighter planes on multi-year leases from the US; the last of these fighters was returned to the United States in May 2012, following the Italian Air Force's acquisition of a sufficient number of Typhoons over a period of several years. The Typhoons are intended to replace all of Tornado ADV and F-16 aircraft; the last of the Italian F-104s was withdrawn from service in 2004. Armed conflicts in Somalia and the nearby Balkan Peninsula led to the Italian Air Force becoming a participant in multinational air forces, such as that of NATO over the former Yugoslavia, just a few minutes flying time east of the Italian peninsula.
The commanders of the Italian Air Force soon saw the need to improve the Italian air defences. The capability
A business jet, private jet, or bizjet is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces; the Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. A total of 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978 powered by several different engines; the smaller, 17,760 pounds MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines Garrett TFE731s, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982; the 25,000 pounds MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962 as the de Havilland DH.125, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engines were replaced by Garrett TFE731s Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. 1,700 aircraft of all variants, including the Hawker 800, were produced between 1962 and 2013.
The Aero Commander 1121 Jet Commander, which became the IAI Westwind, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets Garrett TFE731s. Production of Jet Commanders and Westwinds from 1965 to 1987 came to 442 aircraft; the 29,000 pounds MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700s Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731s. A total of 508 were built from 1963 to 1988, it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family; the first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963: the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force General Electric CJ610s, its 12,500 pounds MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations; the first member of the Learjet family, 104 were built between 1962 and 1966. The forward wing sweep, 20,280 pounds MOTW Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet first flew on 21 April 1964, powered by two General Electric CJ610s; the joint Piaggo-Douglas, 18,000 pounds MOTW Piaggio PD.808 first flew on 29 August 1964, powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Vipers, 24 were built for the Italian Air Force.
On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family; the 11,850 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 for a total of 689 examples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family; the trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight on 7 November 1976. The 40,000 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force TFE731 engines. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900. On 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off; the 43,000–48,000 pounds MTOW craft powered by two 9,200 pounds-force General Electric CF34s, formed the basis of the long range Bombardier Global Express family and of the Bombardier CRJ regional airliners.
The 1000th Challenger entered service in 2015. On 30 May 1979 the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation III took off for the first time, powered by two 3,650 pounds-force TFE731s; the Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force JT15D; the design was sold and was renamed Beechjet 400 Hawker 400, with a total of 950 produced of all variants. The 1980s only saw the introduction of no major new designs. There was an advent of fractional ownership in the late 1980s for business jets; the first flight of the clean-sheet Learjet 45 was on 7 October 1995. All of the 642 aircraft built since have been powered by two 3,500 pounds-force TFE731 engines. Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force Williams FJ44s, the 12,500 pounds Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on 22 December 1998. Nearly 300 had been made before production stopped in 2013. In the opposite way compared to Bombardier, which developed airliners from a business jet, Embraer derived the Legacy 600 from the Embraer ERJ family of regional jet airliners.
Powered by two 8,800 pounds-force Rolls-Royce AE 3007s, the first flight of the 50,000 pounds aircraft was on 31 March 2001. On 14 August 2001, the Bombardier Challenger 300 made its first flight; the 38,850 pounds aircraft is powered by two 6,825 pounds-force HTF7000s. The 500th example was delivered in 2015; the first light jet, the 5,950 pounds MTOW Eclipse 500, took off for the first time on 26 August 2002, powered by two 900 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s. Between and the end of production in 2008, 260 were produced, it was followed by the 8,645 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation Mustang on 23 April 2005, powered by two 1,460 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s and with more than 450 produced. The Embraer Phenom 100 made its maiden flight on 26 July 2007; the 10,500 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by two 1,600 pounds-force Whitney Canada PW600s. With its Phenom 300 development, nearly 600 have been built; the first flight of the midsize, fly-by-wire, 7,000 lbf Honeywell HTF700
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine, used in aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the turbo portion refers to a gas turbine engine which achieves mechanical energy from combustion, the fan, a ducted fan that uses the mechanical energy from the gas turbine to accelerate air rearwards. Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine. A turbofan thus can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of these contributing to the thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core divided by the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines.
Modern turbofans have either a smaller fan with several stages. An early configuration combined a low-pressure fan in a single rear-mounted unit. Turbofans were invented to circumvent an awkward feature of turbojets, that they were inefficient for subsonic flight. To raise the efficiency of a turbojet, the obvious approach would be to increase the burner temperature, to give better Carnot efficiency and fit larger compressors and nozzles. However, while that does increase thrust somewhat, the exhaust jet leaves the engine with higher velocity, which at subsonic flight speeds, takes most of the extra energy with it, wasting fuel. Instead, a turbofan can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of those contributing to the thrust. Whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine; because the turbine has to additionally drive the fan, the turbine is larger and has larger pressure and temperature drops, so the nozzles are smaller.
This means. The fan has lower exhaust velocity, giving much more thrust per unit energy; the overall effective exhaust velocity of the two exhaust jets can be made closer to a normal subsonic aircraft's flight speed. In effect, a turbofan emits a large amount of air more whereas a turbojet emits a smaller amount of air, a far less efficient way to generate the same thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core compared to the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines; the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine is the ratio between the mass flow rate of the bypass stream to the mass flow rate entering the core.
A 10:1 bypass ratio, for example, means that 10 kg of air passes through the bypass duct for every 1 kg of air passing through the core. Turbofan engines are described in terms of BPR, which together with overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature and fan pressure ratio are important design parameters. In addition bpr is quoted for turboprop and unducted fan installations because their high propulsive efficiency gives them the overall efficiency characteristics of high bypass turbofans; this allows them to be shown together with turbofans on plots which show trends of reducing specific fuel consumption with increasing BPS. BPR can be quoted for lift fan installations where the fan airflow is remote from the engine and doesn't physically touch the engine core. Bypass provides a lower fuel consumption for the same thrust. If all the gas power from a gas turbine is converted to kinetic energy in a propelling nozzle, the aircraft is best suited to high supersonic speeds. If it is all transferred to a separate big mass of air with low kinetic energy, the aircraft is best suited to zero speed.
For speeds in between, the gas power is shared between a separate airstream and the gas turbine's own nozzle flow in a proportion which gives the aircraft performance required. The trade off between mass flow and velocity is seen with propellers and helicopter rotors by comparing disc loading and power loading. For example, the same helicopter weight can be supported by a high power engine and small diameter rotor or, for less fuel, a lower power engine and bigger rotor with lower velocity through the rotor. Bypass refers to transferring gas power from a gas turbine to a bypass stream of air to reduce fuel consumption and jet noise. Alternatively, there may be a requirement for an afterburning engine where the sole requirement for bypass is to provide cooling air; this sets the lower limit for bpr and these engines have been called "leaky" or continuous bleed turbojets and low bpr turbojets. Low bpr has bee
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Gazpromavia is an airline based in Moscow, Russia. It operates passenger and cargo charters in support of the oil and gas industry, it operates regular domestic flights from Moscow and international charter passenger and cargo services. The airline was established in March 1995 and started operations on 16 April 1995, it has 2,736 employees. Gazpromavia owns and operates the following two Class B airports which accommodate aircraft such as the Tu-154, Il-76, An-74 and all types of helicopters.: Gazpromavia base Ostafyevo International Airport, located near Moscow Yamburg airport located in Yamburg, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Gazpromavia offers scheduled flights to the following destinations: ItalyCagliari - Cagliari-Elmas Airport Seasonal Pisa - Galileo Galilei Airport Seasonal RussiaBarnaul - German Titov Barnaul International Airport Belgorod - Belgorod International Airport Beloyarsk - Beloyarsk Airport Makhachkala - Uytash Airport Moscow - Vnukovo Airport hub Nadym - Nadym Airport Novy Urengoy - Novy Urengoy Airport Saint Petersburg - Pulkovo Airport Samara - Kurumoch International Airport Sochi - Sochi International Airport Sovetsky - Sovetsky Airport Tyumen - Roschino International Airport Ulyanovsk - Ulyanovsk Baratayevka Airport Yekaterinburg - Uktus Airport SerbiaBelgrade - Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport UzbekistanNukus - Nukus Airport UTair Aviation Gazpromavia provides the following services: Aerial prospecting and patrolling of works in regions that are difficult to access Aerial delivery of the working shifts Aerial logistical support of construction material, equipment and medical supplies Aerial construction and installation work, Air rescue and Air Ambulance services.
The following Gazpromavia divisions provide these services: Kaluga, Samara, Ukhta, Yugorsk. Aerial Services are provided by Mi-2, Mi-8 and Mi-171A helicopters; as of January 2018, Gazpromavia fleet consists on the following aircraft: As of January 2018, Gazpromavia operates the following fleet of helicopters: SonAir Gazpromavia Gazpromavia Gazpromavia Fleet
Birmingham Airport Birmingham International Airport and before that, Elmdon Airport, is an international airport located 7 nautical miles east-southeast of Birmingham city centre north of Bickenhill in the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull, England. It has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction. Passenger throughput in 2017 was over 12.9 million, making Birmingham the seventh busiest UK airport. The airport offers both domestic flights within the UK and international flights to destinations in Europe, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, North America and the Caribbean. Birmingham Airport is an operating base for Flybe, Jet2.com, Thomas Cook Airlines and TUI Airways. Birmingham Airport is 5.5 NM east-south-east of Birmingham city centre, in the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull. It is bordered by the National Exhibition Centre to the east, Marston Green to the north, Sheldon to the west, the village of Bickenhill to the south, the village of Elmdon to the south west.
It is served by the A45 main road, is near Junction 6 of the M42 motorway. It is connected by the elevated AirRail Link with Birmingham International railway station on the West Coast Main Line; the airport's location south-east of the city, plus the only operational runway being north-west – south-east, means that depending on wind direction, aircraft land or take-off directly over Birmingham. The short north-east – south-west runway is not operational, has been incorporated into the taxiway for aircraft departing the end of runway 33, or gaining access to runway 15. In 1928, the Birmingham City Council decided. Plans were submitted in 1933, identifying Elmdon as the site for the airport, delayed by the Great Depression. On 8 July 1939 the Duchess of Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark opened Elmdon Airport; the airport was operated by Birmingham City Council. Initial services flew to Croydon, Liverpool, Shoreham and Southampton. During World War II the airport was requisitioned by the Air Ministry and was used by the RAF and the Royal Navy as RAF Elmdon, an Elementary Flying School and a base for the Fleet Air Arm.
During this time, the original grass strip was replaced by two hard runways: 06/24 at 2,469 feet and 15/33 at 4,170 feet. Avro Lancaster and Stirling bombers manufactured at the Austin Aero Company's shadow factory at Cofton Hackett could not take off from the short runways at Longbridge. Instead they were transported minus the wings that would be attached at Elmdon, they were test flown from the aerodrome, once declared airworthy they were flown to their operational units. On 8 July 1948, the aerodrome returned to civilian use, though still under government control. During the post-war years, public events, such as air fairs and air races were held on the site. In 1961, an additional terminal building to handle international traffic was opened, called The International Building; the main runway was extended to 7,400 feet to allow jet operations, including introducing VC-10 services to New York in 1967. 1984 saw the opening of the Maglev rail link train between the airport terminal and nearby railway station.
The Maglev rail link was shut down in 1995 following a string of breakdowns. The Government limited public sector borrowing applied in 1993; this meant. 51% of the local council shares were sold to restructure the airport into a private sector company, enabling a £260 million restructuring programme to begin in 1997. On 20 October 2003, Concorde made its final visit to Birmingham Airport as part of its farewell tour. In June 2006, a new turnoff from the main runway was completed and saw an improvement in traffic rates on southerly operations; the airport published a master plan for its development up to 2030 in November 2007, called "Towards 2030: Planning a Sustainable Future for Air Transport in the Midlands". This set out details of changes to airfield layout and off-site infrastructure; as with all large scale plans, the proposals were controversial, with opposition from environmentalists and local residents. In particular, the requirement for a second parallel runway based on projected demand was disputed by opponents.
Plans for a second runway on the other side of the M42 and a new terminal complex and business park have been published, they could help to create around 250,000 jobs. It has been estimated that if these plans went ahead, the airport could handle around 70,000,000 passengers annually, around 500,000 aircraft movements. In January 2008, the shorter runway was decommissioned, it had been used less due to its short length, noise impact, its inconvenient position crossing the main runway, making it uneconomic to continue operation. The closure allowed for apron expansion on both sides of the main runway; however runway 06/24 remains open as a helicopter airstrip. In the same month, plans for the extension of the airport runway and the construction of a new air traffic control tower were submitted to Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council. In June 2008, work began on building the new three-storey International Pier, it was opened on 9 September 2009. As part of the airport's 70th anniversary, the airport welcomed the Airbus A380 as the first user of the pier.
The special service was the first commercial A380 flight in the UK outside London Heathrow Airport. Th