1.
Decimal prefix
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A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well. Each prefix has a symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand, the prefix milli-, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand, one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the system with six dating back to the systems introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units, the SI prefixes are standardized for use in the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991. Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities, the BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units. Each prefix name has a symbol which is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k, and is used to produce km, kg, and kW, which are the SI symbols for kilometre, kilogram, prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence 100 m is preferred over 1 hm or 10 dam, the prefixes hecto, deca, deci, and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre is especially common. However, some building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points. Prefixes may not be used in combination and this also applies to mass, for which the SI base unit already contains a prefix. For example, milligram is used instead of microkilogram, in the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier,1 km2 means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres. 2 Mm3 means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×1018 m3, and not 2000000 cubic metres, examples 5 cm = 5×10−2 m =5 ×0.01 m =0. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, metric prefixes may also be used with non-metric units. The choice of prefixes with a unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used
2.
International System of Units
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The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, however, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length, mass, and time. In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are, litre and grave for the units of length, area, capacity. The committee also proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms. The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version
3.
1,000,000
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One million or one thousand thousand is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. The word is derived from the early Italian millione, from mille, thousand and it is commonly abbreviated as m or M, further MM, mm, or mn in financial contexts. In scientific notation, it is written as 1×106 or 106, physical quantities can also be expressed using the SI prefix mega, when dealing with SI units, for example,1 megawatt equals 1,000,000 watts. The meaning of the word million is common to the scale and long scale numbering systems, unlike the larger numbers. Information, Not counting spaces, the text printed on 136 pages of an Encyclopædia Britannica, length, There are one million millimeters in a kilometer, and roughly a million sixteenths of an inch in a mile. A typical car tire might rotate a million times in a 1, 200-mile trip, fingers, If the width of a human finger is 2.2 cm, then a million fingers lined up would cover a distance of 22 km. If a person walks at a speed of 4 km/h, it would take approximately five. A city lot 70 by 100 feet is about a million square inches, volume, The cube root of one million is only one hundred, so a million objects or cubic units is contained in a cube only a hundred objects or linear units on a side. A million grains of salt or granulated sugar occupies only about 64 ml. One million cubic inches would be the volume of a room only 8 1⁄3 feet long by 8 1⁄3 feet wide by 8 1⁄3 feet high. Mass, A million cubic millimeters of water would have a volume of one litre, a million millilitres or cubic centimetres of water has a mass of a million grams or one tonne. Weight, A million 80-milligram honey bees would weigh the same as an 80 kg person, landscape, A pyramidal hill 600 feet wide at the base and 100 feet high would weigh about a million tons. Computer, A display resolution of 1,280 by 800 pixels contains 1,024,000 pixels, money, A USD bill of any denomination weighs 1 gram. There are 454 grams in a pound, one million $1 bills would weigh 2,204.62 pounds, or just over 1 ton. Time, A million seconds is 11.57 days, in Indian English and Pakistani English, it is also expressed as 10 lakh or 10 Lac. Lakh is derived from laksh for 100,000 in Sanskrit
4.
1,000,000,000
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1,000,000,000 is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn, in scientific notation, it is written as 1 ×109. The SI prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit, one billion years may be called eon in astronomy and geology. Previously in British English, the word billion referred exclusively to a million millions, however, this is no longer as common as earlier, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million for some time. The alternative term one thousand million is used in the U. K. or countries such as Spain that uses one thousand million as one million million constitutes a billion. The worded figure, as opposed to the figure is used to differentiate between one thousand million or one billion. The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000, whereas milliard is seldom used in English, in the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 Arab. 1000000007 – smallest prime number with 10 digits,1023456789 – smallest pandigital number in base 10. 1026753849 – smallest pandigital square that includes 0,1073741824 –2301073807359 – 14th Kynea number. 1162261467 –3191220703125 –513 1232922769- 35113^2 Centered hexagonal number,1234567890 – pandigital number with the digits in order. 1882341361 – The least prime whose reversal is both square and triangular,1977326743 –7112147483647 – 8th Mersenne prime and the largest signed 32-bit integer. 2147483648 –2312176782336 –6122214502422 – 6th primary pseudoperfect number,2357947691 –1192971215073 – 11th Fibonacci prime. 3405691582 – hexadecimal CAFEBABE, used as a placeholder in programming,3405697037 – hexadecimal CAFED00D, used as a placeholder in programming. 3735928559 – hexadecimal DEADBEEF, used as a placeholder in programming,3486784401 –3204294836223 – 16th Carol number. 4294967291 – Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer,4294967295 – Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer, perfect totient number, product of the five prime Fermat numbers. 4294967296 –2324294967297 – the first composite Fermat number,6103515625 –5146210001000 – only self-descriptive number in base 10. 6975757441 –1786983776800 – 15th colossally abundant number, 15th superior highly composite number 7645370045 – 27th Pell number,8589934592 –2339043402501 – 25th Motzkin number. 9814072356 – largest square pandigital number, largest pandigital pure power,9876543210 – largest number without redundant digits
5.
Orders of magnitude (numbers)
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This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Mathematics – Writing, Approximately 10−183,800 is a rough first estimate of the probability that a monkey, however, taking punctuation, capitalization, and spacing into account, the actual probability is far lower, around 10−360,783. Computing, The number 1×10−6176 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 6. 5×10−4966 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 3. 6×10−4951 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a 80-bit x86 double-extended IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−398 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 4. 9×10−324 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−101 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Mathematics, The probability in a game of bridge of all four players getting a complete suit is approximately 4. 47×10−28. ISO, yocto- ISO, zepto- Mathematics, The probability of matching 20 numbers for 20 in a game of keno is approximately 2.83 × 10−19. ISO, atto- Mathematics, The probability of rolling snake eyes 10 times in a row on a pair of dice is about 2. 74×10−16. ISO, micro- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 72,192 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10−4. ISO, milli- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10−3. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10−3. Physics, α =0.007297352570, the fine-structure constant, ISO, deci- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against, for a probability of 0.42. Demography, The population of Monowi, a village in Nebraska. Mathematics, √2 ≈1.414213562373095489, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to its side length. Mathematics, φ ≈1.618033988749895848, the golden ratio Mathematics, the number system understood by most computers, human scale, There are 10 digits on a pair of human hands, and 10 toes on a pair of human feet. Mathematics, The number system used in life, the decimal system, has 10 digits,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
6.
Binary prefix
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A binary prefix is a unit prefix for multiples of units in data processing, data transmission, and digital information, notably the bit and the byte, to indicate multiplication by a power of 2. The computer industry has used the units kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte, and the corresponding symbols KB, MB. In citations of main memory capacity, gigabyte customarily means 1073741824 bytes, as this is the third power of 1024, and 1024 is a power of two, this usage is referred to as a binary measurement. In most other contexts, the uses the multipliers kilo, mega, giga, etc. in a manner consistent with their meaning in the International System of Units. For example, a 500 gigabyte hard disk holds 500000000000 bytes, in contrast with the binary prefix usage, this use is described as a decimal prefix, as 1000 is a power of 10. The use of the same unit prefixes with two different meanings has caused confusion, in 2008, the IEC prefixes were incorporated into the ISO/IEC80000 standard. Early computers used one of two addressing methods to access the memory, binary or decimal. For example, the IBM701 used binary and could address 2048 words of 36 bits each, while the IBM702 used decimal, by the mid-1960s, binary addressing had become the standard architecture in most computer designs, and main memory sizes were most commonly powers of two. Early computer system documentation would specify the size with an exact number such as 4096,8192. These are all powers of two, and furthermore are small multiples of 210, or 1024, as storage capacities increased, several different methods were developed to abbreviate these quantities. The method most commonly used today uses prefixes such as kilo, mega, giga, and corresponding symbols K, M, and G, the prefixes kilo- and mega-, meaning 1000 and 1000000 respectively, were commonly used in the electronics industry before World War II. Along with giga- or G-, meaning 1000000000, they are now known as SI prefixes after the International System of Units, introduced in 1960 to formalize aspects of the metric system. The International System of Units does not define units for digital information and this usage is not consistent with the SI. Compliance with the SI requires that the prefixes take their 1000-based meaning, the use of K in the binary sense as in a 32K core meaning 32 ×1024 words, i. e.32768 words, can be found as early as 1959. Gene Amdahls seminal 1964 article on IBM System/360 used 1K to mean 1024 and this style was used by other computer vendors, the CDC7600 System Description made extensive use of K as 1024. Thus the first binary prefix was born, the exact values 32768 words,65536 words and 131072 words would then be described as 32K, 65K and 131K. This style was used from about 1965 to 1975 and these two styles were used loosely around the same time, sometimes by the same company. In discussions of binary-addressed memories, the size was evident from context
7.
Power of two
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In mathematics, a power of two means a number of the form 2n where n is an integer, i. e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer n as the exponent. In a context where only integers are considered, n is restricted to values, so we have 1,2. Because two is the base of the numeral system, powers of two are common in computer science. Written in binary, a power of two always has the form 100…000 or 0. 00…001, just like a power of ten in the decimal system, a word, interpreted as an unsigned integer, can represent values from 0 to 2n −1 inclusively. Corresponding signed integer values can be positive, negative and zero, either way, one less than a power of two is often the upper bound of an integer in binary computers. As a consequence, numbers of this show up frequently in computer software. For example, in the original Legend of Zelda the main character was limited to carrying 255 rupees at any time. Powers of two are used to measure computer memory. A byte is now considered eight bits (an octet, resulting in the possibility of 256 values, the prefix kilo, in conjunction with byte, may be, and has traditionally been, used, to mean 1,024. However, in general, the term kilo has been used in the International System of Units to mean 1,000, binary prefixes have been standardized, such as kibi meaning 1,024. Nearly all processor registers have sizes that are powers of two,32 or 64 being most common, powers of two occur in a range of other places as well. For many disk drives, at least one of the size, number of sectors per track. The logical block size is almost always a power of two. Numbers that are not powers of two occur in a number of situations, such as video resolutions, but they are often the sum or product of two or three powers of two, or powers of two minus one. For example,640 =512 +128 =128 ×5, put another way, they have fairly regular bit patterns. A prime number that is one less than a power of two is called a Mersenne prime, for example, the prime number 31 is a Mersenne prime because it is 1 less than 32. Similarly, a number that is one more than a positive power of two is called a Fermat prime—the exponent itself is a power of two. A fraction that has a power of two as its denominator is called a dyadic rational, the numbers that can be represented as sums of consecutive positive integers are called polite numbers, they are exactly the numbers that are not powers of two
8.
Telecommunication
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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology and it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is used in its plural form, telecommunications. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth, the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, and the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, in the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could pass a single bit of information. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, in 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris. However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres, as a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. Homing pigeons have occasionally used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post is thought to have Persians roots and was used by the Romans to aid their military, frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul. The Greeks also conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons, in the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke invented the telegraph in 1837. Also, the first commercial electrical telegraph is purported to have constructed by Wheatstone and Cooke. Both inventors viewed their device as an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph not as a new device, samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837
9.
Byte
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The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of used to encode a single character of text in a computer. The size of the byte has historically been hardware dependent and no standards existed that mandated the size. The de-facto standard of eight bits is a convenient power of two permitting the values 0 through 255 for one byte, the international standard IEC 80000-13 codified this common meaning. Many types of applications use information representable in eight or fewer bits, the popularity of major commercial computing architectures has aided in the ubiquitous acceptance of the 8-bit size. The unit symbol for the byte was designated as the upper-case letter B by the IEC and IEEE in contrast to the bit, internationally, the unit octet, symbol o, explicitly denotes a sequence of eight bits, eliminating the ambiguity of the byte. It is a respelling of bite to avoid accidental mutation to bit. Early computers used a variety of four-bit binary coded decimal representations and these representations included alphanumeric characters and special graphical symbols. S. Government and universities during the 1960s, the prominence of the System/360 led to the ubiquitous adoption of the eight-bit storage size, while in detail the EBCDIC and ASCII encoding schemes are different. In the early 1960s, AT&T introduced digital telephony first on long-distance trunk lines and these used the eight-bit µ-law encoding. This large investment promised to reduce costs for eight-bit data. The development of microprocessors in the 1970s popularized this storage size. A four-bit quantity is called a nibble, also nybble. The term octet is used to specify a size of eight bits. It is used extensively in protocol definitions, historically, the term octad or octade was used to denote eight bits as well at least in Western Europe, however, this usage is no longer common. The exact origin of the term is unclear, but it can be found in British, Dutch, and German sources of the 1960s and 1970s, and throughout the documentation of Philips mainframe computers. The unit symbol for the byte is specified in IEC 80000-13, IEEE1541, in the International System of Quantities, B is the symbol of the bel, a unit of logarithmic power ratios named after Alexander Graham Bell, creating a conflict with the IEC specification. However, little danger of confusion exists, because the bel is a used unit
10.
International System of Quantities
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The International System of Quantities is a system based on seven base quantities, length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity. Other quantities such as area, pressure, and electrical resistance are derived from these base quantities by clear, the ISQ defines the quantities that are measured with the SI units and also includes many other quantities in modern science and technology. The ISQ is defined in the international standard ISO/IEC80000, and was finalised in 2009 with the publication of ISO 80000-1. The 14 parts of ISO/IEC80000 define quantities used in disciplines such as mechanics, light, acoustics, electromagnetism, information technology, chemistry, mathematics. A base quantity is a quantity in a subset of a given system of quantities that is chosen by convention. The ISQ defines seven base quantities, the symbols for them, as for other quantities, are written in italics. The dimension of a quantity does not include magnitude or units. The conventional symbolic representation of the dimension of a quantity is a single upper-case letter in roman sans-serif type. A derived quantity is a quantity in a system of quantities that is a defined in terms of the quantities of that system. The ISQ defines many derived quantities, the conventional symbolic representation of the dimension of a derived quantity is the product of powers of the dimensions of the base quantities according to the definition of the derived quantity. The dimension of a quantity is denoted by L a M b T c I d Θ e N f J g, the symbol may be omitted if its exponent is zero. For example, in the ISQ, the quantity dimension of velocity is denoted L T −1, the following table lists some quantities defined by the ISQ. A quantity of one is historically known as a dimensionless quantity, all its dimensional exponents are zero. Such a quantity can be regarded as a quantity in the form of the ratio of two quantities of the same dimension. In the ISQ, the level of a quantity Q is defined as logr, an example of level is sound pressure level. All levels of the ISQ are derived quantities, B. N. Taylor, Ambler Thompson, International System of Units, National Institute of Standards and Technology 2008 edition, ISBN 1-4379-1558-2
11.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
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The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, today, it is the worlds largest association of technical professionals with more than 400,000 members in chapters around the world. Its objectives are the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering, IEEE stands for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The association is chartered under this full legal name, IEEEs membership has long been composed of engineers and scientists. For this reason the organization no longer goes by the name, except on legal business documents. The IEEE is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence and it has about 430,000 members in about 160 countries, slightly less than half of whom reside in the United States. The major interests of the AIEE were wire communications and light, the IRE concerned mostly radio engineering, and was formed from two smaller organizations, the Society of Wireless and Telegraph Engineers and the Wireless Institute. After World War II, the two became increasingly competitive, and in 1961, the leadership of both the IRE and the AIEE resolved to consolidate the two organizations. The two organizations merged as the IEEE on January 1,1963. The IEEE is incorporated under the Not-for-Profit Corporation Law of the state of New York and it was formed in 1963 by the merger of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The IEEE serves as a publisher of scientific journals and organizer of conferences, workshops. IEEE develops and participates in activities such as accreditation of electrical engineering programs in institutes of higher learning. The IEEE logo is a design which illustrates the right hand grip rule embedded in Benjamin Franklins kite. IEEE has a dual complementary regional and technical structure – with organizational units based on geography and it manages a separate organizational unit which recommends policies and implements programs specifically intended to benefit the members, the profession and the public in the United States. The IEEE includes 39 technical Societies, organized around specialized technical fields, the IEEE Standards Association is in charge of the standardization activities of the IEEE. The IEEE History Center became an organization to the Engineering. The new ETHW is an effort by various engineering societies as a formal repository of topic articles, oral histories, first-hand histories, Landmarks + Milestones. The IEEE History Center is annexed to Stevens University Hoboken, NJ, in 2016, the IEEE acquired GlobalSpec, adding the provision of engineering data for a profit to its organizational portfolio
12.
International Electrotechnical Commission
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The IEC also manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards. The first International Electrical Congress took place in 1881 at the International Exposition of Electricity, at that time the International System of Electrical and Magnetic Units was agreed to. The IEC was instrumental in developing and distributing standards for units of measurement, particularly Gauss, Hertz and it also first proposed a system of standards, the Giorgi System, which ultimately became the SI, or Système International d’unités. In 1938, it published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical, electronic and this effort continues, and the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries. The CISPR – in English, the International Special Committee on Radio Interference – is one of the groups founded by the IEC, originally located in London, the commission moved to its current headquarters in Geneva in 1948. It has regional centres in Asia-Pacific, Latin America and North America, today, the IEC is the worlds leading international organization in its field, and its standards are adopted as national standards by its members. The work is done by some 10,000 electrical and electronics experts from industry, government, academia, test labs, IEC standards have numbers in the range 60000–79999 and their titles take a form such as IEC60417, Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Following the Dresden Agreement with CENELEC the numbers of older IEC standards were converted in 1997 by adding 60000, for example IEC27 became IEC60027. Standards of the 60000 series are also preceded by EN to indicate that the IEC standard is also adopted by CENELEC as a European standard. The IEC cooperates closely with the International Organization for Standardization and the International Telecommunication Union, Standards developed jointly with ISO such as ISO/IEC26300, ISO/IEC27001, and CASCO ISO/IEC17000 series, carry the acronym of both organizations. The use of the ISO/IEC prefix covers publications from ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 - Information Technology, as well as conformity assessment standards developed by ISO CASCO, other standards developed in cooperation between IEC and ISO are assigned numbers in the 80000 series, such as IEC 82045-1. IEC standards are also being adopted by other certifying bodies such as BSI, CSA, UL & ANSI/INCITS, SABS, SAI, SPC/GB, IEC standards adopted by other certifying bodies may have some noted differences from the original IEC standard. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, national committees are constituted in different ways. Some NCs are public sector only, some are a combination of public and private sector, about 90% of those who prepare IEC standards work in industry
13.
Megabyte
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The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB, but sometimes MByte is used, the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information and this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to one megabyte as 1048576bytes. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 bytes. The megabyte is commonly used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes, the interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name. As 1024 approximates 1000, roughly corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, in 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to strictly denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes. By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO, the Mac OS X10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported in decimal units, base 21 MB =1048576 bytes is the definition used by Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory, such as RAM. This definition is synonymous with the binary prefix mebibyte. Mixed 1 MB =1024000 bytes is the used to describe the formatted capacity of the 1.44 MB3. 5inch HD floppy disk. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, and the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not usually double the size, sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing. It was an extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal. Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can roughly be, a 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. Approximately 1 minute of 128 kbit/s MP3 compressed music,6 seconds of uncompressed CD audio. A typical English book volume in plain text format, the human genome consists of DNA representing 800 MB of data
14.
Gigabyte
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The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix giga means 109 in the International System of Units, the unit symbol for the gigabyte is GB. However, the term is used in some fields of computer science and information technology to denote 1073741824 bytes. The use of gigabyte may thus be ambiguous, to address this ambiguity, the International System of Quantities standardizes the binary prefixes which denote a series of integer powers of 1024. With these prefixes, a module that is labeled as having the size 1GB has one gibibyte of storage capacity. The term gigabyte is commonly used to mean either 10003 bytes or 10243 bytes, the latter binary usage originated as compromise technical jargon for byte multiples that needed to be expressed in a power of 2, but lacked a convenient name. As 1024 is approximately 1000, roughly corresponding to SI multiples, in 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission published standards for binary prefixes, requiring that the gigabyte strictly denote 10003 bytes and gibibyte denote 10243 bytes. By the end of 2007, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, and NIST and this is the recommended definition by the International Electrotechnical Commission. The file manager of Mac OS X version 10.6 and later versions are an example of this usage in software. The binary definition uses powers of the base 2, as is the principle of binary computers. This usage is widely promulgated by some operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory and this definition is synonymous with the unambiguous unit gibibyte. Since the first disk drive, the IBM350, disk drive manufacturers expressed hard drive capacities using decimal prefixes, with the advent of gigabyte-range drive capacities, manufacturers based most consumer hard drive capacities in certain size classes expressed in decimal gigabytes, such as 500 GB. The exact capacity of a given model is usually slightly larger than the class designation. Practically all manufacturers of disk drives and flash-memory disk devices continue to define one gigabyte as 1000000000bytes. Some operating systems such as OS X express hard drive capacity or file size using decimal multipliers and this discrepancy causes confusion, as a disk with an advertised capacity of, for example,400 GB might be reported by the operating system as 372 GB, meaning 372 GiB. The JEDEC memory standards use IEEE100 nomenclature which quote the gigabyte as 1073741824bytes and this means that a 300 GB hard disk might be indicated variously as 300 GB,279 GB or 279 GiB, depending on the operating system. As storage sizes increase and larger units are used, these differences even more pronounced. Some legal challenges have been waged over this confusion such as a lawsuit against drive manufacturer Western Digital, Western Digital settled the challenge and added explicit disclaimers to products that the usable capacity may differ from the advertised capacity