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Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning and database systems. Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and statistics with an overall goal to extract information from a data set and transform the information into a comprehensible structure for further use. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process or KDD. Aside from the raw analysis step, it involves database and data management aspects, data pre-processing and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures and online updating; the term "data mining" is a misnomer, because the goal is the extraction of patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data, not the extraction of data itself. It is a buzzword and is applied to any form of large-scale data or information processing as well as any application of computer decision support system, including artificial intelligence and business intelligence.

The book Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques with Java was to be named just Practical machine learning, the term data mining was only added for marketing reasons. The more general terms data analysis and analytics – or, when referring to actual methods, artificial intelligence and machine learning – are more appropriate; the actual data mining task is the semi-automatic or automatic analysis of large quantities of data to extract unknown, interesting patterns such as groups of data records, unusual records, dependencies. This involves using database techniques such as spatial indices; these patterns can be seen as a kind of summary of the input data, may be used in further analysis or, for example, in machine learning and predictive analytics. For example, the data mining step might identify multiple groups in the data, which can be used to obtain more accurate prediction results by a decision support system. Neither the data collection, data preparation, nor result interpretation and reporting is part of the data mining step, but do belong to the overall KDD process as additional steps.

The difference between data analysis and data mining is that data analysis is used to test models and hypotheses on the dataset, e.g. analyzing the effectiveness of a marketing campaign, regardless of the amount of data. The related terms data dredging, data fishing, data snooping refer to the use of data mining methods to sample parts of a larger population data set that are too small for reliable statistical inferences to be made about the validity of any patterns discovered; these methods can, however, be used in creating new hypotheses to test against the larger data populations. In the 1960s, statisticians and economists used terms like data fishing or data dredging to refer to what they considered the bad practice of analyzing data without an a-priori hypothesis; the term "data mining" was used in a critical way by economist Michael Lovell in an article published in the Review of Economic Studies in 1983. Lovell indicates that the practice "masquerades under a variety of aliases, ranging from "experimentation" to "fishing" or "snooping".

The term data mining appeared around 1990 in the database community with positive connotations. For a short time in 1980s, a phrase "database mining"™, was used, but since it was trademarked by HNC, a San Diego-based company, to pitch their Database Mining Workstation. Other terms used include data archaeology, information harvesting, information discovery, knowledge extraction, etc. Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro coined the term "knowledge discovery in databases" for the first workshop on the same topic and this term became more popular in AI and machine learning community. However, the term data mining became more popular in the press communities; the terms data mining and knowledge discovery are used interchangeably. In the academic community, the major forums for research started in 1995 when the First International Conference on Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery was started in Montreal under AAAI sponsorship, it was co-chaired by Ramasamy Uthurusamy. A year in 1996, Usama Fayyad launched the journal by Kluwer called Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery as its founding editor-in-chief.

He started the SIGKDD Newsletter SIGKDD Explorations. The KDD International conference became the primary highest quality conference in data mining with an acceptance rate of research paper submissions below 18%; the journal Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery is the primary research journal of the field. The manual extraction of patterns from data has occurred for centuries. Early methods of identifying patterns in data include Bayes' regression analysis; the proliferation and increasing power of computer technology have increased data collection and manipulation ability. As data sets have grown in size and complexity, direct "hands-on" data analysis has been augmented with indirect, automated data processing, aided by other discoveries in computer science, specially in the field of machine learning, such as neural network


"Aquiel" is the 139th episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the 13th episode of the sixth season. Set in the 24th century, the series follows the adventures of the Starfleet crew of the Federation starship Enterprise-D. In this episode, the crew of the Enterprise investigates a mysterious death on a remote station, Commander La Forge falls for the main suspect; this episode was written by Jeri Taylor, Brannon Braga, Ronald D. Moore, it was directed by Cliff Bole, aired on television on February 1, 1993. The Federation starship Enterprise arrives at a subspace communications relay station near the Klingon border on a resupply mission. However, when an away team boards the relay there is no sign of the two officers assigned there. Lieutenant Aquiel Uhnari, Lieutenant Rocha and the station's shuttlecraft are missing. While searching the station, the away team finds the dog; the away team finds a substance on the floor, which Enterprse Chief Medical Officer Dr. Crusher determines is a type of cellular residue.

The crew uncover evidence that a Klingon had been on the station leading Crusher and First Officer Riker to suspect that Uhnari and Rocha may have been the victims of a Klingon attack. Commander La Forge backs up this theory, he finds an entry in which Aquiel relays her fears to her sister Shianna about a Klingon named Morag. Captain Picard contacts the local Klingon governor and learns that Morag is commander of one of the Klingon ships that patrols that section of the Klingon Empire's border. At this point, Torak refuses to cooperate further. Picard threatens to take his case to Chancellor Gowron, a threat scoffed at by Torak until Picard casually mentions that he served as Gowron's Arbiter of Succession. Knowing Gowron would be in Picard's debt and how the former might frown upon the disrespect shown to the latter, a nervous Torak agrees to cooperate fully; the senior staff meets with Torak, he produces Aquiel alive. She explains that her last memory was escaping from him, she doesn't remember what happened.

To help clarify what occurred, Picard requests to speak with Commander Morag, the Klingon, harassing the station. Attracted to her, La Forge befriends Aquiel, takes her to the Ten-Forward lounge, he reveals to her that he surveyed her logs and personal correspondence as part of their investigation. Aquiel says she did not wish to hurt him, she realizes. Meanwhile, Dr. Crusher continues to examine the cellular residue found on the deckplate. Riker and Lt. Worf, who are examining the shuttlecraft, come across a phaser set to kill. La Forge gives moral support to Aquiel. Commander Morag arrives aboard the Enterprise and meets with the senior staff, he admits that he was present on the station, that he took priority Starfleet messages from its computer. La Forge discovers that Rocha's personal log has been tampered with, he confronts Aquiel who admits deleting messages from Rocha's log, because Rocha, as the senior officer, was going to declare her insubordinate and belligerent to Starfleet. Scared that this new evidence will condemn her as Rocha's killer, she agrees to stay aboard the Enterprise because La Forge has faith in her.

He and Aquiel share their thoughts. While Dr. Crusher examines the DNA found on the deck plate yet again, the material moves and touches her hand, it withdraws and forms a perfect replica of her hand. Due to this, she suspects that the real Rocha may have been killed by this strange coalescent organism, a replica of him may have attacked Aquiel in search of a new body. Believing that the organism now has Aquiel's body and Worf race to Aquiel's quarters and stop the ritual she is conducting with La Forge, believing she was about to attack him. Morag is arrested, as it is just as he is the organism. With Aquiel and Morag in the brig the Enterprise proceeds to the nearest starbase as the crew keep a close watch on them both - the organism may need a new body soon. La Forge is in his quarters along with Aquiel's dog reminiscing about her; the dog transforms and attacks him. He explains to Aquiel, released, that Rocha was replaced by the organism; when it attacked her, it began the takeover process. The creature turned to the only other life form on the station, her dog.

The episode ends with Aquiel and La Forge in Ten-Forward, where she turns down his offer to help her join the Enterprise crew. She tells him she wants to earn her way there on her own merits. In a ranking of every Star Trek: The Next Generation episode, "Aquiel" was ranked 155th by Medium in 2016. In 2019, ScreenRant ranked it the ninth worst episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation based on IMDB ratings, 6.1 out of 10 at that time. They described Geordi as a sexual predator; the episode was released as part of the Star Trek: The Next Generation season six DVD box set in the United States on December 3, 2002. A remastered HD version was released on Blu-ray optical disc, on June 24, 2014. Star Trek The Next Generation DVD set, volume 6, disc 4, selection 1. "Aquiel" on IMDb "Aquiel" at "Aquiel" at Memory Alpha "Aquiel" at

Penny Ice Cap

The Penny Ice Cap is a 6,000 km2 ice cap in Auyuittuq National Park of Baffin Island, Canada. It forms a 2,000 m high barrier on the Cumberland Peninsula, an area of deep fiords and glaciated valleys, it is a remnant of the last ice age. During the mid-1990s, Canadian researchers studied the glacier's patterns of freezing and thawing over centuries by drilling ice core samples; the ice cap has been thinning and its valley glaciers have been retreating in recent decades related to rising summer and winter air temperatures across the eastern Arctic. The ice cap is named after Captain William Penny, a whaling captain from Aberdeen in Scotland who pioneered over-wintering with native Inuit at Cumberland Sound in order to be able to start whaling much earlier in the season, he was engaged by Lady Franklin to search for her husband John, lost with all souls in the search for the North West Passage. List of glaciers

Test match (rugby union)

A test match in rugby union is an international match played between two senior national teams, recognised as such by at least one of the teams' national governing bodies. Some teams do not represent a single country but their international games are still considered test matches; some countries award caps for games between their full national teams and some invitation teams such as the Barbarians. The first men's international game of rugby football – between Scotland and England – was played at Raeburn Place, the home ground of Edinburgh Academicals, on 27 March 1871; the first recorded use of the word in relation to sport occurs in 1861 when it was used by journalists, to designate the most important games played as part of a cricket tour by an unofficial English team to Australia and it is thought to arise from the idea that the matches were a "test of strength and competency" between the sides involved. When official and representative Australian and English cricket and rugby teams began touring each other's countries a decade or so the term began to be applied by journalists to the international fixtures on each tour, though this was not widespread until well into the 1880s.

Unlike in cricket, where the ICC controls the application of "Test match" status, World Rugby's regulations do not define a "test match". They define an "international match" as "a Match played between National Representative Teams selected by Unions". In rugby union, test match status and caps may be awarded by either team's governing body regardless of the decision of their opponents. Although both teams' governing bodies do not need to recognise the match as a test match for caps to be awarded, it is rare that they should disagree; the only existing example remaining in men's rugby involving two top-tier nations concerns games played by the New South Wales Waratahs against the New Zealand All Blacks in the 1920s. As there was little rugby union played in Australia outside of New South Wales, the Australian Rugby Union retroactively awarded caps to the players from the 1920s Waratahs that played against the All Blacks, however the New Zealand Rugby Union has not done the same for All Blacks that played in those matches.

Differences in recognition now always involve matches between the senior national team of a nation outside the traditional top tier and an official developmental side of a top-tier nation. Depending on the policy of the lower-tier union, these matches may or may not be capped for that national team. For example, before a change in policy by USA Rugby after the 2008 Churchill Cup, it awarded full national caps when the its senior national team played developmental sides, such as England Saxons, Ireland Wolfhounds, Scotland A, Argentina A and the Junior All Blacks. However, in women's rugby matters are less clear; the first women's "test" took place in 1982 between the Netherlands and France, but the sport was not accepted or recognised by many existing national Unions or the International Rugby Board for many years, nor had it attracted significant media interest. Some unions do not recognise any tests played before they became responsible for the women's game – for example the French Union does not list any games before 1989, the IRB did not recognise the first two women's World Cups.

History of rugby union: First international game List of rugby union terms Women's international rugby union

1982 McDonald's All-American Boys Game

The 1982 McDonald's All-American Boys Game was an All-star basketball game played on Saturday, April 10, 1982 at the Rosemont Horizon in Rosemont, Illinois. The game's rosters featured the best and most recruited high school boys graduating in 1982; the game was the 5th annual version of the McDonald's All-American Game first played in 1978. The game was not televised; the East team could count on several guards and forwards, including recruited Billy Thompson, considered one of the top players of the class. The West team had local favorites Efrem Winters and Bruce Douglas, both committed to Illinois, had 5 guards and 6 centers on their roster: the only forward was Kerry Trotter; the West won 103–84 and Winters had a solid performance both on offense and on defense, scored 19 points on 9/15 shooting, earning the MVP award. Dell Curry led the East with 20 points, while Thompson added 15; the game attendance of 15,836 set a all-time record not only for the McDonald's game, but for high school basketball in the state of Illinois.

Of the 25 players, 13 went on to play at least 1 game in the NBA. The East team was coached by: Head Coach Joe Gallagher of St. John's College High School The West team was coached by: Head Coach Ed Pepple of Mercer Island High School McDonald's All-American on the web McDonald's All-American all-time rosters McDonald's All-American rosters at Game stats at

Fintage House

Fintage House is an independent company that deals with film, TV and up until the end of 2016, music rights. It is co-chaired by Robbert Aarts and Niels Teves. Fintage is based in Leiden, the Netherlands and provides its services through an affiliated office in Budapest, Hungary as well as representatives in the United States, Australia, Japan and Spain. In 2008 the company had 70 employees worldwide with 50 of these based in Europe; the company's expertise lie in revenue collection and reporting for rights owners through the protection of money streams as well as finding new revenue streams. Fintage House were the first to account; the company dealt in Film & TV but have since focused on the music business until the sale of the division to Kobalt. Fintage House still operates in the Film, TV realm with services such as Collection Account Management and Audiovisual Producer Rights. Fintage House's music clients included Britney Spears, the Elvis Presley estate, Anna Netrebko, Jason Mraz, The Black Eyed Peas and Foo Fighters.

Fintage Film & Television represents production and sales companies. In 2002 Fintage House announced that Maarten P Melchior was to head the Film and Television division. Fintage serve over 1000 film and TV companies including: Terminator 3, The Hurt Locker, District 9, Paranormal Activity, Terminator Salvation, Single Man, Broken Embraces, The Messenger, Nine, An Education, Young Victoria, Inc; the Last Station. The company linked with Mediapeers in 2010, offering an online platform for sellers and buyers of content e.g. films & TV series. Fintage House made an investment in UK-based Rights Agency Limited in June 2012. CASHét Card LLC was launched in July 2012 with Film Finances, Inc.. The card is designed for TV productions to provide companies with cash back when used; the card was first used in the film Better Living Through Chemistry. Every year to coincide with the world-famous Cannes Film Festival, Fintage House and Akin Gump organise the Jorge Gallegos Memorial Trophy, Annual Boules Tournament.

This prestigious event combines the sport of pétanque with a relaxed and informal cocktail party and is attended by the who’s who of the film and television world. This year’s tournament took place on 20 May on the Promenade de la Croisette, France. All proceeds from the Boules event directly benefit humanitarian organisation, FilmAid international. In 2013 Fintage House signed a deal with IIP, the creators of FUGA, to create a new online platform for rights-holders. Together Fintage and IIP plan to create a automated service for rights holders including: global distribution of master recordings and revenue collection. In a traditionally slow and convoluted part of the business, this new platform will put the information at the client’s fingertips. On September 27, 2016, Fintage agreed to sell its music publishing and neighboring rights divisions to Kobalt Music Group