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Database normalization

Database normalization is the process of structuring a relational database in accordance with a series of so-called normal forms in order to reduce data redundancy and improve data integrity. It was first proposed by Edgar F. Codd as part of his relational model. Normalization entails organizing the columns and tables of a database to ensure that their dependencies are properly enforced by database integrity constraints, it is accomplished by applying some formal rules either by a process of decomposition. A basic objective of the first normal form defined by Codd in 1970 was to permit data to be queried and manipulated using a "universal data sub-language" grounded in first-order logic; the objectives of normalization beyond 1NF were stated as follows by Codd: To free the collection of relations from undesirable insertion and deletion dependencies. To reduce the need for restructuring the collection of relations, as new types of data are introduced, thus increase the life span of application programs.

To make the relational model more informative to users. To make the collection of relations neutral to the query statistics, where these statistics are liable to change as time goes by; when an attempt is made to modify a relation, the following undesirable side-effects may arise in relations that have not been sufficiently normalized: Update anomaly. The same information can be expressed on multiple rows. For example, each record in an "Employees' Skills" relation might contain an Employee ID, Employee Address, Skill. If the update is only successful – the employee's address is updated on some records but not others – the relation is left in an inconsistent state; the relation provides conflicting answers to the question of what this particular employee's address is. This phenomenon is known as an update anomaly. Insertion anomaly. There are circumstances. For example, each record in a "Faculty and Their Courses" relation might contain a Faculty ID, Faculty Name, Faculty Hire Date, Course Code.

Therefore, we can record the details of any faculty member who teaches at least one course, but we cannot record a newly hired faculty member who has not yet been assigned to teach any courses, except by setting the Course Code to null. This phenomenon is known as an insertion anomaly. Deletion anomaly. Under certain circumstances, deletion of data representing certain facts necessitates deletion of data representing different facts; the "Faculty and Their Courses" relation described in the previous example suffers from this type of anomaly, for if a faculty member temporarily ceases to be assigned to any courses, we must delete the last of the records on which that faculty member appears also deleting the faculty member, unless we set the Course Code to null. This phenomenon is known as a deletion anomaly. A normalized database allows its structure to be extended to accommodate new types of data without changing existing structure too much; as a result, applications interacting with the database are minimally affected.

Normalized relations, the relationship between one normalized relation and another, mirror real-world concepts and their interrelationships. Querying and manipulating the data within a data structure, not normalized, such as the following non-1NF representation of customers' credit card transactions, involves more complexity than is necessary: To each customer corresponds a'repeating group' of transactions; the automated evaluation of any query relating to customers' transactions, would broadly involve two stages: Unpacking one or more customers' groups of transactions allowing the individual transactions in a group to be examined, Deriving a query result based on the results of the first stageFor example, in order to find out the monetary sum of all transactions that occurred in October 2003 for all customers, the system would have to know that it must first unpack the Transactions group of each customer sum the Amounts of all transactions thus obtained where the Date of the transaction falls in October 2003.

One of Codd's important insights was. Reduced structural complexity gives users, DBMSs more power and flexibility to formulate and evaluate the queries. A more normalized equivalent of the structure above might look like this: In the modified structure, the key is in the first relation, in the second relation. Now each row represents an individual credit card transaction, the DBMS can obtain the answer of interest by finding all rows with a Date falling in October, summing their Amounts; the data structure places all of the values on an equal footing, exposing each to the DBMS directly, so each can participate directly in queries. Accordingly, the normalized design lends itself to general-purpose query processing, whereas the unnormalized design does not; the normalized version allows the user to change the customer name in one place and guards against errors that arise if the customer name is misspelled on some records. Codd introduced the concept of normalization and what is now known as the first normal form in 1970

Christiane Legrand

Christiane Legrand was a French soprano. Legrand was born in Paris, her father Raymond Legrand was a conductor and composer renowned for hits such as Irma la douce, her mother was Marcelle Der Mikaëlian, who married Legrand Senior in 1929. His maternal grandfather was of Armenian descent and considered a member of the bourgeoisie. Legrand studied piano and classical music from the time. Jazz critic and composer André Hodeir discovered her in 1957, she became the lead singer in the most notable French jazz vocal groups of the 1960s, including Les Double Six. Legrand was the original lead soprano of The Swingle Singers and was the vocalist who dubbed the part of Madame Emery in Les parapluies de Cherbourg, the music for, composed by her brother Michel Legrand, she sang the part of Judith in his Les demoiselles de Rochefort. Her commercial recordings of music for the concert hall included a recording of Laborinthus II of Luciano Berio. Legrand did the French dubbing for the title role of Disney's film Mary Poppins and lent her talents to numerous other film projects.

Legrand was the featured soprano on the track "Fires" on the 1973 Procol Harum album Grand Hotel. Her niece Victoria Legrand is a member of the American indie rock group Beach House. Communications'72 Biography on Christiane Legrand on IMDb Les Swinger Singers J S Bach Partita No 2

Wives Never Know

Wives Never Know is a 1936 American black-and-white comedy film directed by Elliott Nugent. Written by Frederick Hazlitt Brennan, Edwin Justus Mayer and Keene Thompson, the film stars Charlie Ruggles, Mary Boland, Adolphe Menjou, was produced by Adolph Zukor for Paramount Pictures. Homer and Marcia Bigelow are a married couple. Visiting novelist J. Hugh Ramsey considers himself both too wise to marry and, through hubris, qualified to offer his own wild theories on what constitutes a happy marriage, he had thus written a best selling novel titled Marriage, the Living Death. Ramsey decides that the Bigelow marriage could not be as perfect as it appears, convinces Homer that his wife must be secretly unhappy because she had never had the opportunity to forgive the morally spotless Homer for any misdeed. Wishing to please, Homer decides to involve himself in a trist so that Marcia would have something for which she could forgive him, he chooses French actress Renée La Journée, performing nearby. Ramsey learns of the affair and discovers that the La Journée turns out to be the one love of his life that he had lost years earlier.

Lawrence Journal-World called the film "a delightful and hilarious comedy of married life". They wrote that Charles Ruggles and Mary Boland "carry the lead roles in inimitable manner which has endeared them to millions", that the film marked a return to film for actress Vivienne Osborne after a two-year absence. Evening Independent noted that a film combination of Charles Ruggles and Mary Boland is always irresistible, wrote that the film "kept the preview audience laughing from beginning to the last fade-out". In consideration of the three stars, they wrote "Ruggles and Menjou make a rollicking comedy trio", predicted that the film "should play a merry tune at boxoffices". In October 1936, The Sunday Morning Star listed the film as one of its'Best Bets of the Week'. Conversely, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette advised that fans of Charles Ruggles and Mary Boland would be in for a "considerable let-down" when watching the film. In examining the film in comparison to previous films where Ruggles and Boland reprised roles where they were husband and wife, they wrote of Wives Never Know that "it is a listless, laborous little comedy that resembles the result of a scavenger hunt at the old Mack Sennett Studios."

They offered that there were the expected laughs to be found in any film involving Ruggles and Boland, but that the storyline itself possessed few comic qualities, that left to their own resources, the co-stars "falter and fumble through six or seven reels of makeshift humor."The New York Times made note of the ongoing screen partnering of Charles Ruggles and Mary Boland, that the film in offering Ruggles' "familiar timid-husband sequences" and Boland's "usual number of stock Bolandisms", seems to be holding "a sacrifice auction sale..." " a considerable reduction in humor." In addressing the film plot, they felt it was "merely an antiquated type of stage farce enacted before a camera". However, they made special note of the contribution of Adolphe Menjou, who in the role of a visiting author, was "quixotic as ever" in his character's "commendable effort to break up the Ruggles-Boland marriage." They commended that the entire cast gave their best efforts, that "even the urbane Mr. Menjou falls into the ditch, as it were, without holding back a shred of himself."

Released theatrically in the United States September 13, 1936, the film was released as Jos rouvat tietäisivät in Finland May 23, 1937, as Sikken en nat in Denmark August 9, 1937. In 1958 the rights were purchased by MCA/Universal Pictures. Wives Never Know at the Internet Movie Database

Architecture of Tibet

Architecture of Tibet contains Chinese and Indian influences but has many unique features brought about by its adaptation to the cold arid, high-altitude climate of the Tibetan plateau. Buildings are made from locally available construction materials, are embellished with symbols of Tibetan Buddhism. For example, private homes have Buddhist prayer flags flying from the rooftop. Religious structures fall into two main types: temples, which are used for religious ceremonies and worship. Temples come in a great variety of styles reflecting local architectural traditions; the design of the Tibetan Chörtens can vary, from roundish walls in Kham to squarish, four-sided walls in Ladakh. In a few regions Danba County, one may see tall and impressive stone towers, many over a century old. Secular structures in Tibet include private homes, multi-family dwellings, shops; some herding families live in tents for part of the year, although people who live in tents year-round are becoming rare due to government programs to encourage herdsmen to move into permanent housing.

Manor homes that belonged to the Tibetan aristocracy before 1949 have all but disappeared from the Tibetan plateau. Tibetan structures are constructed of natural materials such as stone and wood. Since 1980, concrete has come into use but so far is not widespread; the most desirable building sites are on elevated land facing south. Flat roofs are used in most parts of the central and western Tibetan plateau where rainfall is slight. In prosperous agricultural areas, private homes may have up to three stories. In herding areas where houses may be used only part of the year, they have only one story. Walls that are constructed of stone or rammed earth may be up to a meter thick at the base. In large structures such as temples and manor homes, walls slope inward to create an illusion of greater height. Windows are small because the walls are so heavy that large openings would make the structure weak and unstable. In the past, windows featured paper-covered wooden latticework, but nowadays universally use glass.

Tibet has long been a slavery society. The polarization of the people is prominent; the residences of the vast serfs and poor peasants are simple, they only cover the wind and cover the rain. As a type of building, a house of a certain scale can only belong to the three lords and the wealthy class. Due to the identity and social status of the owner, there are obvious differences in the level of dignity and use of residential buildings. There are certain regulations for decoration; the highest-grade residences in the past, of course, are the residences of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama. The residences of these officials are grand, large in scale and rigorous in layout; the main building is four stories high. The ground floor is for chores; the second floor is the living room for the whole family. The hall is located in a prominent position on the second floor; the south floor of the main building is used to form a spacious courtyard. The general officials and the manor house have no gallery. Standing at 117 meters in height and 360 meters in width, the Potala Palace, designated as a World Heritage Site in 1994 and extended to include the Norbulingka area in 2001, is considered a most important example of Tibetan architecture.

The residence of the Dalai Lama, it is said to have over a thousand rooms within its thirteen stories, used for both religious purposes and as the seat of the Tibetan government and home of the Dalai Lama, Tibet's head of state until 1959. It is divided into the outer White Palace, which serves as the administrative quarters and living quarters of the Dalai Lama, the inner Red Palace, which houses the Great West Hall, chapels and Buddhist scriptures. Traditional Kham architecture is seen in most dwellings in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Although the region has been heavily logged, wood is still harvested locally from remaining stands of forest and used for housing. Throughout the region, horizontal timber beams support the roof and are in turn supported by wooden columns. In some areas such as Dêgê County, Baiyü County, Dawu County, wood is used to make log-cabin style exterior walls. Home interiors are sometimes paneled with wood and cabinetry is ornately decorated. Ganzi is known for its beautiful wooden houses built in a range of styles and lavishly decorated with wooden ornamentation.

Although various materials are used in the well-built houses, it is the skillful carpentry, most striking. Farm houses in Kham are very spacious although the first floor is used to house farm implements and animals, not for human habitation. Floors and room dividers are made of wood. Carpentry skills are passed down from master to apprentice. Traditional Tibetan building practices are threatened by the increasing use of concrete, which can be cheaper than natural materials and requires less skill. Traditional homes are regarded by some upwardly mobile Tibetans as backward, towns and cities are dominated by apartment buildings. Earthquakes are a threat to traditional Tibetan houses, which contain insufficient horizontal ties to keep the columns and roof stable during

Cheval, Florida

Cheval is an unincorporated census-designated place in Hillsborough County, United States. The population was 10,702 at the 2010 census, up from 7,602 at the 2000 census. Cheval is located in northwestern Hillsborough County at 28°8′47″N 82°30′56″W, it is bordered to the east by Lutz, to the south by Northdale, to the west by Keystone, to the north by Pasco County. Florida State Road 597 forms part of the CDP eastern border, State Road 589 forms part of the western border; the community is 17 miles north of Tampa. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Cheval CDP has a total area of 6.8 square miles, of which 5.9 square miles are land and 0.85 square miles, or 12.30%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,602 people, 3,407 households, 2,047 families residing in the community; the population density was 1,137.5 people per square mile. There were 3,659 housing units at an average density of 547.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the community was 85.86% White, 4.63% African American, 0.18% Native American, 5.01% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 2.12% from other races, 2.04% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.02% of the population. There were 3,407 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.88. In the community the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 37.5% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the community was $46,888, the median income for a family was $65,960. Males had a median income of $45,551 versus $29,161 for females; the per capita income for the community was $32,444.

About 2.5% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over


Varāngacharita, or "The deeds of Varānga", is a Sanskrit poetic work believed to have been composed by the poet Jatasimhanandi in the 7th-9th century CE period. It is associated with Jainism. Although it has not conclusively been established, the author may have been stylistically influenced by Aśvaghoṣa. Varāngacharita is a novel that covers the life and times of a fictional prince, Varānga, to elucidate the principles and ethics of Jainism, it is in large part a heroic adventure narrative, though discussion of Jain doctrine is woven into the book. The story begins in Uttamapura, the capital of a fictitious kingdom called Vinita, ruled by King Dharmasena of the Bhoja dynasty; the king has many wives, including Mrigasena. The kingdom is rich and well-ruled, the people are fond of the arts. Queen Gunavati has a son, Varānga, who grows to be handsome, brave and well-educated in the arts and sciences; when he is of age, matches for him are suggested. He marries Princess Anupama of other women. However, he does not marry another prospective bride, Princess Sunanda, his cousin and the daughter of King Devasena of Lalitapuri.

Varadatta, the disciple of the Tirthankar Neminath, visits camps in a park. He preaches to an audience that includes the king, Prince Varānga, many townspeople about nirvana and the obstacles to it. Varānga is much impressed and approaches the disciple-monk for further discourse, which results in Varānga taking the vows of right conduct and becoming a Jain layperson; the king is in turn confirms him as the heir apparent. Varānga's brother, Prince Sushena, attempts to oppose this conferment accompanied by some other princes, but is blocked by the king's ministers, led by a minister called Dhivara; when news of Varānga's confirmation as heir-apparent reaches the Queens' assembly, Queen Mrigasena summons her son who informs her that he had opposed the appointment, but was himself checked by minister Dhivara. It turns out that Dhivara owes loyalty to her, she demands that he instigate a revolt against Varānga. However, Varānga has grown too popular and powerful, so Minister Dhivara conspires to get rid of him deceitfully.

In a hippodrome outside the capital, Dhivara tricks Varānga into riding a horse, trained to bolt. When the horse gallops off, no other rider is able to catch-up; the horse exits the kingdom and keeps going through dense forest plunging to its death in a deep well. Varānga climbs out, he is lost and injured. He feels both grief and anger, reflects on some of the Jain lessons he has learned, he fortuitously escapes it. As he takes a refreshing dip in a lake, his leg is seized by a crocodile, he cannot free himself, but the crocodile is driven-off by an invisible yakshi when he prays to the Jain divinities. She asks him to join her in love; when he declares that he is bound by the vows of conduct he made to Varadatta, she vanishes skyward after revealing that she too is Varadatta's disciple and was testing him. Wandering on, Varānga stumbles into a band of Pulindas, a tribe that inhabited and controlled the vast forests of the Vindhyas region, captured; the author regards them as a barbarians who decide to sacrifice Varānga to their goddess at dawn.

Just a snake-bitten tribesman returning from the hunt falls unconscious. When Varānga succeeds in saving him, the Pulindas' attitude softens, they free him, giving him directions back to his own country. He sets out, but begins to reflect on his state of filthy dishevelment and is overcome with doubt on how he will be received: his enemies will mock him and friends pity him. Running into an armed merchant caravan, he is seized. In those days, much of India was densely forested and transit between towns was dangerous. Merchant convoys were attacked by wild animals and forest tribespeople, included many armed mercenaries that could fight pitched battles. Despite Varānga's refusal to disclose his name, who he is or how he came to be there, the convoy-leader, finds him too cultured to be a bandit-spy. Soon, scouts report. Sagaravriddhi exhorts his men to prepare for the coming battle. Varānga offers to help but is judged too soft and not taken seriously; the Pulindas attack with ferocity. There is much bloodshed.

Enraged, Varānga fights harder and faces-off against the Pulinda chief's son, whom he kills. Varānga confronts the Pulinda chief himself, whom he kills after a long fight; the Pulindas to flee, but Varānga himself is left wounded. The merchants shower him with wealth. Since he refuses to disclose his name, they call him Kashchidbhata. Tales of his heroism spread and the convoy reaches Sagaravriddhi's home country, Lalitapura; this kingdom is the home of Princess Sunanda, Varānga's cousin and onetime prospective wife. Sagaravriddhi and his wife take Kashchidbhata as their son, secure the rank of merchant-captain for him. Back in Uttamapura, the search organized for Varānga fails, finding only his torn-off ornaments and the dead horse in the well, he is presumed