Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Third Battle of Panipat
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about 60 miles north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohillas Najib-ud-daulah, Afghans of the Doab region and Shuja-ud-Daula-the Nawab of Awadh. Militarily, the battle pitted the artillery and cavalry of the Marathas against the heavy cavalry and mounted artillery of the Afghans and Rohillas led by Abdali and Najib-ud-Daulah, both ethnic Afghans; the battle is considered one of the largest and most eventful fought in the 18th century, has the largest number of fatalities in a single day reported in a classic formation battle between two armies. The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road; the battle involved over 125,000 troops. Protracted skirmishes occurred, with gains on both sides.
The forces led by Ahmad Shah Durrani came out victorious after destroying several Maratha flanks. The extent of the losses on both sides is disputed by historians, but it is believed that between 60,000–70,000 were killed in fighting, while the numbers of injured and prisoners taken vary considerably. According to the single best eyewitness chronicle—the bakhar by Shuja-ud-Daulah's Diwan Kashi Raj—about 40,000 Maratha prisoners were slaughtered in cold blood the day after the battle. Grant Duff includes an interview of a survivor of these massacres in his History of the Marathas and corroborates this number. Shejwalkar, whose monograph Panipat 1761 is regarded as the single best secondary source on the battle, says that "not less than 100,000 Marathas perished during and after the battle."The result of the battle was the halting of further Maratha advances in the north, destabilization of their territories, for ten years. This period is marked by the rule of Peshwa Madhavrao, credited with the revival of Maratha domination following the defeat at Panipat.
In 1771, ten years after Panipat, he sent a large Maratha army into northern India in an expedition, meant to re-establish Maratha domination in that area and punish refractory powers that had either sided with the Afghans, such as the Rohillas had shaken off Maratha domination after Panipat. But their success was short lived. Crippled by Madhavrao untimely death at the age of 28, infighting ensued among Maratha chiefs soon after, they met their final blow at the hands of the British in 1818; the 27-year Mughal-Maratha war led to rapid territorial loss of the Maratha Empire to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. However after his death in 1707, this process reversed following the Mughal Succession War between the sons of Aurangzeb. By 1712, Marathas started retaking their lost lands. Under Peshwa Baji Rao, Gujarat and Rajputana came under Maratha control. In 1737, Baji Rao defeated the Mughals on the outskirts of Delhi and brought much of the former Mughal territories south of Agra under Maratha control.
Baji Rao's son Balaji Baji Rao further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab in 1758. Raghunathrao's letter to the Peshwa, 4 May 1758 This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali. In 1759 he raised an army from the Pashtun and Baloch tribes and made several gains against the smaller Maratha garrisons in Punjab, he joined with his Indian allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Gangetic Doab—forming a broad coalition against the Marathas. The Marathas, under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau, responded by gathering an army of between 45,000–60,000, accompanied by 200,000 non-combatants, a number of whom were pilgrims desirous of making pilgrimages to Hindu holy sites in northern India; the Marathas started their northward journey from Patdur on 14 March 1760. Both sides tried to get the Nawab of Shuja-ud-Daulah, into their camp. By late July Shuja-ud-Daulah made the decision to join the Afghan-Rohilla coalition, preferring to join what was perceived as the "army of Islam".
This was strategically a major loss for the Marathas, since Shuja provided much-needed finances for the long Afghan stay in North India. It is doubtful whether the Afghan-Rohilla coalition would have the means to continue their conflict with the Marathas without Shuja's support. Grant Duff, describing the Maratha army: The Marathas had gained control of a considerable part of India in the intervening period. In 1758 they nominally occupied Delhi, captured Lahore and drove out Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Abdali; this was the high-water mark of Maratha expansion, where the boundaries of their empire extended north of the Sindhu river all the way down south to northern Kerala. This territory was ruled through the Peshwa, who talked of placing his son Vishwasrao on the Mughal throne. However, Delhi still remained under the control of Mughals, key Muslim intellectuals including Shah Waliullah and other Muslim clergies in India were frightened at these developments.
In desperation they appealed to the ruler of Afghanistan, to halt the threat. The Marathas brought the symbols of the Hindu Swastika into battle. Ahmad Shah Durrani, angered by the news from his son and his allies, was unwilling to allow the Marathas' spread go unchecked. By the end of 1759 Abdali with his Afghan tribes and his Rohilla ally Najib Khan had reached Lahore as well as Delhi and defeated the smaller en
The Pindaris were irregular military plunderers and foragers of Muslim religion in 17th- through early 19th-century Indian subcontinent who accompanied the Muslim army the Maratha army, on their own before being eliminated in 1817-18 Pindari War. They were unpaid and their compensation was the loot they plundered during the war, they were horsemen, foot brigades and armed, creating chaos and delivering intelligence about the enemy positions to benefit the army they accompanied. The earliest mention of them is found during Aurangzeb's campaign in the Deccan, but their role expanded with the Maratha armed campaign against the Mughal empire, they were effective against the enemies given their rapid and chaotic thrust into enemy territories, but caused serious abuses against allies such as the Pindari raid on Sringeri Sharada Peetham in 1791. After several cases of abuse where the Pindaris plundered the territories of Maratha allies, the Maratha rulers such as Shivaji issued extensive regulations upon the Pindari contingent seeking to limit their predatory actions.
The majority of Pindari leaders were Muslims, but they recruited from all classes according to Encyclopaedia Britannica. To fight them, competing groups of Pindaris formed from Hindu ascetics-turned-warriors. According to David Lorenzen, after the collapse of the Mughal empire upon Aurangzeb's death and Hindu kingdoms entered into open conflicts and warring factions. Local landowners organized their own private armies, while the monks and ascetics of temples and monasteries transitioned into mercenary soldiers to protect their interests; the Pindaris were dispersed throughout central India, the Deccan and regions that are now parts of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Odisha. By early 19th-century, instead of being associated with a war effort, the armed Pindari militia groups sought easy wealth for their leader and themselves. There were an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Pindari militia around 1800-1815 CE who looted villages, captured people as slaves for sale, challenged the authority of local Muslim sultanates, Hindu kingdoms, the British colonies.
Lord Hastings of the colonial British era led a coalition of regional armies in early 19th-century to end the Pindari militia through military action and offering employment with regular salaries to the Pindaris in exchange for abandoning their freebooting, plundering habits. The term Pindar may derive from an intoxicating drink, it is a Marathi name that connotes a "bundle of grass" or "who takes". They are referred to as Bidaris in some historic texts; the Pindaris of the Indian subcontinent adorned a Turban, these individuals were "half-naked" wearing only a girdle. They were militantly associated with state. Pindaris were involved in proxy wars and carried out atrocities while they would extort wealth from their targeted areas. According to Tapan Raychaudhuri, Irfan Habib et al, the Mughal army "always had in its train the, the privileged and recognized thieves who first plundered the enemy territory and everything they could find"; the Deccan sultanates and Aurangzeb's campaign in central India deployed them against Hindu kingdoms such as Golconda, in Bengal.
The unpaid cavalry got compensated for their services by "burning and looting everywhere". The Hindu Marathas, in their war against the Mughals, evolved this concept to "its logical extreme", state Raychaudhuri and Habib, by expanding the Pindaris brigade, encouraging them not only to loot the Muslim territories but gather and deliver food to their regular army; the Maratha army never carried provisions, gathered their resources and provisions from the enemy territory as they invaded and conquered more regions of the collapsing Mughal state. The Italian traveler Niccolao Manucci, in his memoir about the Mughal Empire, wrote about Bederia, stating that "these are the first to invade the enemy's territory, where they plunder everything they find."According to the Indologist and South Asia historian Richard Eaton, plunder of frontier regions was a part of the strategy that contributed wealth and propelled the Sultanate systems in the Indian subcontinent. The Ghaznavid sultans, states Eaton, "plundered north Indian cities from bases in Afghanistan in 10th- and 11th-century".
This strategy continued in the campaigns of the Delhi Sultanate, such as those of Khalji sultans who plundered the populations beyond the Vindhyas in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. This pattern, states Eaton, created a "self-perpetuating cycle: cash minted from raided temple wealth could be used to recruit yet more slaves from beyond India, who could, in turn, be used for mounting further military expeditions undertaken for still more plunder". Babur benefited from plundering raids into Hind, followed by withdrawal to Kabul, gaining financial resources; the plunder and wars overthrew the Delhi Sultanate and founded the Mughal Empire. Plunder, along with taxes and tribute payments contributed to growing imperial revenues for the Mughal rulers, states John Richards. Beyond the direct raids by the Mughals, plunder of villagers and urban areas along with temples were a significant source of wealth accumulation by the local governors and Deccan sultanates; every victory of the Mughals between 1561 and 1687, states Richards, generated a "large amounts of plundered treasure from the hoards of defeated rulers".
The Pindaris of the Aurangzeb's army and the Pindaris of the Maratha army extended this tradition of violence and plunder in their pursuit of the political and ideological wars. Shivaji, his successors in the name of
Gwalior was an Indian kingdom and princely state during the British Raj. It was focused in modern-day Madhya Pradesh, arising due to fragmentation in the Mughal Empire and lack of central authority from Delhi, it was ruled in subsidiary alliance with the British by the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas and was entitled to a 21-gun salute. The state took its name from the old town of Gwalior, although never the actual capital, was an important place because of its strategic location and the strength of its fort; the state was founded in the early 18th century by Ranoji Sindhia, as part of the Maratha Confederacy. Under Mahadji Sindhia Gwalior State became a leading power in Central India, dominated the affairs of the confederacy; the Anglo-Maratha Wars brought Gwalior State under British suzerainty, so that it became a princely state of the British Indian Empire. Gwalior was the largest state in the Central India Agency, under the political supervision of a Resident at Gwalior. In 1936, the Gwalior residency was separated from the Central India Agency, made answerable directly to the Governor-General of India.
After Indian Independence in 1947, the Sindhia rulers acceded to the new Union of India, Gwalior state was absorbed into the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat. The state had a total area of 64,856 km2, was composed of several detached portions, but was divided into two, the Gwalior or Northern section, the Malwa section; the northern section consisted of a compact block of territory with an area of 44,082 km2, lying between 24º10' and 26º52' N. and 74º38' and 79º8' E. It was bounded on the north and northwest by the Chambal River, which separated it from the native states of Dholpur and Jaipur in the Rajputana Agency; the Malwa section, which included the city of Ujjain, had an area of 20,774 km2. It was made up of several detached districts, between which portions of other states were interposed, which were themselves intermingled in bewildering intricacy. In 1940 Gwalior State had 4,006,159 inhabitants; the predecessor state of Gwalior was founded in the 10th century. It was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate and was a part of it till 1398.
It again became a part of the Mughal empire from 1528 to 1731. The founder of the Gwalior house was Ranoji Sindhia, who belonged to an impoverished branch of the Shinde or Sindhia house which traced its descent from a family of which one branch held the hereditary post of patil in Kannerkhera, a village 16 miles east of Satara; the head of the family received a patent of rank from the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, while a daughter of the house was married to the Maratha king Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj. In 1726, Ranoji along with Malhar Rao Holkar, the founder of the house of Indore, the Ponwar, were authorized by the Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi in the Malwa districts, retaining for his own remuneration half the mokassa. Ranoji fixed his headquarters in the ancient city of Ujjain, which became the capital of the Sindhia dominion, on 19 July 1745 he died near Shujalpur, where his centotaph stands, he left three legitimate sons, Jayappa and Jotiba, two illegitimate and Mahadji.
Jayappa succeeded to the territories of Ranoji, but was killed at Nagaur in 1759. He was followed by his son Jankoji, taken prisoner at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 and put to death, Mahadji succeeded. Madhavrao I, popularly known as Mahadji, his successor Daulatrao took a leading part in shaping the history of India during their rule. Mahadji returned from the Deccan to Malwa in 1764, by 1769 reestablished his power there. In 1772 Madhavrao Peshwa died, in the struggles which ensued Mahadji took an important part, seized every chance of increasing his power and augmenting his possessions. In 1775 Raghoba Dada Peshwa threw himself on the protection of the British; the reverses which Sindhia's forces met with at the hands of Colonel Goddard after his famous march from Bengal to Gujarat the fall of Gwalior to Major Popham, the night attack by Major Camac, opened his eyes to the strength of the new power which had entered the arena of Indian politics. In 1782 the Treaty of Salbai was made with Sindhia, the chief stipulations being that he should withdraw to Ujjain, the British north of the Yamuna, that he should negotiate treaties with the other belligerents.
The importance of the treaty can scarcely be exaggerated. It made the British arbiters of peace in India and acknowledged their supremacy, while at the same time Sindhia was recognized as an independent chief and not as a vassal of the Peshwa. A resident, Mr. Anderson was at the same time appointed to Sindhia's court. Between 1782 and December 1805 Dholpur State was annexed by Gwalior. Sindhia took full advantage of the system of neutrality pursued by the British to establish his supremacy over Northern India. In this he was assisted by the genius of Benoît de Boigne, whose influence in consolidating the power of Mahadji Sindhia is estimated at its true value, he was from the Duchy of Savoy, a native of Chambéry, who had served under Lord Clare in the famous Irish Brigade and Fontenoy and elsewhere and who after many vicissitudes, including imprisonment by the Turks, reached India and for a time held a commission in the 6th Madras Infantry. Af
Pune called Poona, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial Estate Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Pune is an important centre for civil services training; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.
The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817; the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city.
The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A rai
The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India. The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, becane Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India. The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, rose to the ranks of Subedar; the name of the dynasty was associated with the title of the ruler, known informally as Holkar Maharaja. Malhar Rao Holkar, a Maratha chief serving Peshwa Baji Rao, established the dynasty's rule over Indore. In the 1720s, he led Maratha armies in Malwa region, in 1733 was granted 9 parghanas in the vicinity of Indore by the Peshwa; the township of Indore had existed as an independent principality established by Nandlal Mandloi of Kampel, Nandlal Mandloi was won by the Maratha force and allowed them to camp across the Khan River. In 1734, Malhar Rao established a camp called Malharganj.
In 1747, he started the construction of the Rajwada. By the time of his death, he ruled much of Malwa, was acknowledged as one of the five independent rulers of the Maratha Confederacy, he was succeeded by his daughter-in-law. She was born in the Chaundi village in Maharashtra, she moved the capital to Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River. Rani Ahilyabai was a prolific patron of Hindu temples in Maheshwar and Indore, she built temples at sacred sites outside her kingdom, from Dwarka in Gujarat east to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple at Varanasi on the Ganges. The adopted son of Malhar Rao Haolkar, Tukoji Rao Holkar succeeded Rani Ahilyabai upon her death. Tukoji Rao had been a commander under Ahilyabai for her entire rule, his son Yashwantrao Holkar succeeded him upon his death. He tried to free the Delhi Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II from the British in the unsuccessful Second Anglo-Maratha War; the grateful Shah Alam gave him the title of Maharajadiraj Rajrajeshwar Alija Bahadur in honor of his bravery.
Attempts by Yashwantrao Holkar to unite the kings failed, he was approached to sign a peace treaty with the British. The Treaty of Rajghat, signed late December 1805, recognised him as a sovereign king. In 1811, the four-year-old Maharaja Malharrao Holkar II succeeded Yashwantrao Holkar, his mother, Maharani Tulsabai Holkar, looked after the administration. However, with the help of Pathans and the British, Dharama Kunwar and Balaram Seth plotted to imprison Tulsabai and Malharrao; when Tulsabai learnt about this, she appointed Tantia Jog. As a result, Gaffur Khan Pindari secretly signed a treaty with the British on 9 November 1817 and killed Tulsabai on 19 December 1817; the treaty was signed on 6 January 1818 at Mandsaur. Bhimabai Holkar did not accept the treaty, kept attacking the British by guerilla methods. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhanshi took inspiration from Bhimabai Holkar and fought against the British. At the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the Holkars lost much of their territory to the British and were incorporated into the British Raj as a princely state of the Central India Agency.
The capital was shifted from Bhanpura to Indore. Malharrao Holkar III entered Indore on 2 November 1818. Tantia Jog was appointed his Diwan; as the old palace was destroyed by the army of Daulat Rao Scindia, a new palace was constructed in its place. Malharrao III was succeeded by Martandrao Holkar, who formally ascended to the throne on 17 January 1834, but he was replaced by Harirao Holkar, nephew of Yashwantrao, who ascended to the throne on 17 April 1834. He adopted Khanderao Holkar on 2 July 1841 and died on 24 October 1843. Khanderao was formally installed as the ruler on 13 November 1843, but he died on 17 February 1844. Tukojirao Holkar II was installed on the throne on 27 June 1844. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he was loyal to the British East India Company. In October 1872, he appointed T. Madhava Rao as the Diwan of Indore, he succeeded by his eldest son, Shivajirao. Yashwantrao Holkar II ruled Indore state until shortly after India's independence in 1947, when he acceded to the Indian Government.
Indore became a district of Madhya Bharat state, merged into Madhya Pradesh state in 1956. Malhar Rao Holkar I. Born 16 March 1693, died 20 May 1766 Male Rao Holkar. Born 1745, died 5 April 1767 Ahilya Bai Holkar. Born 1725, died 13 August 1795 Tukoji Rao Holkar I. Born 1723, died 15 August 1797 Kashi Rao Holkar Born before 1776, died 1808 Khande Rao Holkar Born in 1798, died 1807 Yashwant Rao Holkar I. Born 1776, died 27 October 1811 Malhar Rao Holkar II Born 1806, died 27 October 1833 Marthand Rao Holkar. Born 1830, died 2 June 1849 Hari Rao Holkar. Born 1795, died 24 October 1843 Khande Rao Holkar II. Born 1828, died 17 March 1844 Tukoji Rao Holkar II. Born 3 May 1835, died 17 June 1886 Shivaji Rao Holkar. Born 11 November 1859, died 13 October 1908 Tukoji Rao Holkar III. Born 26 November 1890, died 21 May 1978 Yashwant Ra
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th