As its name implies, a segmental bridge is a bridge built in short sections, i.e. one piece at a time, as opposed to traditional methods that build a bridge in large sections. The bridge is made of concrete, either cast-in-place or precast concrete; these bridges are economical for long spans when access to the construction site is restricted. They are chosen for their aesthetic appeal; the first segmental concrete bridge, built in 1950, was cast-in-place across the Lahn River in Balduinstein, Germany. The first precast segmental concrete bridge, built in 1962, crossed the Seine River in France; the sequence of construction is similar to traditional concrete bridge building, i.e. build the support towers, build the temporary falsework, build the deck, perform finish work. The principal differences are as follows: The support towers may be built segmentally; this is accomplished using "slip-form" construction, where the falsework moves upward following sequential concrete "pours." The falsework uses the newly constructed concrete as the basis for moving upward.
After the towers are built, a superstructure is built atop the towers. This superstructure serves as the "launching" point for building the deck; the deck is now constructed sequentially, beginning at one section at a time. This process is accomplished using a self propelled bridge layer that hoists the bridge section into place. In cast-in-place bridges, the falsework is connected to the installed concrete and allowed to cantilever freely. Next, the permanent reinforcing steel and supports are installed; the concrete is placed and cured, freeing the falsework to be moved. In pre-cast bridges, the concrete segment is constructed on the ground, transported and hoisted into place; as the new segment is suspended in place by the crane, workers install steel reinforcing that attaches the new segment to preceding segments. Each segment of the bridge is designed to accept connections from both preceding and succeeding segments; the process in step 3 is repeated. Senator William V. Roth Jr. Bridge in Delaware is a cable-stayed bridge using precast concrete segments for the approach and center spans Vancouver SkyTrain's Millennium Line as well as the elevated portion of the Canada Line.
Linn Cove Viaduct in the Blue Ridge Mountains, North Carolina Manwel Dimech Bridge in St. Julian's, Malta; this bridge pass over Għomar Valley. Seven Mile Bridge in the Florida Keys The Interstate H-3 viaducts through the Ko'olau Mountains, Hawaii The new Pennsylvania Turnpike bridges over the Susquehanna River south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania The Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge viaduct The Benicia-Martinez Bridge between Benicia and Martinez, CA The Four Bears Bridge over the Missouri River in North Dakota utilizes precast concrete segments, erected with the balanced cantilever method The High Five Interchange connecting US-75 and I-635 in Dallas, TX The AirTrain linking NY's John F. Kennedy International Airport with the Jamaica Transit Center The ramps leading between the Brooklyn Queens Expressway and the Williamsburg Bridge The elevated sections of the Delhi Metro The elevated sections of the Dubai Metro The I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge in Minneapolis, MN, is notable for the bridge it replaced: I-35W Mississippi River bridge which collapsed on August 1, 2007.
The Veterans' Glass City Skyway in Toledo, OH Canada's Confederation Bridge linking the provinces of Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick Bridge over River Kosi between Saharsa and Darbhanga in Bihar, India. Zilwaukee Bridge crossing the Saginaw River on I-75 north of Saginaw in Zilwaukee, Michigan The Pitkins Curve bridge on California State Route 1 near Big Sur is a CIP segmental bridge bypassing a rock-slide portion of a scenic motorway. Portions of the Interstate 4 – Selmon Expressway Connector in Tampa, Florida LoBuono, J.. "Assembly required-The instructions for building New Jersey’s first segmental bridge." Chicago, Illinois: GoBridges.com. September/October. Published October 18, 2005 at https://web.archive.org/web/20071014060418/http://www.gobridges.com/article.asp?id=770 "Design & Construction of Ngong Shuen Chau Viaduct" International Conference on Bridge Engineering – Challenges in the 21st Century, Hong Kong, 1 ~ 3 November 2006 http://www.ywlgroup.com/Articles.html "Construction of the Precast Segmental Approach - Structures for Sutong Bridge" ICE Conference 2007, Beijing http://www.ywlgroup.com/Articles.html http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/segmental/index.htm http://www.asbi-assoc.org/ http://www.figgbridge.com/ http://www.finleyengineeringgroup.com/index.cfm/home http://www.mcnarybergeron.com/ http://www.pbworld.com/news_events/publications/network/issue_57/57_03_murilloj_briefhistoryseg.asp http://www.pbworld.com/news_events/publications/network/issue_28/28_16_wahlp_constructionsequence.asp http://www.polito.it/creepanalysis
Seth Gordon Persons was an American Democratic politician, the 43rd Governor of Alabama from 1951 to 1955. He was died in Montgomery, Alabama; the Dauphin Island Bridge south of Mobile is formally named for him. The Gordon Persons Building is a six floor, 60,000 square foot state government office building in Montgomery. Persons built a successful business running electrical lines in rural Alabama; when running for office in 1950, Persons gained notoriety by touring the state in a helicopter. He won the Democratic nomination by defeating a crowded field that included former governor Chauncey Sparks. In office, his notable accomplishments included abolishing flogging in Alabama's prisons, advocating for the establishment of Alabama Public Television, imposing speed limits on state highways. Persons accomplished his goal of having four years of "no fighting," maintaining a truce among the various wings of the state Democratic Party. At the end of his term, Persons ordered the National Guard into Phenix City following the assassination of Attorney-General-elect Albert Patterson.
After leaving office as governor, Persons never sought statewide public office again, although he did make an unsuccessful run for circuit judge late in life. Persons was an alumnus of Auburn University. While at Auburn, Persons served as president of a student organization that traveled to away football games. Gordon Persons at Find a Grave Encyclopedia of Alabama biography of Persons
Alabama State Route 193
State Route 193 or SR-193 is a 26.581-mile-long route that serves as the primary travel route into Dauphin Island through southern Mobile County. South of its intersection with Laurendine Road, SR-193 is known as Dauphin Island Parkway, with the northern half of Dauphin Island Parkway routed along State Route 163; the northern portion of SR-193 is known as Range Line Road. The southern terminus of SR-193 is located at the western terminus of the Fort Morgan ferry in eastern Dauphin Island. From this point, the route travels in a westerly direction before turning to the north off the island across the Gordon Persons Bridge spanning the Mississippi Sound. From this point, the route travels across Mon Louis Island, over Fowl River, continues onward in a northerly direction before reaching its northern terminus at US-90 in Tillmans Corner; the entire route is in Mobile County. Alabama 193 Endings Alabama 193 at AARoads.com
Mobile County, Alabama
Mobile County is the second most-populous county in the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, its population was 412,992, its county seat is Mobile, founded on the Mobile River. The city and county were named in honor of the indigenous Maubila tribe. Mobile County comprises Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area; this area was occupied for thousands of years by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The historic Choctaw had occupied this area along what became called the Mobile River when encountered by early French traders and colonists, who founded Mobile in the early eighteenth century; the British took over the territory in 1763 after defeating the French in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, it came under Spanish rule as part of Spanish Florida. Spain ceded the territory to the United States after the War of 1812. In the 1830s, the United States forced the removal of most of the Native Americans in the area under President Andrew Jackson's policy to relocate them to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
Many of those who remained continued their culture. Among those is the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, recognized as a tribe in 1979 by the state, but not federally. After more than a century of European settlement, Mobile County was organized by the legislature and the proclamation of Governor Holmes of the Mississippi Territory on December 18, 1812; when Mississippi was separated and admitted as a state on December 10, 1817, after adopting its constitution on August 15, 1817, Mobile County became part of what was called the Alabama Territory. Two years the county became part of the state of Alabama, granted statehood on December 14, 1819; the city of Mobile, first settled by French colonists in the early 18th century as part of La Louisiane, was designated as the county seat from the early days of the county. Both the county and city derive their name from Fort Louis de la Mobile, a French fortification established in 1702; the word "Mobile" is believed to stem from a Choctaw Indian word for "paddlers".
The area was occupied by French colonists from 1702 -- 1763. It was ruled by the British from 1763–1780, when more American colonists began to enter the territory. At the end of the War of 1812, the United States took over the territory. At that time, new settlers were being attracted to the land, eager to develop short-staple cotton in the uplands area. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of this type of cotton profitable, stimulating wholesale development of new cotton plantations in the Black Belt during the antebellum years. Mobile developed as a major port for export of cotton. There were nine documented lynchings in Mobile from 1891 to 1981. March 31, 1891 Zachariah Graham October 2, 1906 Roy Hoyle October 2, 1906 Willie Thompson October 2, 1906 Corneilius Robinson September 22, 1907 Mose Dossett January 23, 1909 Richard Robertson July 31, 1910 Bill Walker June 6th 1919 James E. Lewis March 21, 1981 Michael DonaldCourthouse fires occurred in the years 1823, 1840, 1872. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,644 square miles, of which 1,229 square miles is land and 415 square miles is water, it second-largest by total area. It includes several islands, including Gaillard Island and Mon Louis Island. Washington County Baldwin County Jackson County, Mississippi George County, Mississippi Greene County, Mississippi Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge According to the 2010 United States Census, the population of the county comprised the following racial and ethnic groups: 60.2% White 34.6% Black 0.9% Native American 1.8% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.5% Two or more races 2.4% Hispanic or Latino According to the 2000 United States Census, there were 399,843 people, 150,179 households, 106,777 families residing in the county. The population density was 324 people per square mile. There were 165,101 housing units at an average density of 134 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.07% White, 33.38% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 1.41% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 1.04% from two or more races.
1.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 150,179 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.50% were married couples living together, 17.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population dispersal was 27.50% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,710, the median income for a family was $40,378. Males had a median income of $32,329 versus $21,986 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,178.
About 15.60% of families and 18.50% of the population were
Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway is the portion of the Intracoastal Waterway located along the Gulf Coast of the United States. It is a navigable inland waterway running 1,050 mi from Carrabelle, Florida, to Brownsville, Texas; the waterway provides a channel with a controlling depth of 12 ft, designed for barge transportation. Although the U. S. government proposals for such a waterway were made in the early 19th century, the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway was not completed until 1949. Locations along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway are defined in terms of statute miles east and west of Harvey Lock, a navigation lock in the New Orleans area located at 29.909°N 90.084°W / 29.909. The Hathaway Bridge in Panama City, for example, is at mile 284.6 EHL. The Queen Isabella Causeway Bridge at South Padre Island is at mile 665.1 WHL. The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway crosses or meets, in some cases is confluent with, numerous other navigable rivers and waterways, they include: Apalachicola River Atchafalaya River Bayou Lafourche Bayou Terrebonne Calcasieu River Calcasieu Ship Channel Delcambre Canal Houston Ship Channel Industrial Canal Lower Mississippi River Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal Mobile Bay Pearl River Sabine-Neches Waterway Neches River Sabine Lake Sabine River Santa Rosa Sound The Rigolets Vermilion River Many of the busiest ports in the United States in terms of tons of cargo are located on or near the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway.
Notable ports on or near the waterway include: Florida Apalachicola, Florida Carrabelle, Florida Panama City, Florida Pensacola, FloridaAlabama Mobile, Alabama - Ranked 9th busiestMississippi Gulfport, Mississippi Pascagoula, Mississippi - Ranked 21st busiestLouisiana Baton Rouge, Louisiana - Ranked 10th busiest Houma, Louisiana - Ranked 88th busiest Intracoastal City, Louisiana Lake Charles, Louisiana - Ranked 12th busiest Larose, Louisiana Morgan City, Louisiana New Orleans, Louisiana - Ranked 7th busiest Port Allen, Louisiana Port of South Louisiana - Ranked as busiest port in the United StatesTexas Beaumont, Texas - Ranked 4th busiest Brownsville, Texas - Ranked 72nd busiest Corpus Christi, Texas - Ranked 8th busiest Galveston, Texas - Ranked 48th busiest Houston, Texas - Ranked 2nd busiest Port Arthur, Texas - Ranked 18th busiest Port Lavaca - Point Comfort, Texas - Ranked 50th busiest Texas City, Texas - Ranked 14th busiest Victoria, Texas - Ranked 73rd busiest Waterways along and crossings of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway IHNC Lake Borgne Surge Barrier Gulf Intracoastal Waterway West Closure Complex
Dauphin Island, Alabama
Dauphin Island is a town in Mobile County, United States, on a barrier island of the same name, at the Gulf of Mexico. It incorporated in 1988; the population was 1,238 at the 2010 census. The town is included in the Mobile metropolitan area; the island was renamed for Louis XIV of France's great-grandson and heir, the dauphin, the future Louis XV of France. The name of the island is mistaken as "Dolphin Island"; the Gulf of Mexico is to the south of the island. The island's eastern end helps define the mouth of Mobile Bay; the eastern, wider portion of the island is shaded by thick stands of pine trees and saw palmettos, but the narrow, western part of the island features scrub growth and few trees. Dauphin Island is home to Fort Gaines, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, The Estuarium public aquarium, the Dauphin Island Airport, boat ramps, a large public pier, historic sites, several restaurants, new condominium developments, numerous private homes. Beaches attract tourism, fishing is a popular activity in the waters around the island.
The island is connected to the mainland by the Gordon Persons Bridge. Although the island has several bird sanctuaries, the main one is the 164-acre Audubon Bird Sanctuary. Dauphin Island is the first landfall encountered by many birds as they migrate north from South America, as a consequence many species can be found resting there before continuing their journey. In May 2012, the central public beach began charging for access; this marked the second beach on the island to charge the public following the creation of the owned West End Beach. Serpentine shell middens 1500 years old, attest to at least seasonal occupation by the Native American Mound Builder culture. Shell Mound Park, along the Island's northern shore, is administered by Alabama Marine Resources Division. In 1519, the Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda was the first documented European to visit, staying long enough to map the island with remarkable accuracy; the island's French history began on January 31, 1699, when the explorer Pierre Le Moyne, sieur d'Iberville, one of the founders of French Louisiana, arrived at Mobile Bay, anchored near the island on his way to explore the mouth of the Mississippi River.
D'Iberville named it "Isle Du Massacre" because of a large pile of human skeletons discovered there. The gruesome site turned out to be a simple burial mound, broken open by a hurricane, not a massacre site, but the name stuck. D'Iberville decided to locate a port for Fort Louis de La Louisiane on the island due to abundant timber, reliable supply of fresh water, a deep-water harbor; the settlement consisted of a fort, a chapel, government-owned warehouses, residences. The island served as a major trading depot, unloading goods from Saint-Domingue, Mexico and France, collecting furs in a short-lived fur trade. Mobile Bay itself, before a channel was dredged, was too shallow, its sand bars too shifting and treacherous, for ocean-going vessels to travel up the bay and Mobile River to Fort Louis de La Louisiane. So, smaller boats carried cargo within Mobile Bay to and from Dauphin Island. In 1719 the first import of African Slaves into Alabama was at Dauphin Island. After the French and Indian war ended in 1793, called the Seven Year War, Alabama ceded to the British.
In 1795 after the Treaty of Lorenzo was signed, new settlers started coming into Alabama from Virginia, North & South Carolina and Georgia. In 1805, the Chickasaw and Choctaw were forced to cede their lands to the government; the Creek Indians aggressively fought to hold their lands but ceded in 1813. Fort Gaines on the eastern tip of the island was built between 1821 and 1848, it was occupied by Confederate forces in 1861, captured by Federal troops during the Battle of Mobile Bay. The phrase, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead," was spoken by U. S. Admiral David Farragut just a few hundred yards from Dauphin Island's shore; the first Sand Island Light, authorized in 1834, was replaced by a structure 150 feet high, at a cost of $35,000, destroyed by Confederate forces. The present lighthouse, has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places, its ownership was transferred from the Department of Interior to the Town of Dauphin Island. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 167.1 square miles, of which 6.2 square miles is land and 159.9 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,371 people with 601 households and 418 families residing in the town. The population density was 221.2 people per square mile. There were 1,691 housing units at an average density of 272.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.43% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 1.60% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.95% of the population. There were 601 households out of which 21.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.7% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.66. In the town, the population was spread out with 17.4% under the age of 18, 7.4% from
Hurricane Frederic was an intense and damaging tropical cyclone that carved a path of damage from the Lesser Antilles to Quebec, in particular devastating areas of the United States Gulf Coast. Though only five were killed directly, the US$1.77 billion in damage accrued by Frederic made it the Atlantic basin's costliest tropical cyclone on record at the time. Prior to its final landfall, the threat that Frederic imposed on areas of the U. S. Gulf Coast triggered a mass exodus from the region larger than any other evacuation in the past. While the storm impacted the U. S. states of Mississippi and Alabama, lesser effects were felt throughout the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as inland North America. Frederic developed from a tropical depression south of the Cape Verde Islands on August 28, 1979. Tracking at a steady clip westward, the primitive cyclone reached tropical storm intensity the next day. Favorable conditions in the open Atlantic allowed for Frederic to reach hurricane intensity on September 1.
However, outflow from nearby Hurricane David began to inhibit further intensification and would continue to do so for a week, weakening Frederic as it tracked across the Greater Antilles. The tropical cyclone nearly dissipated over Cuba before redeveloping on September 9 near the Isle of Youth. From on, Frederic moved northwestward, intensifying to its peak intensity in the Gulf of Mexico with winds of 130 mph on September 12, shortly before making landfall at Dauphin Island, Alabama just below the state line between Alabama and Mississippi. Over the United States, Frederic weakened for a final time before becoming extratropical in Pennsylvania on September 14 and dissipating the next day. Damage estimates vary due to inadequate reporting of private insurance claims as well as lack of hard data on uninsured damage. S. Virgin Islands, with an additional $1.7 billion in damage on the mainland United States. FEMA, established only three months before Frederic hit, was the focal point for nearly $250 million in federal aid for recovery, $188 million of which went to Alabama.
In southern Alabama, the landscape was changed for years, with thousands of tall pine trees tilted and leaning northwest. The precursor to Hurricane Frederic emerged as a loosely defined tropical wave off the west coast of Africa late on August 27; the following day, satellite images indicated that the tropical wave had become more defined, was beginning to show signs of cyclonic rotation. At 0600 UTC on August 29, the National Hurricane Center classified the system as a tropical depression based on observational data from ships nearby in conjunction with satellite images. Upon developing into a tropical cyclone, the depression moved at an unusually rapid pace westward curving towards the west-northwest and intensifying in ideal conditions. At 1200 UTC on August 30, the tropical depression was upgraded to tropical storm status and thus named Frederic. Intensification continued after the storm's upgrade, early on September 1, Frederic developed an eye, prompting the NHC to further upgrade the tropical cyclone to hurricane status at 0600 UTC that day.
Frederic only maintained hurricane intensity for eighteen hours over the open waters of the Atlantic on September 1 before outflow from nearby Hurricane David began to adversely affect the tropical cyclone. At 0000 UTC on September 2, Frederic weakened back to tropical storm strength while it was still well east of the Lesser Antilles; this weakening phase continued as Frederic began to assume a more westerly track and slow in forward motion. On September 4, Frederic tracked over the Virgin Islands before making landfall on Puerto Rico that day with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph. Frederic's interaction with Puerto Rico disrupted the low-level circulation contained within the tropical cyclone, enhancing the weakening effects of Hurricane David's outflow. After passing over the island, the tropical storm took a southwest course before curving into Hispaniola on September 6, inducing additional disruption within Frederic. At 1800 UTC that day, Frederic was downgraded to tropical depression status north of Haiti.
Frederic remained a tropical depression for two days as it tracked into and parallel to the southern coast of Cuba beginning on September 7. During this time, Hurricane David had tracked far into the Northeastern United States, as a result its inhibiting effects of intensification ceased. At 0000 UTC on September 9, Frederic regained tropical storm intensity while located 100 mi east of the Isle of Youth; the following day, the cyclone tracked over western Cuba as it curved towards the northwest. Favorable conditions, marked by warm sea surface temperatures as high as 86 °F and the presence of a large anticyclone over the system, allowed Frederic to strengthen to hurricane status for a second time while just northwest of Cuba, despite proximity to land. Frederic took a northwesterly course throughout its trek across the Gulf of Mexico in early September, intensifying in a conducive environment. By 1800 UTC on September 10, the hurricane became stronger than it had been over the central Atlantic.
At 0000 UTC on September 12, Frederic attained major hurricane status over the eastern Gulf of Mexico, twelve hours reached peak intensity with a minimum barometric pressure of 943 mbar and sustained winds of 130 mph, making the cyclone a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Moving faster in the Gulf of Mexico, Frederic made two landfalls – one on Dauphin Island and the