Mozilla is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape. The Mozilla community uses, develops and supports Mozilla products, thereby promoting free software and open standards, with only minor exceptions; the community is supported institutionally by the not-for-profit Mozilla Foundation and its tax-paying subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation. Mozilla's products include the Firefox web browser, Thunderbird e-mail client, Firefox OS mobile operating system, Bugzilla bug tracking system, Gecko layout engine, Pocket "read-it-later-online" service, others. According to web browsers usage statistics, Mozilla's Firefox trails behind Google Chrome. On January 23, 1998, Netscape made two announcements: first, that Netscape Communicator would be free. One day Jamie Zawinski, from Netscape, registered mozilla.org. The project took its name, "Mozilla", after the original code-name of the Netscape Navigator browser — a portmanteau of "Mosaic and Godzilla", used to co-ordinate the development of the Mozilla Application Suite, the open-source version of Netscape's internet software, Netscape Communicator.
Jamie Zawinski says. A small group of Netscape employees were tasked with coordination of the new community. Mozilla aimed to be a technology provider for companies, such as Netscape, who would commercialize their open-source code; when AOL reduced its involvement with Mozilla in July 2003, the Mozilla Foundation was designated the legal steward of the project. Soon after, Mozilla deprecated the Mozilla Suite in favor of creating independent applications for each function the Firefox web browser and the Thunderbird email client, moved to supply them directly to the public. Mozilla's activities have since expanded to include Firefox on mobile platforms, a mobile OS called Firefox OS, a web-based identity system called Mozilla Persona and a marketplace for HTML5 applications. In a report released in November 2012, Mozilla reported that their total revenue for 2011 was $163 million, up 33% from $123 million in 2010. Mozilla noted that 85% of their revenue comes from their contract with Google. At the end of 2013, Mozilla announced a deal with Cisco Systems whereby Firefox would download and use a Cisco-provided binary build of an open source codec to play the proprietary H.264 video format.
Eich's donation first became public knowledge in 2012, while he was Mozilla’s chief technical officer, leading to angry responses on Twitter—including the use of the hashtag "#wontworkwithbigots". Protests emerged in 2014 following the announcement of Eich's appointment as CEO of Mozilla. U. S. companies OkCupid and CREDO Mobile received media coverage for their objections, with the former asking its users to boycott the browser, while Credo amassed 50,000 signatures for a petition that called for Eich's resignation. Due to the controversy, Eich voluntarily stepped down on April 3, 2014 and Mitchell Baker, executive chairwoman of Mozilla Corporation, posted a statement on the Mozilla blog: "We didn't move fast enough to engage with people once the controversy started. Mozilla believes both in freedom of speech. Equality is necessary for meaningful speech, and you need free speech to fight for equality." Eich's resignation promoted a backlash. OkCupid co-founder and CEO Sam Yagan had donated $500 to Republican candidate Chris Cannon who proceeded to vote for multiple measures viewed as "anti-gay", including the banning of same-sex marriage.
A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of role-playing games; the original form, sometimes called the tabletop role-playing game, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing, players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master decides on the rules and setting to be used, while acting as the referee. Several varieties of RPG exist in electronic media, such as multiplayer text-based Multi-User Dungeons and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Role-playing games include single-player role-playing video games in which players control a character, or team of characters, who undertake quests, may include player capabilities that advance using statistical mechanics.
These electronic games sometimes share settings and rules with tabletop RPGs, but emphasize character advancement more than collaborative storytelling. This type of game is well-established, so some RPG-related game forms, such as trading/collectible card games and wargames, may not be included under the definition; some amount of role-playing activity may be present in such games. The term role-playing game is sometimes used to describe games involving roleplay simulation and exercises used in teaching and academic research. Both authors and major publishers of tabletop role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative storytelling. Events and narrative structure give a sense of a narrative experience, the game need not have a strongly-defined storyline. Interactivity is the crucial difference between traditional fiction. Whereas a viewer of a television show is a passive observer, a player in a role-playing game makes choices that affect the story; such role-playing games extend an older tradition of storytelling games where a small party of friends collaborate to create a story.
While simple forms of role-playing exist in traditional children's games of make believe, role-playing games add a level of sophistication and persistence to this basic idea with additions such as game facilitators and rules of interaction. Participants in a role-playing game will generate an ongoing plot. A consistent system of rules and a more or less realistic campaign setting in games aids suspension of disbelief; the level of realism in games ranges from just enough internal consistency to set up a believable story or credible challenge up to full-blown simulations of real-world processes. Role-playing games are played in a wide variety of formats ranging from discussing character interaction in tabletop form to physically acting out characters in LARP to playing characters in digital media. There is a great variety of systems of rules and game settings. Games that emphasize plot and character interaction over game mechanics and combat sometimes prefer the name storytelling game; these types of games tend to minimize or altogether eliminate the use of dice or other randomizing elements.
Some games are played with characters created before the game by the GM, rather than those created by the players. This type of game is played at gaming conventions, or in standalone games that do not form part of a campaign. Tabletop and pen-and-paper RPGs are conducted through discussion in a small social gathering; the GM describes its inhabitants. The other players describe the intended actions of their characters, the GM describes the outcomes; some outcomes are determined by the game system, some are chosen by the GM. This is the format; the first commercially available RPG, Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by fantasy literature and the wargaming hobby and was published in 1974. The popularity of D&D led to the birth of the tabletop role-playing game industry, which publishes games with many different themes and styles of play; the popularity of tabletop games has decreased since the modern releases of online MMO RPGs. This format is referred to as a role-playing game. To distinguish this form of RPG from other formats, the retronyms tabletop role-playing game or pen and paper role-playing game are sometimes used, though neither a table nor pen and paper are necessary.
A LARP is played more like improvisational theatre. Participants act out their characters' actions instead of describing them, the real environment is used to represent the imaginary setting of the game world. Players are costumed as their characters and use appropriate props, the venue may be decorated to resemble the fictional setting; some live action role-playing games use rock-paper-scissors or comparison of attributes to resolve conflicts symbolically, while other LARPs use physical combat with simulated arms such as airsoft guns or foam weapons. LARPs vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand, in duration from a couple of hours to several days; because the number of players in a LARP is larger than in a tabletop role-playing game, the players may be interacting in separate physical spaces, there is less of an emphasis on maintaining a narrative or directly entertai
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Mozilla Organization rewrote the entire browser's source code based on the Gecko rendering engine. The Gecko engine would be used to power the Mozilla Foundation's Firefox browser. Under AOL, Netscape's browser development continued until December 2007 when AOL announced that the company would stop supporting the Netscape browser as of early 2008; as of 2011, AOL has continued to use the Netscape brand to market a discount Internet service provider. AOL renamed the Netscape Communications Corporation to New Aurora Corporation, transferred the Netscape brand to themselves. AOL sold the former Netscape company, now known as New Aurora Corporation, to Microsoft, who in turn sold them again to Facebook; the former Netscape company is a non-operating subsidiary of Facebook, still known as New Aurora Corporation. The Netscape brand remained with AOL. Netscape Communications is now part of America Online. AOL envisioned the Netscape Web site as a Web portal, providing a source of revenue through advertising and e-commerce.
After the antitrust ruling found that Microsoft had held and abused monopolistic power, Microsoft settled with AOL for $750 million. As part of the settlement, AOL gained the rights to distribute Internet Explorer. Entrepreneur Jason Calcanis leveraged the Netscape brand to create Propeller, a social bookmarking and news site similar to Digg.com. Netscape was the first company to attempt to capitalize on the nascent World Wide Web, it was founded under the name Mosaic Communications Corporation on April 4, 1994, the brainchild of Jim Clark who had recruited Marc Andreessen as co-founder and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers as investors. The first meeting between Clark and Andreessen was never about a software or service like Netscape, but more about a product, similar to Nintendo. Clark recruited other early team members from NCSA Mosaic. Jim Barksdale came on board as CEO in January 1995. Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen created a 20-page concept pitch for an online gaming network to Nintendo for the Nintendo 64 console, but a deal was never reached.
Marc Andreessen explains, "If they had shipped a year earlier, we would have done that instead of Netscape."The company's first product was the web browser, called Mosaic Netscape 0.9, released on October 13, 1994. Within four months of its release, it had taken three-quarters of the browser market, it became the main browser for Internet users in such a short time due to its superiority over other competition, like Mosaic. This browser was subsequently renamed Netscape Navigator, the company took the "Netscape" name on November 14, 1994, to avoid trademark ownership problems with NCSA, where the initial Netscape employees had created the NCSA Mosaic web browser; the Mosaic Netscape web browser did not use any NCSA Mosaic code. The internal codename for the company's browser was Mozilla, which stood for "Mosaic killer", as the company's goal was to displace NCSA Mosaic as the world's number one web browser. A cartoon Godzilla-like lizard mascot was drawn by artist-employee Dave Titus, which went well with the theme of crushing the competition.
The Mozilla mascot featured prominently on Netscape's website in the company's early years. However, the need to project a more "professional" image led to this being removed. On August 9, 1995, Netscape made an successful IPO; the stock was set to be offered at US$14 per share, but a last-minute decision doubled the initial offering to US$28 per share. The stock's value soared to US$75 during the first day of trading, nearly a record for first-day gain; the stock closed at US$58.25. While it was somewhat unusual for a company to go public prior to becoming profitable, Netscape's revenues had, in fact, doubled every quarter in 1995; the success of this IPO subsequently inspired the use of the term "Netscape moment" to describe a high-visibility IPO that signals the dawn of a new industry. During this period, Netscape pursued a publicity strategy packaging Andreessen as the company's "rock star." The events of this period landed Andreessen, barefoot, on the cover of Time magazine. The IPO helped kickstart widespread investment in internet companies that created the dot-com bubble.
Netscape advertised that "the web is for everyone" and stated one of its goals was to "level the pl
A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, maintenance and evaluation of computer software. Prior to the mid-1970s, software practitioners called themselves computer programmers or software developers, regardless of their actual jobs. Many people prefer to call themselves software developer and programmer, because most agree what these terms mean, while the exact meaning of software engineer is still being debated. Half of all practitioners today have degrees in computer science, information systems, or information technology. A small, but growing, number of practitioners have software engineering degrees. In 1987, Imperial College London introduced the first three-year software engineering Bachelor's degree in the UK and the world. In 1996, the Rochester Institute of Technology established the first software engineering bachelor's degree program in the United States, however, it did not obtain ABET accreditation until 2003, the same time as Rice University, Clarkson University, Milwaukee School of Engineering and Mississippi State University obtained theirs.
In 1997, PSG College of Technology in Coimbatore, India was the first to start a five-year integrated Master of Science degree in Software Engineering. Since software engineering undergraduate degrees have been established at many universities. A standard international curriculum for undergraduate software engineering degrees was defined by the CCSE; as of 2004, in the U. S. about 50 universities offer software engineering degrees, which teach both computer science and engineering principles and practices. The first software engineering Master's degree was established at Seattle University in 1979. Since graduate software engineering degrees have been made available from many more universities. In Canada, the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board of the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers has recognized several software engineering programs. In 1998, the US Naval Postgraduate School established the first doctorate program in Software Engineering in the world. Additionally, many online advanced degrees in Software Engineering have appeared such as the Master of Science in Software Engineering degree offered through the Computer Science and Engineering Department at California State University, Fullerton.
Steve McConnell opines that because most universities teach computer science rather than software engineering, there is a shortage of true software engineers. ETS University and UQAM were mandated by IEEE to develop the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge, which has become an ISO standard describing the body of knowledge covered by a software engineer. In business, some software engineering practitioners have MIS or computer information systems degrees. In embedded systems, some have electrical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science with emphasis in "embedded systems" or computer engineering degrees, because embedded software requires a detailed understanding of hardware. In medical software, practitioners may have medical informatics, general medical, or biology degrees; some practitioners have mathematics, engineering, or technology degrees. Some have other non-technical degrees. For instance, Barry Boehm earned degrees in mathematics. And, others have no degrees. Most software engineers work as contractors.
Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies, non-profit organizations. Some software engineers work on their own as consulting software engineers; some organizations have specialists to perform all of the tasks in the software development process. Other organizations separate software engineers based on specific software-engineering tasks; these companies sometimes hire interns over a short time. In large projects, software engineers are distinguished from people who specialize in only one role because they take part in the design as well as the programming of the project. In small projects, software engineers will fill several or all roles at the same time. Specializations include: in industry in academia Most students in the developed world have avoided degrees related to software engineering because of the fear of offshore outsourcing and of being displaced by foreign visa workers. Although government statistics do not show a threat to software engineering itself. One is expected to start out as a computer programmer before being promoted to software engineer.
Thus, the career path to software engineering may be rough during recessions. Some career counselors suggest a student focus on "people skills" and business skills rather than purely technical skills because such "soft skills" are more difficult to offshore. Reasonable command over reading, writing & speaking English is asked by most of employers, it is the quasi-management aspects of software engineering that appear to be what has kept it from being impacted by globalization. There are several prizes in the field of software engineering: The Codie awards is a yearly award issued by the Software and Information Industry Association for excellence in software development within the software industry. Jolt Awards are awards in the software industry. Stevens Award is a software engineering award given in memory of Wayne Stevens. Margaret Hamilton promoted
Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m
Video game culture
Video game culture is a worldwide new media subculture formed by video games. As computer and video games have exponentially increased in popularity over time, they have had a significant influence on popular culture. Video game culture has evolved over time hand in hand with internet culture as well as the increasing popularity of mobile games. Many people who play video games identify as gamers, which can mean anything from someone who enjoys games to someone, passionate about it; as video games become more social with multiplayer and online capability, gamers find themselves in growing social networks. Gaming can both be entertainment as well as competition, as a new trend known as electronic sports is becoming more accepted. Today, video games can be seen in social media, television, film and YouTube; as of 2016, the average age for a video game player is 31, a number increasing as people who were children playing the first arcade and home computer games continue playing now on current systems.
The gender distribution of gamers is reaching equilibrium, according to a 2016 study showing that 59% of gamers are male and 41% female. As of 2011 ESA reported that 71% of people age six to forty-nine in the U. S. played video games, with 55 % of gamers playing on mobile devices. The average age of players across the globe is mid to late 20s, is increasing as older players grow in numbers. One possible reason for the increase in players could be attributed to the growing number of genres that require less of a specific audience. For example, the Wii console has widened its audience with games such as Wii Fit. Both require more activity from the user and provide more reasons to play including family competition or exercise, it could be because people who played video games when they were young are now growing older and still have that interest in video games. The largest entertainment industry for children is gaming. According to a 2008 telephone survey with a sample size of 1,102 respondents, 97% of children living in the United States and between the ages of 12 and 17 play video games.
As displayed by the recent release of certain games, video game developers have started to create gaming content that appeals to alternative audiences, beyond those of "Player 1." The idea of "Player 1" refers to the stereotypical straight male gamer as the sole individual that video games are created for. On the other hand, "Player 2" may refer to populations of gamers who divert from this demographic, such as women or LGBTQ+ communities. Games designed to appeal to "Player 2" offer gamers an alternative gaming experience, thus allowing for the further demographic expansion of the video game subculture. Video games are played in a variety of social ways, which involve domestic gatherings or in public places. A popular method of accomplishing this is a LAN party, which if hosted at a home involves family and friends, creating a social event for people friendly with each other. LAN parties are held in large-scale events conducted in public spaces and have a great number of participants who might not socialise.
The Everquest Fan Faires for instance, provide weekends of socializing and playing, at a large gathering of dedicated game fans. Terry Flew in his book Games: Technology, Culture emphasises the Online Gaming Communities – "where players aren't physically located in the same space, but still socializing together"; this raises the notion of McLuhan's "Global Village", as people are able to transcend their physical limitations and communicate with people, possessing a similar interest, from all around the world. Shapiro stresses the possibility of "Using technology to enhance one's social life", as friendships no longer have to be structured by physical proximity. Shapiro states that "the net gives individuals the opportunity to extend their social network in a novel way, to communicate and share life experiences with people regardless of where they live and form online relationships". Thus, such online communities satisfy a genuine need for affiliation with like-minded others. Online gaming has drastically increased the size of gaming culture.
Online gaming grew out of games on bulletin board systems and on college mainframes from the 1970s and 1980s. MUDs offered multiplayer competition and cooperation but on a scope more geographically limited than on the internet; the internet allowed gamers from all over the world – not just within one country or state – to play games together with ease. With the advent of Cloud Gaming high-performance games can now be played from low-end client systems and TVs. One of the most groundbreaking titles in the history of online gaming is Quake, which offered the ability to play with sixteen, up to thirty-two players in a 3D world. Gamers began to establish their own organized groups, called clans. Clans established their own identities, their own marketing, their own form of internal organization, their own looks; some clans had friendly or hostile rivalries, there were clans who were allied with other clans. Clan interaction took place on both professionally set competition events, during normal casual playing where several members of one clan would play on a public server.
Clans would do their recruiting this way. Gamers of all ages play online games, with the average age being 3