Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles are four fictional teenaged anthropomorphic turtles named after Italian artists of the Renaissance. They were trained by their anthropomorphic rat sensei in the art of ninjutsu. From their home in the sewers of New York City, they battle petty criminals, evil overlords, mutated creatures, alien invaders while attempting to remain hidden from society, they were created by Peter Laird. The characters originated in comic books published by Mirage Studios and expanded into cartoon series, video games and other merchandise. During the peak of the franchise's popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it gained worldwide success and fame; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles first appeared in an American comic book published by Mirage Studios in 1984 in Dover, New Hampshire. The concept arose from a humorous drawing sketched out by Eastman during a casual evening of brainstorming and bad television with Laird. Using money from a tax refund, together with a loan from Eastman's uncle, the young artists self-published a single-issue comic intended to parody four of the most popular comics of the early 1980s: Marvel Comics’ Daredevil and New Mutants, Dave Sim’s Cerebus, Frank Miller’s Ronin.
The TMNT comic book series has been published in various incarnations by various comic book companies since 1984. The Turtles started their rise to mainstream success when a licensing agent, Mark Freedman, sought out Eastman and Laird to propose wider merchandising opportunities for the franchise. In 1986, Dark Horse Miniatures produced a set of 15-mm lead figurines. In January 1987, Eastman and Laird visited the offices of Playmates Toys, a small California toy company that wanted to expand into the action-figure market. Development was undertaken by a creative team of companies and individuals: Jerry Sachs, advertising agent of Sachs-Finley Agency, brought together the animators at Murakami-Wolf-Swenson headed by Fred Wolf. Wolf and his team combined concepts and ideas with the Playmates marketing crew, headed by Karl Aaronian, vice president of sales Richard Sallis, VP of Playmates Bill Carlson. Aaronian brought on several designers and concepteur and writer John C. Schulte, worked out the simple backstory that would live on toy packaging for the entire run of the product and show.
Sachs called the high concept pitch "Green Against Brick". The sense of humor was honed with the collaboration of the Murakami-Wolf-Swenson animation firm's writers. Playmates and their team served as associate producers and contributing writers to the miniseries, first launched to sell-in the toy action figures. Phrases like "Heroes in a half shell" and many of the comical catch phrases and battle cries came from the writing and conceptualization of this creative team; as the series developed, veteran writer Jack Mendelsohn came on board as both a story editor and scriptwriter. David Wise, Michael Charles Hill, Michael Reaves wrote most of the scripts; the miniseries was repeated. Once the product started selling, the show got syndicated and picked up and backed by Group W, which funded the next round of animation; the show went network, on CBS. Accompanied by the popular Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 1987 TV series, the subsequent action figure line, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles became a mainstream success.
At the height of the frenzy, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Turtles' likenesses could be found on a wide range of children's merchandise, from Pez dispensers to skateboards, breakfast cereal, video games, school supplies, towels and toy shaving kits. While the animated TV series, which lasted for 10 seasons until 1996, was more light-hearted, the comic-book series continued in a much darker and grittier tone. In 1990, a live-action feature film was released, with the Turtles and Splinter being portrayed by actors in animatronic suits created by Jim Henson's Creature Shop; the film became one of the most successful independent films and spawned two sequels, as well as inspiring a three-dimensional animated film set in the same continuity, released in 2007 under the title TMNT. After the end of the cartoon series, a live-action series in the vein of the films was created in 1997 in conjunction with Saban Entertainment; the series was called Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation and introduced a fifth, female turtle called Venus de Milo.
However, the series was unsuccessful and was canceled after one season. The property lay dormant until 2003, when a new animated TV series entitled Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles began to air on Fox Box; the series storyline stuck much closer to the original Mirage comic book series, but was still less violent. It lasted for seven seasons and 156 episodes, ending in February 2009. On October 21, 2009, it was announced that cable channel Nickelodeon had purchased all of Mirage's rights to the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles property. Mirage retains the rights to publish 18 issues a year, though the future involvement of Mirage with the Turtles and the future of Mirage Studios itself is unknown. Nickelodeon has developed a new CGI-animated TMNT television series and partnered with fellow Viacom company Paramount Pictures to bring a new TMNT movie to theaters; the TV show premiered on Nickelodeon on September 29, 2012. The live-action film, produced by Platinum Dunes, Nickelodeon Movies, Paramount Pictures, directed by Jonathan Liebesman, produced by Michael Bay, was released on August 8, 2014.
Leonardo – The tactical, courageous leader and devoted student of his sensei, Leonardo wears a blue mask and wields two swords. As the most conscientious of the four, he
Games Workshop Group PLC is a British miniature wargaming manufacturing company based in Nottingham, England. Games Workshop is best known as developer and publisher of the tabletop wargames Warhammer Age of Sigmar, Warhammer 40,000, The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game and The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game, it is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Founded in 1975 at 15 Bolingbroke Road, London by John Peake, Ian Livingstone, Steve Jackson, Games Workshop was a manufacturer of wooden boards for games including backgammon, Nine Men's Morris, Go, it became an importer of the U. S. role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons, a publisher of wargames and role-playing games in its own right, expanding from a bedroom mail-order company in the process. In order to promote their business and postal games, create a games club, provide an alternative source for games news, the newsletter Owl and Weasel was founded in February 1975; this was superseded in June 1977 by White Dwarf. From the outset, there was a clear, stated interest in print regarding "progressive games", including computer gaming, which led to the departure of traditionalist John Peake in early 1976 and the loss of the company's main source of income.
However, having obtained official distribution rights to Dungeons & Dragons and other TSR products in the U. K. and maintaining a high profile by running games conventions, the business grew rapidly. It opened its first retail shop in April 1978. In early 1979 Games Workshop provided the funding to found Citadel Miniatures in Newark-on-Trent. Citadel would produce the metal miniatures used in its role-playing games and tabletop wargames; the "Citadel" name became synonymous with Games Workshop Miniatures, continues to be a trademarked brand name used in association with them long after the Citadel company was absorbed into Games Workshop. For a time Gary Gygax promoted the idea of TSR, Inc. merging with Games Workshop, until Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone backed out. The company's publishing arm released U. K. reprints of American RPGs such as Call of Cthulhu, Runequest and Middle-earth Role Playing, which were expensive to import. In 1984 Games Workshop ceased distributing its products in the U.
S. A. through hobby games opened its Games Workshop office. Games Workshop, Games Workshop in general, grew in the late 1980s, with over 250 employees on the payroll by 1990. Following a management buyout by Bryan Ansell in December 1991, Games Workshop refocused on their miniature wargames Warhammer Fantasy Battle and Warhammer 40,000, their most lucrative lines; the retail chain refocused on a younger, more family-oriented market. The change of direction was a great success and the company enjoyed growing profits, but the more commercial direction of the company made it lose some of its old fan base. A breakaway group of two company employees published Fantasy Warlord in competition with Games Workshop, but the new company met with little success and closed in 1993. Games Workshop expanded in Europe, the US, Australia, opening new branches and organising events in each new commercial territory; the company was floated on the London Stock Exchange in October 1994. In October 1997 all U. K.-based operations were relocated to the current headquarters in Nottingham.
By the end of the decade the company was having problems with falling profits, blame was placed on the growth in popularity of collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering and Pokémon T. C. G.. Games Workshop attempted to create a dual approach to appeal to older customers while still attracting a younger audience. Most of their special characters and vehicles were cast in white metal or pewter, but by the 2000s most of them were replaced by plastics. With this shift, Games Workshop has been able to offer greater variety in the armies offered with introductory box sets; this change brought about the creation of "initiatives" such as the "Fanatic" range, supporting more marginal lines with a lower-cost trading model. Games Workshop contributed to designing and making games and puzzles for the popular television series The Crystal Maze; the release of Games Workshop's third "core" miniature wargame, The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game, in 2000 extended the company's product range. The company diversified by acquiring Sabretooth Games, creating the Black Library, working with THQ.
In late 2009 Games Workshop issued a succession of cease and desist orders against various Internet sites it accused of violating its intellectual property generating anger and disappointment from its fan community. On 16 May 2011, Maelstrom Games announced that Games Workshop had revised the terms and conditions of their trade agreement with independent stockists in the U. K; the new terms and conditions restricted the sale of all Games Workshop products to within the European Economic Area. On 16 June 2013, WarGameStore, a U. K.-based retailer of Games Workshop products since 2003, announced further changes to Games Workshop's trade agreement with U. K.-based independent stockists. Alongside the UK publishing rights to several American role-playing games in the 1980s Games Workshop a
Fighting Fantasy is a series of single-player role-playing gamebooks created by Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone. The first volume in the series was published in paperback by Puffin in 1982; the series distinguished itself by mixing Choose Your Own Adventure-style storytelling with a dice-based role-playing element included within the books themselves. The caption on many of the covers claimed each title was an adventure "in which YOU are the hero!" The majority of the titles followed a fantasy theme, although science fiction, post-apocalyptic and modern horror gamebooks were published. The popularity of the series led to the creation of merchandise such as action figures, board games, role-playing game systems, magazines and video games. Puffin ended the series in 1995, but the rights to the series were purchased by Wizard Books in 2002. Wizard published new editions of the original books and commissioned six new books over two series, ending in 2012; the rights were acquired by Scholastic in 2017, which has since published two new titles and reissued ten of the original books with new artwork.
The main text of each gamebook does not progress in a linear fashion, but rather is divided into a series of numbered sections. Beginning at the first section, the reader must pick one of a series of options provided by the text, each option being detailed at a separate non-sequential numbered section which in turn provides an outcome for the option chosen; the book continues in this fashion until their character is killed in combat, is stopped by the story, or completes the story. “Fighting Fantasy gamebooks empower the reader, who felt the anxiety or joy of being fantasy heroes themselves – they lived or died by their decisions. And if at first you don’t succeed and try again,” said Ian Livingstone of the format; the typical Fighting Fantasy gamebook tasks players with completing a quest. A successful play ends with the player reaching the final numbered section of the book. In some cases this can only be achieved by obtaining various story items. All Fighting Fantasy gamebooks are illustrated, including full-page pieces and smaller, repeated images scattered throughout the book as breaks or space fillers between sections.
Regular contributors included Les Edwards, Terry Oakes, Russ Nicholson, Leo Hartas, Ian Miller, John Blanche, Martin McKenna, Iain McCaig. Each Fighting Fantasy gamebook requires the reader to create their character, randomly assigning scores to three statistics. These, in conjunction with rolling six-sided dice, are used to resolve skill challenges and the combat sections; some titles use conflict resolution mechanics. Most early Fighting Fantasy titles were set in locations revealed to be on the same continent called Allansia. On a whole world named Titan was developed with subsequent gamebooks set on three main continents - Allansia and the Old World. Other titles are set in unrelated fantasy, modern day, sci-fi environments. In 1980, Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone attended a Games Day, after meeting with a Penguin Books editor Geraldine Cook decided to create a series of single-player gamebooks, their first submission, The Magic Quest, was a short adventure intended to demonstrate the style of game.
The Magic Quest was accepted by Penguin, although the authors devoted a further six months to expanding and improving upon their original concept. The end result was The Warlock of Firetop Mountain and, after several rewrites, the book was accepted and published in 1982 under Penguin's children's imprint, Puffin Books. Following the success of this title and Livingstone began writing individually to create additional Fighting Fantasy gamebooks. In 1983, The Citadel of Chaos and The Forest of Doom were published, by Jackson and Livingstone respectively. Four more titles followed: Starship Traveller, City of Thieves, Deathtrap Dungeon and Island of the Lizard King. In 1984, a decision was made to hire more writers to continue the series: Steve Jackson was the first, followed by others such as Andrew Chapman, Carl Sargent, Marc Gascoigne, Peter Darvill-Evans. Jackson and Livingstone, continued to be involved and approved all cover and internal illustrations within the UK. Jackson wrote a self-contained four-part series titled Steve Jackson's Sorcery!, which combined the use of combat and sorcery, introduced the continent known as the Old World.
These featured dice images at the bottom of each page, making it possible for the player to randomly flip through the pages for the equivalent of a dice roll. Andrew Chapman and Martin Allen wrote a two-book, two-player adventure titled Clash of the Princes. There were several supplemental books produced that provided more information about the Fighting Fantasy universe, including a comprehensive bestiary of monsters and a sample adventure. Although the Fighting Fantasy titles had successful sales the increasing dominance of video games in the 1990s caused a gradual decline; the series was scheduled to conclude with Return to Firetop Mountain, but due to strong sale
Dragon Warriors is a fantasy role playing game system written by Dave Morris and Oliver Johnson and published by Corgi Books between the years 1985 and 1986. In 2009, it was re-collected in a new hardcover edition by Mongoose Publishing; this print run included the publication of several supplements to the Dragon Warrior's world "Legend". However, as of September 2010, this publication run has been discontinued but the books continue to remain available in pdf format. Unlike most RPGs which were presented as box sets or large hardback or softback books, Dragon Warriors consisted of six paperback books of ordinary size. Dragon Warriors is set in the world of the same as that of the Blood Sword game books; as of April 2011, Serpent King Games is the licence holder of Dragon Warriors, has re-published updated versions of the Mongoose books which are available on DriveThruRPG.com. Books 1-3 were published together and established a coherent and featured, if lightweight game system; the latter three books added depth to the game.
Dragon Warriors was the original book. It included rules for combat, a listing of weapons and armor, a selection of opponents; the game offered a choice of warrior classes and Barbarian, as well as the necessary information required to play a Human, a Dwarf, or an Elf. The book has 208 pages; the Way of Wizardry expanded the original game to include magical spells and devices. It added Sorcerer to the available classes, it was published in 1985 and has 176 pages. The Elven Crystals provided three long adventure scenarios, as well as a few new monsters and items, although the scenarios make up the bulk of the book, it was published in 1985 and has 192 pages. Out of the Shadows added rules for the Assassin class, it includes rules for stealth, martial arts and trance-magic. It includes a new selection of monsters, which for the most part are more powerful and less common than the ones featured in Dragon Warriors, it was published in 1986 and has 256 pages. The Power of Darkness added rules for the Elementalist class.
It includes new spells as well as an epic adventure scenario making up the bulk of the book. It was published in 1986 and has 192 pages; the Lands of Legend adds rules for the Warlock class. It includes several elements for campaign setting such as a complete world map and the accompanying descriptions of far away lands and cities. Sections are devoted to popular myths or rare items, both of which lending themselves to become starting points of new adventures, it has 272 pages. Dragon Warriors rulebook is the first book of the re-released series; the original material from the six Dragon Warriors books of the 1980s has been re-edited and updated, including new covers and artwork. The new material has been overseen and approved by the original Dragon Warriors authors, Dave Morris and Oliver Johnson, includes a new introduction to the rulebook by the former; the 8.5" x 11" hardback book was published is 2008, has 256 pages. Dragon Warriors Bestiary is the second release of the re-released series, it is a supplement containing a large list of monsters from the world of Legend along with a set of Random Encounter Tables for various terrain.
It contains an expanded Treasure/Habitat tables for the new and existing monsters. The book itself is a softback at 88 pages in length and was released in 2008. A supplement containing 36 NPC characters for inclusion in campaigns. Published so far are The Elven Crystals, Prince of Darkness and Sleeping Gods. An unofficial fanzine ran for 2 issues, was known as Ordo Draconis, it was produced in pdf-format only, featuring adventures, new professions, other material for the Dragon Warriors RPG re-release. In August 2010 two fans who had contributed to Ordo Draconis released a 54-page pdf adventure through Magnum Opus Press titled Fury of the Deep; these are available through sites that sell electronic versions of roleplaying games, such as DriveThruRPG and RPGNow. Like a number of RPGs, Dragon Warriors uses a variety of contextual rule systems rather than a single encompassing game mechanic or dice system. However, there are two primary mechanics within the game; the first is the opposed score system, where an ability value of a character or creature is subtracted from the opposed ability value of another to generate a number that must be rolled below on either a d20 or 2d10.
Examples are ATTACK vs. DEFENCE, MAGICAL ATTACK vs. MAGICAL DEFENCE, STEALTH vs. PERCEPTION, SPEED vs. EVASION; the second main mechanic involves an attribute score being compared to a difficulty score determined by the GM. If the attribute is equal or above to the difficulty the character succeeds automatically, otherwise they must roll below their attribute score on d20. Dragon Warriors requires the use of the whole spectrum of polyhedral dice: d4, d6, d8, d10, d12, d20; the game's designers have since stated that utilising mechanics that involve polyhedral dice, rather than just common six-sided dice, was an error of judgment, could have had an effect on the accessibility of the original series. Dragonwarriors was ranked 48th in the 1996 reader poll of Arcane magazine to determine the 50 most popular roleplaying games of all time; the UK magazine's editor Paul Pettengale commented: "Unfortunately though this is a fine, so
Stoke Poges is a green-buffered scattered village and civil parish in the South Bucks district of Buckinghamshire, England. It is centred 2.7 miles north-north-east of Slough, its post town, 1.5 miles southeast of Farnham Common. In the name Stoke Poges, stoke means "stockaded", staked with more than just boundary-marking stakes. In the Domesday Book of 1086, the village was recorded as Stoche. William Fitz-Ansculf, who held the manor in 1086 became known as William Stoches or William of Stoke. Two hundred years after William, Amicia of Stoke, heiress to the manor, married Robert Pogeys, Knight of the Shire, the village became known as Stoke Poges; the spelling appearing as "Stoke Pocheys", if applicable to this village, may suggest the pronunciation of the second part to have a more open "o" sound compared with the word "Stoke". A manor house at Stoke Poges was built before the Norman Conquest and was mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book. In 1555 the owner, Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, pulled down much of the existing fortified house.
He replaced it with a large Tudor brick-built house, with numerous chimneys and gables. In 1599 it was acquired by Sir Edward Coke, said to have entertained Queen Elizabeth I there in 1601. A few decades the married lady of the manor, Frances Coke, Viscountess Purbeck, the daughter of Sir Edward Coke, had a love affair with Robert Howard, a member of parliament; the affair's discovery was received as a scandal upon the three people involved, in 1635 Lady Frances was imprisoned for adultery. She escaped from prison to France, returned and lived at Stoke Poges Manor for a time, she died at Oxford in 1645 at the court of King Charles I. Charles I himself was imprisoned at Stoke Poges Manor in 1647 before his execution; the manor came into the possession of Thomas Penn, a son of William Penn who founded Pennsylvania and was its first proprietor. Thomas Penn held three-fourths of the proprietorship; the manor property remained in his family for at least two generations, as his son John Penn "of Stoke" lived there.
Thomas Gray's 1750 poem "A Long Story" describes the house and its occupants. Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was a frequent visitor to the house and rented it as a studio for some time, his most famous painting, The Monarch of the Glen, is said to have been created at Stoke Poges, with the deer in the park used as models. Stoke Poges has a primary school called The Stoke Poges School. There is a Sikh faith secondary school, Khalsa Secondary Academy, whose curriculum includes horse riding and archery, it is rated'Good' by Ofsted. Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" is believed to have been written in the churchyard of the Church of England parish church of Saint Giles in Stoke Poges known as the Stoke Poges Church. Other churches have claimed the honour, including St Laurence's Church, Upton-cum-Chalvey and St Mary's in Everdon, Northamptonshire. Gray is buried at St Giles'. John Penn "of Stoke" had a large monument built, displaying verses from the Elegy, nearby; the Georgian rectory was built by Thomas Penn of Stoke Park in 1765.
It is now a private residence called Elegy House. Stoke Poges is mentioned in the book Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, where it is the location of a frequently-visited golf course. 1990'Inspector Lynley' crime novel Well-Schooled in Murder by Elizabeth George, its television adaptation, are set in Stoke Poges. The golf course at Stoke Park was the setting of a golf match in the James Bond film Goldfinger, played between the principal characters. Stoke Park is featured in the films Layer Cake, Wimbledon and Prejudice, Bridget Jones' Diary. In the film I Could Go On Singing, Judy Garland's character visits St. Giles' parish church with her son. In 1969, Pinewood film studios hired a chemistry laboratory at Fulmer Research Institute for use as a film set for the film "The Chairman", starring Gregory Peck; the 1981 James Bond film For Your Eyes Only filmed its opening sequence, when Bond visits his wife's grave, in the graveyard at St Giles' Church. Part of the 2007 series Jekyll was filmed on the boardwalk and surrounding area.
In Nick Hancock's Football Nightmares Nick Hancock is trying to hitchhike to the Victoria Ground in Stoke-on-Trent, but keeps getting dropped off in, or just outside, Stoke Poges. In 2010, the BBC drama series Vexed was filmed in the grounds and inside Stoke Court - which had earlier been Bayer Group UK's conference centre. Thomas Penn, son of William Penn and proprietor of Pennsylvania, with three-fourths holding. Jacques Laffite, the French Formula One racing driver who won six Grands Prix for Ligier during the late 1970s and early 1980s, lived in Stoke Poges during some of his racing career. Sir Henry Martin, DCL, Fellow of New College, King's Advocate for James I, 1609, Judge of Admiralty Court is reported to have been born at Stokes Poges. Fulmer Research Institute, A pioneer contract research and development organization. From 1946 to 1990 its headquarters was in Hollybush Hill, Stoke Poges. At the 2001 UK census, the Stoke Poges electoral ward had a population of 4,839; the ethnicity was 93.3% white, 1.3% mixed race, 4.8% Asian, 0.3% black and 0.3% other.
The place of birth of residents was 88.1% United Kingdom, 1.6% Republic of Ireland, 2.5% other Western European countries, 7.8% elsewhere. Religion was recorded as 76.5% Christian, 0.2% Buddhist, 0.7% Hindu, 2.7% Sikh, 0.5% Jewish, 1.1% Muslim. 10.6% were recorded as having no religion, 0.2%
Knightmare is a British children's adventure game show, created by Tim Child, broadcast over eight series on CITV from 7 September 1987 to 11 November 1994. The general format of the show is on a team of four children - one who takes on the game, three acting as their guide and advisers - attempting to complete a quest within a fantasy medieval environment, traversing a large dungeon and using their wits to overcome puzzles and the unusual characters they meet along the journey; the show is most notable for its use of blue screen chroma key, an idea Child utilised upon seeing it being put to use in weather forecasts at the time the programme began, as well as its use of'virtual reality' interactive gameplay on television and the high level of difficulty faced by every team. Broadcast to high viewing figures throughout its original run, it garnered a cult status amongst fans since its final television episode in 1994, it was revived for a one off special by YouTube in August 2013. Each run of the game involves a team of four children, aged around 11-16, focuses on the same format.
One member takes on the game in person, referred to as the "Dungeoneer", but are made blind to their surroundings by the "Helmet of Justice" - a headpiece that blocks their field of vision to just around their feet. The other three act as their advisers, guiding them around, giving them advice to solving puzzles, making notes on information received. Once the Dungeoneer is ready, they are sent off on their quest, which in most series requires the team to choose which one they will undertake, whereupon the action takes place within a blue screen chroma key studio, used to display a computer-generated hand-drawn fantasy dungeon - only the viewers and the Dungeoneer's advisers can see this. In some cases, filming of a run takes place in real locations, in which the viewpoint of these scenes is done to appear to be from that of the Dungeoneer's; the rest of the team remains in the main studio fashioned as an antechamber of "Knightmare Castle", provide instructions and descriptions of a location to the Dungeoneer, much in the same fashion of text-based computer games which rely on description and commands rather than any visuals.
An example of this could be that a room has a key for a locked door within, so the advisers would describe the room to the Dungeoneer and instruct them to move towards the key, pick it up, use it on the door to exit the room. The objective of the game is for the team to complete three levels of a specially made dungeon designed for them; each level consists of a number of rooms - some with puzzles and challenges that have to be overcome - and a selection of inhabitants - some will help out, while others will either hinder the player unless they give them something they require, or attempt to stop them and end their game. In some cases, the team faces more than one exit, must make a choice about which way to go; every dungeon has a selection of objects, some of which will help to solve puzzles or get past certain inhabitants, while others are decoys, as well as magic spells - a single word that can be used to solve puzzles, get around hazards and dangerous inhabitants, which require an adviser to spell out the word correctly.
Each team is required to complete their game within a time-limit, represented by an on-screen animated life force meter for the Dungeoneer that depletes over time. Because the amount of time given is not enough, the team must get the Dungeoneer to checkpoints within the dungeon and have them pick up a food item and place it within a knapsack given to them before they begin their run, which restores the Dungeoneer's life-force to full upon doing so. If the team make mistakes that allow the Dungeoneer to take "damage" from monsters or hazards, they occur a time penalty, that reduces the amount of time they have to complete the game. If the Dungeoneer runs out of life-force, the game is over; the appearance of the life-force meter varied during the course of the show's history: Up until the end of the fifth series, the meter was a computer animated image of an adventurer wearing a helmet. As life-force depletes, pieces of the helmet disappears from the meter the skin of the adventurer, the skull, until the eyes roll past the camera.
The background of the image changes - green when healthy, amber when it moderate, red when life-force is low. This meter was used again in the one-off YouTube remake. In the sixth and seventh series, the meter was represented by an animated picture of a walking knight, which loses pieces of its armour over time to reveal a skeleton, which crumbles to bits. In the final series, the meter was represented by an animated picture of a pie, in which each slice of it dissolves over time. If the team manages to complete all three levels, they are awarded with their prize, which changed over the years of the show's history. Unlike most other children's shows, Knightmare had no qualms over having a high difficulty level, as a result, only eight teams managed to win the game over its eight series. Regardless of whether a team wins or fails, they leave the show once their game is over, a new team takes their place; this continues until the final episode of the series, whereupon the last team playing in that episode will always be given an imposs
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east. Buckinghamshire is one of the home counties and towns such as High Wycombe, Amersham and the Chalfonts in the east and southeast of the county are parts of the London commuter belt, forming some of the most densely populated parts of the county. Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford; some areas without direct rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham and near Olney in the northeast, are much less populous. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the surrounding area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire.
The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, four district councils. In national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers and cyclists from London. In this area older buildings are made from local flint and red brick. Many parts of the county are quite affluent and like many areas around London this has led to problems with housing costs: several reports have identified the market town of Beaconsfield as having among the highest property prices outside London. Chequers, a mansion estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury and around the Great Ouse; the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary. Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake and part of Silverstone race track on the Northamptonshire border.
Many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries; the name Buckinghamshire means The district of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner; the county has been so named since about the 12th century. The history of the area predates the Anglo-Saxon period and the county has a rich history starting from the Celtic and Roman periods, though the Anglo-Saxons had the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire: the geography of the rural county is as it was in the Anglo-Saxon period. Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks; the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county, forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work.
Not only did this alter the local economic situation, it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence; the expansion of London and coming of the railways promoted the growth of towns in the south of the county such as Aylesbury and High Wycombe, leaving the town Buckingham itself to the north in a relative backwater. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, rather than in Buckingham; the county can be split into two sections geographically. The south leads from the River Thames up the gentle slopes of the Chiltern Hills to the more abrupt slopes on the northern side leading to the Vale of Aylesbury, a large flat expanse of land, which includes the path of the River Great Ouse; the county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England.
The River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes and Olney; the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes; the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, Coombe Hill near Wendover at 260 metres. Quarrying has taken clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings. Several former quarries, now flooded, have become nature reserves; as can be seen from the table, the Vale of Aylesbury and the Borough of Milton Keynes have been identified as growth areas, with a projected population surge of 40,000 in Aylesbury Vale between 2011 and 2026 and 75,000 in Milton Keynes within the same 15 years.
The population of the Borough of Milton Keynes is expected to reach 350,000 by 2031. Buckinghamshire is sub-divided into civil parishes. Today Bucking