Dean Guitars referred to as Dean, is an American manufacturer of stringed instruments and musical products. It is known for its solid-body electric guitars, bass guitars, acoustic guitars such as the Dean ML, the Dean V, the Dean Z, but more the Dean Razorback, Dean Stealth, Dean Icon, Dean VMNT, Dean Zero, Dean Mako Acoustic Guitar, its headquarters are in Florida. The company makes and/or distributes a full range of products to include resonator guitars, banjos, ukuleles, guitar cases and custom guitar pickups; the company was founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1976 by Dean Zelinsky but came to prominence under Elliott Rubinson in 1997 when his company Armadillo Enterprises purchased the trade name. The Dean family today consists of over 100 people: guitar luthiers and techs and sales staff, customer service providers, office admins and marketing personnel all of which are practicing musicians and artisans. Armadillo Enterprises today is a held organization with Evan Rubinson serving as the Chief Executive Officer.
Dean Guitars started in 1976 and gained worldwide recognition by being used by bands such as Heart, The Cars, Molly Hatchet, Triumph and ZZ Top. With the advent of the superstrat and grunge music, Dean Zelinsky sold the business to Oscar Medeiros of Tropical Music, who gained ownership of the brand from 1986, until 1995 focused on selling to Latin bands overseas; the company had all but disappeared from the American market at this point. Armadillo Enterprises, under the leadership of Elliott Rubinson purchased the Dean trade name in 1997. Rubinson, a professional musician who has toured as a bass player for the Michael Schenker Group as well as for Uli Jon Roth and Michael Angelo Batio, saw an opportunity to re-boot Dean Guitars by expanding its offerings to include a full line of acoustic and bass guitars, mandolins and ukuleles with prices ranging from less than $99 to more than $13,000. Rubinson had built Thoroughbred Music, a world-renowned music retail store, music supply, music clinic center.
A pioneer in the music retail industry, Rubinson sold Thoroughbred to Sam Ash Music in 1999 so he could focus his efforts on Dean. After growing a team of respected guitarists and music industry professionals, many of whom came from Thoroughbred, Dean Guitars' popularity surged. Under Armadillo Enterprises the company grew exponentially, outgrowing its 20,000-square-foot Clearwater location and transitioning to a new 100,000-square-foot building complete with a state-of-the-art USA Custom Guitar Shop. Today the company assembles guitar pickups and guitar parts made and painted in locations throughout the country and distributes them around the world; as of December 2016, Elliott Rubinson's son, Evan Rubinson, has assumed the position of President and CEO at Armadillo Enterprises. In February 2017, Elliott "Dean" Rubinson died from cancer. Richard Ash, CEO of Sam Ash Music Stores, said, "Elliott was a true genius, he would have been successful in any business but he went with his passion for music and built his business around it...
He was one of my heroes. RIP Elliott Rubinson." Dean is known for the line of electric guitars that includes the ML, V, Z, Splittail, Soltero, EVO, Custom Zone and Deceiver models. Dean has many signature electric guitar models; the company offers numerous Dimebag Darrell models, including some signature ML models and his own original shapes, the Razorback and Razorback V. The company has worked with the grammy-awarded frontman and guitarist of Megadeth, Dave Mustaine, to offer a line of guitars: the Dave Mustaine Signature Series Dean VMNT, Dean Zero, Dean Mako, ranging in price from around $300 to over $6000 for the USA instruments; the Dean USA Dave Mustaine Signature VMNT Holy Grail electric guitar, a more recent incarnation of the V introduced in 2016, is an example of the superlative nature of the brand. Dean has signature models for Bret Michaels, Michael Schenker, Leslie West, Michael Angelo Batio, Michael Amott, Rusty Cooley, other artists; the company's bass guitar models include the ML, V, Z, Edge, Metal Man / Demonator, Entwistle, EVO, Custom Zone.
Dean has extended its range of products to other string instruments such as resonator guitars and banjos. In 2017, Dean unveiled several new musical instruments to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the company. 2018 saw a unique first for the company with a partnership between Dean USA Custom Shop and Angel's Envy Bourbon. The result was the Dean Envy Series made from whiskey cask barrels. Dean Cadillac or "Cadi" Dean Christian Martucci V Dean Craig Wayne Boyd Acoustic Dean Custom Series Dean Dave Mustaine Mako Acoustic Dean Dave Mustaine VMNT Dean Dave Mustaine Zero Dean Demonator Bass Dean Edge Series Bass Dean Envy Series Dean Eric Peterson Series Dean HardTail Dean Hillsboro Bass Dean Jacky Vincent Signature Guitar Dean John Entwistle Bass Dean Matt Heafy MKH Dean Michael Amott Tyrant Dean Michael Angelo Batio MAB1 Armorflame / MAB2 Aviator Dean Michael Schenker Series Dean ML Dean ML Acoustic Dean ML Ukulele Dean Razorback Dean Razorback V Dean RC Series Dean Select Series Dean Sledgehammer Bass Dean Soltero Dean SplitTail Dean Stealth Dean Uli Roth Sky Guitar Dean V Dean "Vinman" Vinnie Moore Signature Guitar Dean Z Dean ZX Currently, notable artists from the Dean roster include: Bret Michaels of Poison Christian Martucci of Stone Sour Craig Wayne Boyd Dave Mustaine of Megadeth David Vincent of Morbid Angel D
Leo Fender began building guitar amplifiers before he started manufacturing electric guitars. The first of these were the K&F models, produced between 1945 and 1946; the early K&F and Fender amplifiers relied upon vacuum tube circuitry, with the company adding solid-state models in the late 1960s. The first "Fender" amplifiers were manufactured by Leo Fender and Doc Kauffman, doing business as the K&F Manufacturing Corporation. In a steel case, most were finished in baked in the Kauffman family oven, they were made in three sizes, 1×8", 1×10", 1×15". They are all rare today and few have survived; the first amplifiers made in-house by the Fender Electric Instrument Company have been dubbed the Woodie series, built in 1946 through 1948. They included the Model 26 Deluxe, the Princeton, the Professional. Fender amplifiers became established with the tweed series, wood cases covered in varnished cotton twill in the manner of suitcases of the era, they were produced for more than a decade. The first cloth used was an off-white fabric, followed by a horizontal-stripe two-tone pattern, a two-tone twill.
The twill covering was first used in 1946 on the Dual Professional, a twin 10" 6L6-powered model of which only 400 were made before being renamed "the Super Amp" in 1948. These early models are referred to as "TV-Fronts" due to the shape of the cabinet when viewed from above; the Dual Pro was the first twin-speaker amplifier, the first to employ a finger-jointed pine cabinet and the amp with a top-facing control panel. The construction of the chassis was changed as well, mounted to the back with the tubes pointed down, as opposed to having the chassis mounted on the top of the cabinet; this has the benefit of providing ease of access to the inside while providing a strong top. Fender ceased the twill covering in 1960, though the Harvard continued until 1963, the Champ until 1964. At the beginning of the "tweed" era, Fender constructed many of its cabinets in "TV front" style, changing around 1950 predominantly to the "wide panel", where the top and bottom panels are wider than the side. Fender constructed them with "narrow panel", in which all the panels have more or less the same width.
Toward the end, despite keeping such construction, Fender utilized Tolex to cover its amps. The Brownface series was introduced in 1959 and discontinued in 1963; this period marked the beginning of Fender's use of Tolex to cover amp cabinets. The name'brownface' stems from the brown-colored control panels, common to both the brown- and cream/blonde- Tolex-covered amps; the brownface amps featured a dark maroon or "oxblood" grillcloth, changed to "wheat" in 1962-63. The shift from tweed to Tolex occurred in limited production in 1960; the tolex on the earliest versions in this era was pinkish brown and rough textured. There were only six amplifiers covered in tolex the Professional Series: Bandmaster, Pro, Super and Vibrasonic; these were considered a step above the student models which remained tweed-covered in 1960. Grillcloth was the same as used in the previous tweed era, maroon with gold stripe. Beginning in mid to late 1961, Fender introduced another color combination: a smoother but still light brown tolex with a dark maroon or "oxblood" grillcloth.
By mid-1961, after this short-lived look, Fender was using the darker brown tolex, a mainstay for many of the mid-1961 to 1963 amps. Between 1961 and 1963, there were three different grillcloth colors: wheat and maroon and many tolex-grille color combinations are found suggesting that Fender was not reluctant to use up whatever stocks of materials were on hand; the Brown amplifiers included all of the all-in-one combo models except the flagship Twin and Vibrasonic, the little Champ which retained its "tweed" covering. The Blonde amplifiers included all of the piggyback Fender amps as well as the Twin and Vibrasonic combos. Two different colors of grillcloth were featured on the blondes and wheat. There are several experimental Fender Tweed amps in blonde. While the majority of the piggybacks were produced in blonde tolex, there are a few examples of the brown tolex Bassman amplifiers. Accomplishments for the company's amplifier division during these years include the introduction of the stand-alone spring reverb unit in 1961, followed by incorporation of the reverb circuit within a combo-amp design with the 1963 Vibroverb.
Other changes include the shift of the top-of-the-line model from the traditional Twin to include other models, like the Vibrasonic in early 1960, as well as the blonde Showman in 1961. Fender began using silicon rectifiers to reduce heat and voltage sag caused by tube rectifiers, introduced an all-new complex vibrato circuit; the Deluxe made the transition in 1961. The circuit was changed to include a tremolo effect, the output was increased; as the brown-era wore on, the plight of the smaller amps was varied. They all remained in name at least except for the 1x10" Harvard, not continued through 1961; the 1x8" Champ-Amp remained a tweed-covered through 1963 and into 64 when it made the change to black tolex. The 1x10" Vibrolux remained a tweed amp until it was upgraded in 1961 to a single 12" speaker powered by a duet of 6L6 power tubes and a larger output transformer. Upgraded from tweed was the Princeton which acquired its brown tolex in 1962 along with a redesigned, more powerful twin-6v6 circuit and a larger speaker array: 1x10".
The Blackface amplifiers were produce
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo
Seventh Son of a Seventh Son
Seventh Son of a Seventh Son is the seventh studio album by English heavy metal band Iron Maiden, released on 11 April 1988 by the EMI label in Europe, its sister label Capitol in North America. It was re-released on 2002 by Sanctuary/Columbia in the United States, it is the band's last studio album to feature guitarist Adrian Smith until 2000's Brave New World. It is the first Iron Maiden release to feature keyboards. Like The Number of the Beast and Fear of the Dark, The Final Frontier and The Book of Souls, it debuted at No. 1 in the UK Albums Chart. The album incorporates many progressive rock elements, seen in the length and complex structure of the title track "Seventh Son of a Seventh Son", by the fact that it is a concept album; the idea to base the album around the folklore concept of the seventh son of a seventh son came to bassist Steve Harris after he read Orson Scott Card's Seventh Son. Harris states, "It was our seventh studio album and I didn't have a title for it or any ideas at all.
I read the story of the seventh son, this mystical figure, supposed to have all these paranormal gifts, like second sight and what have you, it was more, at first, that it was just a good title for the seventh album, you know? But I rang Bruce and started talking about it and the idea just grew."After his songwriting contributions were rejected from the band's previous album, 1986's Somewhere in Time, Dickinson felt that his role within the band had diminished, as he "just became the singer", but felt renewed enthusiasm when Harris explained the concept to him. Brilliant!' And of course I was chuffed, because he'd rung me to talk about it and ask me if I had any songs that might fit that sort of theme. I was like,'Well, no, but give me a minute and I'll see what I can do.'" Speaking about the record in years, Dickinson remarked that "we did ", explaining that, "it was only half a concept album. There was no attempt to see it all the way through, like we should have done. Seventh Son... has no story.
It's about good and evil and hell, but isn't every Iron Maiden record?"In addition to Dickinson's return to writing, the album was notable for its number of co-written pieces, in contrast to its predecessor, with five of the eight tracks being collaborative efforts. According to Harris, this was because they "spent more time checking up on each other to see what everybody else was up to, just to make sure the story fitted properly and went somewhere". To make sure each song fit with the record's concept, the band drew up a basic outline for the story, which Harris states "didn't make the actual writing any easier... I took longer over the writing I've done on this album than any I've done before, but the stuff we all started coming up with, once we'd agreed that we were going for a fledged'concept' album startled me. It was so much better than anything we'd done in ages". Stylistically, Seventh Son of a Seventh Son developed the sounds first heard on Somewhere in Time, although, on this occasion, the synth effects were created by keyboards rather than bass or guitar synthesisers.
According to Dickinson, the band decided not to hire a keyboard player, with the parts being "mainly one-finger stuff from Adrian, the engineer or whoever had a finger free at the time". Harris was fond of the development, in spite of the fact that the record did not sell as well as its predecessor in the United States. I loved it because it was more progressive—I thought the keyboards fitted in brilliantly—'cause that's the influences I grew up with, I was so pissed off with the Americans, because they didn't seem to accept it. Everyone said afterwards. I'm not so sure about that. What's a European-sounding album? To me, it's just a Maiden-sounding album." Seventh Son of a Seventh Son and its supporting tour marked the last appearance of Adrian Smith until he returned to the band in 1999. The guitarist left during the pre-production stages of the band's following album, 1990's No Prayer for the Dying, as he was unhappy with the more "street-level" direction the group were taking, professing that he "thought we were heading in the right direction with the last two albums" and that he "thought we needed to keep going forward, it just didn't feel like that to me".
"The Clairvoyant" was the first track written for the album. According to Steve Harris, the song's lyrics were inspired by the death of psychic Doris Stokes, after which he wondered to himself whether "she could foresee her own death". Harris began to write the song "Seventh Son of a Seventh Son", which gave him the idea of turning the full album into a concept record given that the main character would have the power of clairvoyance. According to Smith, the song "Can I Play with Madness" "actually started life as a ballad I had been working on called'On the Wings of Eagles'. Bruce had a verse for it but wanted to change the title to'Can I Play with Madness'. I must admit, it did sound better that way. So we took that Steve liked it, too, it was Steve who came up with the time change in the middle and the instrumental passage, which again gave it that lift it needed." According to Dickinson, Harris' addition resulted in "a big row... Adrian hated it."Of the album's remaining songs, Metal Hammer states that "Moonchild" is loosely based on the Aleister Crowley novel of the same name, while "Infinite Dreams" is about a character who "implores a spiritualist to unlock the meaning behind his tortured dreams", although Sputnikmusic state that the song explores "t
Adrian Frederick "H" Smith is an English guitarist and member of Iron Maiden, for whom he writes songs and performs live backing vocals on some tracks. Smith grew up in London and became interested in rock music at 15, he soon formed a friendship with future Iron Maiden guitarist Dave Murray, who inspired him to take up the guitar. After leaving school at 16, he formed a band called Urchin, which he led until their demise in 1980, he joined Iron Maiden in November 1980. Following a short-lived solo project called ASAP, he left Iron Maiden in 1990 and formed a group called Psycho Motel. In 1997, Psycho Motel was put on hold and he joined the band of former Iron Maiden singer Bruce Dickinson. Smith and Dickinson returned to Iron Maiden in 1999. Smith has a current side project called Primal Rock Rebellion. Born in Hackney, Smith grew up in Clapton, he purchased his first record, Deep Purple's Machine Head, at the age of 15. This led him to befriend Dave Murray, with whom he formed a band called Stone Free, which comprised Murray on guitar, Smith on vocals and their friend, Dave McCloughlin, playing the bongos.
After seeing the attention Murray received from girls, Smith took up the guitar, starting with an old Spanish guitar once owned by his brother, before purchasing an old one of Murray's for £5. His early influences included Johnny Winter and Pat Travers, which he claims made him a "melodic player" rather than a "speed merchant or a shredder" as he "was inspired by blues rock rather than metal."Leaving school after completing his O-levels, Smith formed a band called Evil Ways, including Dave Murray on guitar, renamed Urchin. Smith began writing his own material, including "22 Acacia Avenue", included on Iron Maiden's The Number of the Beast. At this point, Murray left the band to join Iron Maiden and Urchin signed with DJM Records and released a single, "Black Leather Fantasy", in 1977. Shortly afterwards, Murray joined Urchin on their next single, "She's a Roller", as he had been sacked from Iron Maiden after a row with vocalist Dennis Wilcock, although he was reinstated six months later. Smith was offered a place in Iron Maiden while they were in the process of signing with EMI in 1979, but turned them down to continue with his own band, a decision he regretted as Urchin split up in 1980.
Without a band, Smith was left "wondering what to do next," before he "literally bumped into Steve and Dave," who asked if he might want to reconsider joining. After a successful audition, Smith debuted with the band on a German TV show, before setting out on a UK tour and recording the Killers album, released in 1981. Smith's first song-writing contributions appeared on The Number of the Beast, co-penning "Gangland" and "The Prisoner", as well as the mentioned "22 Acacia Avenue", after which he began co-writing many songs with singer Bruce Dickinson, on the following Piece of Mind album. Smith and Dave Murray combined playing dual lead guitars, creating what AllMusic calls "the most formidable twin-guitar attack in heavy metal, outside of Glenn Tipton and K. K. Downing." Smith, along with Steve Harris provides the band's backing vocals, although he sang lead on "Reach Out", the B-Side to the "Wasted Years" single, featuring Bruce Dickinson on backing vocals. Written by guitarist Dave "Bucket" Colwell, whom he had worked with on The Entire Population of Hackney project, Smith would sing "Reach Out" again for Colwell's solo album, Beers & Tears, released in 2010.
While Iron Maiden were taking some time off in 1989, Smith released a solo LP with the band ASAP, entitled Silver and Gold, a commercial failure in spite of a promotional club tour. Unhappy with the direction the band were taking for their next release, No Prayer for the Dying, feeling that he could not help enough in the creative work, Smith agreed to leave Iron Maiden in 1990 during the album's pre-production stages, was replaced by Janick Gers. After releasing the experimental Somewhere in Time and Seventh Son of a Seventh Son albums in 1986 and 1988 Steve Harris had decided that the band should go for a "stripped-down," "street level" approach, which Smith thought was a "step backward." No Prayer for the Dying contained one last Smith song, co-penned with Bruce Dickinson, entitled "Hooks in You". After leaving, Smith started a family with his Canadian wife and would not play guitar again until he joined Iron Maiden onstage at Donington Park in 1992 to perform "Running Free". In the same year, after hearing King's X for the first time, he decided that he would "love to play in a band like that" and formed The Untouchables, which became Psycho Motel.
The band recorded two albums, State of Mind in 1996 and Welcome to the World in 1997, during which they supported Iron Maiden on the British leg of The X Factour. The project was put on hold, when Smith joined Bruce Dickinson for his 1997 album, Accident of Birth, after which he became a full-time member of Dickinson's solo outfit, embarking on two world tours and contributing to one further studio release, 1998's The Chemical Wedding. In 1999, Smith re-joined Iron Maiden, along with vocalist Bruce Dickinson, who commented, "When he left the band in 1990, I think everybody was a bit surprised at how much we missed him and I don't think anybody had realized how much the fans would miss him – big time. I wouldn't have rejoined Iron Maiden. I just don't think it would have been complete without Adrian, now, it's great having three guitarists." The band embarked on a short tour, after which the new line-up's first album, Brave New World, was recorded with producer Kevin Shirley and
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Ibanez is a Japanese guitar brand owned by Hoshino Gakki. Based in Nagoya, Japan, Hoshino Gakki were one of the first Japanese musical instrument companies to gain a significant foothold in import guitar sales in the United States and Europe, as well as the first brand of guitars to mass-produce the seven-string guitar and eight-string guitar. Ibanez manufactures effects, accessories and instruments in Japan, Indonesia and in the United States; as of 2017 they marketed nearly 165 models of bass guitar, 130 acoustic guitars, more than 300 electric guitars. The Hoshino Gakki company began in 1908 as the musical instrument sales division of the Hoshino Shoten, a bookstore chain. Hoshino Gakki decided in 1935 to make Spanish-style acoustic guitars, at first using the "Ibanez Salvador" brand name in honor of Spanish luthier Salvador Ibáñez, simply "Ibanez."The modern era of Ibanez guitars began in 1957. The late 1950s and 1960s Ibanez catalogues show guitars with some wild-looking designs, manufactured by Kiso Suzuki Violin and their own Tama factory established in 1962.
After the Tama factory stopped manufacturing guitars in 1966, Hoshino Gakki used the Teisco and FujiGen Gakki guitar factories to make Ibanez guitars, after the Teisco String Instrument factory closed in 1969/1970, Hoshino Gakki used the FujiGen Gakki guitar factory to make Ibanez guitars. In the 1960s, Japanese guitar makers copied American guitar designs, Ibanez-branded copies of Gibson and Rickenbacker models appear; this resulted in the so-called lawsuit period. During this period, Ibanez produced guitars under the Mann name to avoid authorities in the United States and Canada. Hoshino Gakki introduced Ibanez models that were not copies of the Gibson or Fender designs, such as the Iceman and the Roadstar series; the company has produced its own guitar designs since. The late 1980s and early 1990s were an important period for the Ibanez brand. Hoshino Gakki's relationship with guitarist Steve Vai resulted in the introduction of the Ibanez JEM and the Ibanez Universe models. Hoshino Gakki had semi-acoustic, nylon- and steel-stringed acoustic guitars manufactured under the Ibanez name.
Most Ibanez guitars were made by the FujiGen guitar factory in Japan up until the mid- to late 1980s, from on Ibanez guitars have been made in other Asian countries such as Korea and Indonesia. During the early 1980s, the FujiGen guitar factory produced most of the Roland guitar synthesizers, including the Stratocaster-style Roland G-505, the twin-humbucker Roland G-202 and the Ibanez X-ING IMG-2010. Cimar and Starfield were bass brands owned by Hoshino Gakki. In the 1970s, Hoshino Gakki and Kanda Shokai shared some guitar designs, so some Ibanez and Greco guitars have the same features; the Greco versions were sold in Japan and the Ibanez versions were sold outside Japan. From 1982, Ibanez guitars have been sold in Japan as well. Guitar brands such as Antoria and Mann shared; the Antoria guitar brand was managed by JT Coppock Leeds Ltd England. CSL was a brand name managed by Charles Summerfield Ltd England. Maurice Summerfield of the Charles Summerfield Ltd company contributed some design ideas to Hoshino Gakki and imported Ibanez and CSL guitars into the UK from 1964 to 1987.
The Maxxas brand name came about because Hoshino Gakki thought that the guitar did not fit in with the Ibanez model range and was therefore named Maxxas by Rich Lasner from Hoshino USA. Harry Rosenbloom, founder of the Medley Music of Bryn Mawr, was manufacturing handmade guitars under the name "Elger." By 1965, Rosenbloom had decided to stop manufacturing guitars and chose to become the exclusive North American distributor for Ibanez guitars. In September 1972, Hoshino began a partnership with Elger Guitars to import guitars from Japan. In September 1981, Elger was renamed "Hoshino U. S. A.", retaining the company headquarters in Bensalem, Pennsylvania as a distribution and quality-control center. On June 28, 1977, in the Philadelphia Federal District Court, a lawsuit was filed by the Norlin Corporation, the parent company of Gibson Guitars, against Elger/Hoshino U. S. A.'s use of the Gibson headstock logo. Hoshino settled out of court in early 1978 and the case was closed on February 2, 1978. After the lawsuit, Hoshino Gakki abandoned the strategy of copying "classic" electric guitar designs, having introduced a plethora of original designs.
Hoshino was producing their original Artist models from 1974, introducing a set-neck model in 1975. In 1977, they upgraded and extended their Artist range and introduced a number of other top-quality original designs made to match or surpass famous American brands: the Performer and short-lived Concert ranges which competed with the Les Paul; the newer Ibanez models began incorporating more modern elements into their design such as radical body shapes, slimmer necks, 2-octave fingerboards, slim pointed headstocks, higher-output electronics, humbucker/single-coil/humbucker pickup configurations, locking tremolo bridges and different finishes. Ibanez J. Custom The