Craig Joseph Charles is a British actor, author, television presenter and DJ. He is best known for playing Dave Lister in the science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf and Lloyd Mullaney in the soap opera Coronation Street, as a funk and soul DJ on BBC Radio 6 Music and BBC Radio 2, as the presenter of the gladiator-style game show Robot Wars from 1998 to 2004. Charles first appeared on television as a performance poet. After finding fame in Red Dwarf, he featured on national television with celebrity appearances on many popular shows while he continued to host a wide variety of programmes. Charles is known for narrating the comedy endurance show Takeshi's Castle. From 2017, he has hosted The Gadget Show for Channel 5, his acting credits include playing inmate Eugene Buffy in the ITV drama The Governor, leading roles in the British films Fated and Clubbing to Death. He has toured the UK extensively as a stand-up comedian. Charles has hosted The Craig Charles Funk and Soul Show on BBC radio since 2002, performs DJ sets at numerous clubs and festivals and internationally.
In September 2015, he left Coronation Street to film new episodes of Red Dwarf. Charles was born in Liverpool to Irish mother, he grew up on the Cantril Farm housing estate with his older brother and younger brother, Emile. He attended West Derby Comprehensive School followed by Childwall Hall College of Further Education, studying A-levels in History and Politics, English Literature and General Studies. Charles won a national competition, run by The Guardian newspaper, for a poem he wrote when he was 12 years old. On leaving school Charles spent time working in a studio at Renshaw Street, Liverpool, his eloquence in conversation and in his poetry was something new at the time. With his gradual flowering as a poet emerged a certain boldness and self-confidence. Charles began his career as a contemporary and urban performance poet on the British cabaret circuit, his performances were considered original, with Charles described as having a natural ironic wit which appealed to talent scouts. In 1981, Charles climbed on stage at a Teardrop Explodes concert and recited a humorous, but derogatory, poem about the band's singer, Julian Cope.
He was invited to open subsequent gigs for the group and went on to perform as a support act in pubs and clubs for the following three years, at events such as the Larks in the Park music festival at Sefton Park. He performed poetry at Liverpool's Everyman Theatre with such poets as Roger McGough and Adrian Henri. Charles was involved in the Liverpool music scene and singing lyrics for a number of local rock bands. In 1980, he played keyboards and provided voice in the rock band Watt 4, he performed his political rap lyrics as a'Wordsmith'. In 1983, Charles was invited to record a session on the John Peel BBC Radio show, performing his poems backed by a band; this was his first professional engagement. He recorded a further Peel Session in 1984. Charles realised he was using poetry as a vehicle for his sense of humour and progressed into stand-up comedy, he was part of the Red Wedge comedy tour in 1986, which aimed to raise awareness of the social problems of the time, in support of the Labour Party.
He performed his first one-man show in 1986, which premiered in Edinburgh, toured internationally. Charles was a guest on programmes including Janice Long's Radio 1 show, was a regular panellist on Ned Sherrin's chat show Loose Ends on BBC Radio 4. Charles first appeared on television as the resident poet on the arts programme Riverside on BBC2 and on the day-time BBC1 chat show Pebble Mill at One. Charles was the resident poet on the Channel 4 programme Black on Black and its entertainment-based successor Club Mix, he appeared, weekly, as a John Cooper Clarke-style'punk poet' on the BBC2 pop music programme Oxford Road Show. Charles performed his political poems as stand-up comedy on the late-night show Saturday Live and on the prime-time BBC1 chat show Wogan, where he performed a topical poem in a weekly feature, he appeared as a guest on shows including Open Air. Charles included significant acting in his performance style, enabling him to put the emotion across. In September 2015, Charles performed his "epic" poem Scary Fairy and the Tales of the Dark Wood live with the BBC Philharmonic orchestra, in a concert to be broadcast on BBC Radio 2's Friday Night is Music Night at Halloween.
Charles acquired cult status in 1988 in his first television acting role as the Liverpudlian slob Dave Lister in science fiction comedy series Red Dwarf. Charles has appeared in all twelve series. Charles' younger brother, Emile Charles, guest-starred in the Series III episode "Timeslides", the songs "Bad News" and "Cash" in this episode were written by Charles and performed by his band; the role has involved Charles playing a variety of alternative characters, including a gangster, a cowboy and angelic and evil versions of Lister, in him carrying out a wide range of stunts, acting involving special effects. All series, except IX, were recorded in front of a studio audience. Along with Danny John-Jules, Charles is one of only two cast members to appear in every episode of Red Dwarf to date. Charles reads the audiobook editions of both the Red Dwarf novel Last Human and his book The Log: A Dwarfer's Guide to Everything, he attends sci-fi, comedy and memorabilia conventions in connection with the Red Dwarf franchise.
During Back to Earth, Lister visits the set of Coronation Street, where he meets the actor Craig Charles. Charles presen
Claygate is a suburban village in Surrey, England, 13 miles south-west of central London. It is the only civil parish in the borough of Elmbridge. Claygate is now administered from Esher, it is residential and has a small number of offices, outlying farms and two small shopping areas, the Old Village and the Parade, with hair and beauty shops, a supermarket, six pubs and a number of restaurants. Claygate may have its name from the clay pits in the village that provided bricks for a large surrounding area including some of Hampton Court Palace. Claygate's lack of main thoroughfares has been attributed to angle of the River Thames leading the A3 main road south-west instead through Esher and historical conditions when through roads became impassible in wet weather because of the clay close to the surface. Mid-distance routes chose a line to avoid this land, before the advent of road surfacing, such as those through Tolworth and Esher. Claygate appears in Domesday Book as a manor of Claigate; this main manor of the village was held by Westminster Abbey.
Its domesday assets were: ½ hide. It rendered £2 10s 0d per year to its overlords; the manor descended from the Vincent family to the Evelyn family. Much land remained in the manor when it was sold between 1718 and 1721 to the Earl of Lovelace, the King family and Locke King family who had sold the vast majority of its land by 1970. Claygate was formed as an ecclesiastical parish from Thames Ditton in 1841. Scant remains were traced in boundary lines of an early medieval track running from Kingston Hill to the ford of the Mole near to a square entrenchment in Leatherhead in Stoke D'Abernon. In about 1822 the Claygate Pearmain apple was discovered by John Braddick, growing in a hedge here. In 1840 its church, Holy Trinity, was built of stone in 14th-century style, with a tower, enlarged in 1860, restored in 1902; the school was built in 1838 as a Church school, enlarged in 1849. It was rebuilt by the School Board of Thames Ditton in 1885. Claygate has a Baptist chapel, built in 1861. Claygate's development chiefly was in the 60 years after the construction of its railway line and station.
With views towards Cobham and Leatherhead is Ruxley Towers, a Neo-Gothic Victorian edifice constructed by Lord Foley who owned a considerable amount of land. On the other side on Telegraph Hill is a semaphore station built in 1822 to transmit messages between the Admiralty and Portsmouth. In 1911 brick and tile production works, rather than retail sites, continued to employ men near the station in the 1910s. In 1911 Claygate was under the same urban council as Thames Ditton; as the name implies, the topsoil rests upon the youngest beds of the London Clay after which the village is named, here capped in places by sand in the southern part of the civil parish. Claygate has its own parish council. Apart from an interweave of streets with Esher, Claygate is surrounded by woodlands and open countryside, including Claygate Common, Princes Covert, Winney Hill, Surbiton Golf Course, Telegraph Hill, Littleworth Common and Arbrook Common. Much of the outlying farmland is used for grazing ponies, two farms are run for cultivation.
The Rythe is a major stream running north through Claygate, as a responsive channel in the clay basins has been implicated in late 20th century flash flooding in small pockets of the village: a major flood alleviation scheme has been completed which commenced in 2002. The centre-to-centre distance from London is 14.2 miles. Many of Claygate's residents commute to the capital using the train services, see Transport. Claygate is in the small area between the M25 and Kingston-upon-Thames. Constrained by the Green Belt, demand has resulted in Claygate being subject to a level of permitted in-fill and back-garden development. "The Parade" is the larger shopping area. It continues through The Parade itself into Hare Lane. Claygate has six pubs: one of the annual village traditions is a Boxing Day tour of these by Morris dancers. Local newspapers covering Claygate include The Surrey Advertiser, The Surrey Comet and The Herald, two distributed newspapers, The Informer and The Guardian. Claygate is in the editorial area of BBC Surrey, although its proximity to London means all of the capital's radio stations can be heard.
There are several small farms in Claygate. Claygate School was established in Elm Road in 1885, becoming an Infant School which closed shortly after its centenary – The Firs, the Junior School, became the new single site; the original school building was in the late 20th century redeveloped as Claygate's Youth Centre/Community Centre and Capelfield surgery. Rowan Preparatory School is a private independent school consisting of a nursery and primary school for girls; the Anglican church is "Holy Trinity", built in 1840, unusual for having two spires. There is a First Church of Christ Scientist. Roman catholicism is served by the Church of the Holy Name in Esher. Claygate Village Association is a non-political charity founded in 1946, organise some of the key village events; the village is served with medical support by Capelfield Surgery. Community groups and sports teams. Include Claygate Cricket Club and Claygate Royals Football Club. A major a
Lawrence "Kris" Parker, better known by his stage names KRS-One, Teacha, is an American rapper and occasional producer from The Bronx, New York. KRS-One rose to prominence as part of the hip hop music group Boogie Down Productions, which he formed with DJ Scott La Rock in the mid-1980s. KRS-One is best known for his top hits, "Sound of da police", "Love's gonna get'cha" and "My Philosophy". Boogie Down Productions are sometimes considered one of the first rap groups to inspire both gangsta rap and conscious rap, they received critical acclaim in their early years. Following the release of the group's debut album, Criminal Minded, La Rock was shot and killed, but KRS-One continued the group as a solo project, he began releasing records under his own name in 1993. KRS-One is politically active, having started the Stop the Violence Movement, after the death of Scott La Rock. Lawrence Parker was raised by a single Bajan mother. Parker left home at 16 to become an MC, coming to live at a homeless shelter in the South Bronx where he was dubbed "Krisna" by residents because of his interest in the Hare Krishna spirituality of some of the antipoverty workers.
By the time he met youth counselor Scott Sterling, he was writing graffiti as KRS-One. Together he and Sterling, a.k.a. DJ Scott La Rock, created Boogie Down Productions, releasing their debut album, Criminal Minded, in 1987. KRS-One began his recording career as one third of the hip hop group Boogie Down Productions, or BDP, alongside DJ Scott La Rock and Derrick "D-Nice" Jones. After being rejected by radio DJs Mr. Magic and Marley Marl, KRS-One would go on to diss the two and those associated with them, sparking what would be known as The Bridge Wars. Additionally, KRS-One had taken offense to "The Bridge", a song by Marley Marl's protege, MC Shan The song could be interpreted as a claim that Queensbridge was the monument of hip-hop, though MC Shan has denied this claim. Still, KRS-One "dissed" the song with the BDP record "South Bronx." Next, a second round of volleys would ensue with Shan's "Kill That Noise" and BDP's "The Bridge Is Over." KRS-One, demonstrating his nickname "The Blastmaster", gave a live performance against MC Shan, many conceded he had won the battle.
Many believe this live performance to be the first MC battle where rappers attack each other, instead of a battle between who can get the crowd more hyped. Parker and Sterling decided to form a rap group together calling themselves "Scott La Rock and the Celebrity Three"; that was short-lived, however, as the two peripheral members quit, leaving Sterling. They decided to call themselves "Boogie Down Productions". "Success is the Word", a 12-inch single produced by David Kenneth Eng and Kenny Beck, was released on indie Fresh/Sleeping Bag Records but did not enjoy commercial success. Boogie Down Productions released their debut album Criminal Minded in 1987; the album, whose cover pictured BDP draped in ammunition and brandishing guns, is credited with setting the template for the burgeoning genres of hardcore and gangsta rap. Scott La Rock was killed in a shooting that year, after attempting to mediate a dispute between teenager and BDP member D-Nice and local hoodlums. During this time KRS-One gained acclaim as one of the first MCs to incorporate Jamaican style into hip-hop, using the Zung gu zung melody made famous by Yellowman in Jamaican dance halls earlier in the decade.
While KRS-One used Zunguzung styles in a more powerful and controversial manner in his song titled "Remix for P is Free", he can still be credited as one of the more influential figures to bridge the gap between Jamaican music and American Hip-Hop. Following the fatal shooting of Scott La Rock in 1987, KRS was determined to continue Boogie Down Productions through the tragedy, releasing the album By All Means Necessary in 1988, he was joined by beatboxer D-Nice, rapper Ramona "Ms. Melodie" Parker, Kris's younger brother DJ Kenny Parker, among others. However, Boogie Down Productions would remain Kris's show, their content would become political through its subsequent releases Ghetto Music: The Blueprint of Hip Hop, Live Hardcore Worldwide and Sex and Violence. KRS-One was the primary initiator behind the H. E. A. L. Compilation and the Stop the Violence Movement; as Parker adopted this "humanist", less defensive approach, he turned away from his "Blastmaster" persona and towards that of "The Teacha", although he has used "Blastmaster" throughout his career.
After five solo albums under the name "Boogie Down Productions," KRS-One decided to set out on his own. On his first solo album, 1993's Return of the Boom Bap, Parker worked together with producers DJ Premier, Kid Capri and Showbiz, the latter providing the catchy-yet-hardcore track "Sound of da Police", his second album, 1995's KRS-One, featured Channel Live on "Free Mumia", a song in which they criticize Black Civil Rights Activist C. Delores Tucker among others. Other prominent guest stars on KRS-One included Busta Rhymes, Das EFX and Fat Joe. In 1991, KRS-One appeared on the alternative rock group R. E. M.'s single "Radio Song", which appeared on the band's album Out of Time, released the same year. In 1992, Bradley Nowell from Sublime featured an acoustic song named "KRS-One" with his voice and DJ's samplers. In 1995, KRS organized a group called Channel
Public Enemy (band)
Public Enemy is an American hip hop group consisting of Chuck D, Keith Shocklee, Flavor Flav, Professor Griff, Khari Wynn, DJ Lord, Sammy Sam, the S1W group. Formed in Long Island, New York, in 1986, they are known for their politically charged music and criticism of the American media, with an active interest in the frustrations and concerns of the African American community, their first four albums during the late 1980s and early 1990s were all certified either gold or platinum and were, according to music critic Robert Hilburn in 1998, "the most acclaimed body of work by a hip hop act". Critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine called them "the most influential and radical band of their time." They were inducted into Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2013. Carlton Ridenhour and William Drayton met at Long Island's Adelphi University in the mid-1980s. Developing his talents as an MC with Flav while delivering furniture for his father's business, Chuck D and Spectrum City, as the group was called, released the record "Check Out the Radio", backed by "Lies", a social commentary—both of which would influence RUSH Productions' Run–D.
M. C. and Beastie Boys. Chuck D put out a tape to fend off a local MC who wanted to battle him, he called the tape Public Enemy #1 because he felt like he was being persecuted by people in the local scene. This was the first reference to the notion of a public enemy in any of Chuck D's songs; the single was created by Chuck D with a contribution by Flavor Flav, though this was before the group Public Enemy was assembled. Around 1986, Bill Stephney, the former Program Director at WBAU, was approached by Ali Hafezi and offered a position with the label. Stephney accepted, his first assignment was to help fledgling producer Rick Rubin sign Chuck D, whose song "Public Enemy Number One" Rubin had heard from Andre "Doctor Dré" Brown. According to the book The History of Rap Music by Cookie Lommel, "Stephney thought it was time to mesh the hard-hitting style of Run DMC with politics that addressed black youth. Chuck recruited Spectrum City, which included Hank Shocklee, his brother Keith Shocklee, Eric "Vietnam" Sadler, collectively known as the Bomb Squad, to be his production team and added another Spectrum City partner, Professor Griff, to become the group's Minister of Information.
With the addition of Flavor Flav and another local mobile DJ named Terminator X, the group Public Enemy was born." According to Chuck, The S1W, which stands for Security of the First World, "represents that the black man can be just as intelligent as he is strong. It stands for the fact that we're not third-world people, we're first-world people. Hank Shocklee came up with the name Public Enemy based on "underdog love and their developing politics" and the idea from Def Jam staffer Bill Stephney following the Howard Beach racial incident, Bernhard Goetz, the death of Michael Stewart: "The Black man is the public enemy."Public Enemy started out as opening act for the Beastie Boys during the latter's Licensed to Ill popularity, in 1987 released their debut album Yo! Bum Rush the Show, their debut album, Yo! Bum Rush the Show, was released in 1987 to critical acclaim; the album was the group's first step toward stardom. In October 1987, music critic Simon Reynolds dubbed Public Enemy "a superlative rock band".
They released their second album It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back in 1988, which performed better in the charts than their previous release, included the hit single "Don't Believe the Hype" in addition to "Bring the Noise". Nation of Millions... was the first hip hop album to be voted album of the year in The Village Voice's influential Pazz & Jop critics' poll. In 1989, the group returned to the studio to record Fear of a Black Planet, which continued their politically charged themes; the album was supposed to be released in late 1989, but was pushed back to April 1990. It was the most successful of any of their albums and, in 2005, was selected for preservation in the Library of Congress, it included the singles "Welcome To The Terrordome", "911 Is a Joke", which criticized emergency response units for taking longer to arrive at emergencies in the black community than those in the white community, "Fight the Power". "Fight the Power" is regarded as one of the most popular and influential songs in hip hop history.
It was the theme song of Spike Lee's Do the Right Thing. The group's next release, Apocalypse 91... The Enemy Strikes Black, continued this trend, with songs like "Can't Truss It", which addressed the history of slavery and how the black community can fight back against oppression; the album included the controversial song and video "By the Time I Get to Arizona", which chronicled the black community's frustration that some US states did not recognize Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday as a national holiday. The video featured members of Public Enemy taking out their frustrations on politicians in the states not recognizing the holiday. In 1992, the group was one of the first rap acts to perform at the Reading Festival, in England, headlining the second day of the three-day festival. After a 1994 motorcycle accident shattered his left leg and kept him in the hospital for a full month, Terminator X relocated to his 15-acre farm in Vance County, North Carolina. By 1998, he was ready to retire from the group and focus full-time on raising African black ostriches on his farm.
In late 1998, the group started looking for Terminator X's permanent replacement. Following several months of searching for a DJ, Professor Griff saw DJ Lord at a Vestax Battle and approached
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Corfu or Kerkyra is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the second largest of the Ionian Islands, including its small satellite islands, forms the northwesternmost part of Greece; the island is part of the Corfu regional unit, is administered as a single municipality, which includes the smaller islands of Ereikoussa and Othonoi. The municipality has an area of 610,9 km2, the island proper 592,8 km2; the principal city of the island and seat of the municipality is named Corfu. Corfu is home to the Ionian University; the island is bound up with the history of Greece from the beginnings of Greek mythology. Its history is full of conquests. Ancient Korkyra took part in the Battle of Sybota, a catalyst for the Peloponnesian War, according to Thucydides, the largest naval battle between Greek city states until that time. Thucydides reports that Korkyra was one of the three great naval powers of fifth century BC Greece, along with Athens and Corinth. Medieval castles punctuating strategic locations across the island are a legacy of struggles in the Middle Ages against invasions by pirates and the Ottomans.
Two of these castles enclose its capital, the only city in Greece to be surrounded in such a way. As a result, Corfu's capital has been declared a Kastropolis by the Greek government. From medieval times and into the 17th century, the island, having repulsed the Ottomans during several sieges, was recognised as a bulwark of the European States against the Ottoman Empire and became one of the most fortified places in Europe; the fortifications of the island were used by the Venetians to defend against Ottoman intrusion into the Adriatic. Corfu fell under British rule following the Napoleonic Wars. Corfu was ceded by the British Empire along with the remaining islands of the United States of the Ionian Islands, unification with modern Greece was concluded in 1864 under the Treaty of London. In 2007, the city's old quarter was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List, following a recommendation by ICOMOS. Corfu is a popular tourist destination; the island was the location of the 1994 European Union summit.
The Greek name, Kerkyra or Korkyra, is related to two powerful water deities: Poseidon, god of the sea, Asopos, an important Greek mainland river. According to myth, Poseidon fell in love with the beautiful nymph Korkyra, daughter of Asopos and river nymph Metope, abducted her. Poseidon brought Korkyra to the hitherto unnamed island and, in marital bliss, offered her name to the place: Korkyra, which evolved to Kerkyra, they had a child they called Phaiax, after whom the inhabitants of the island were named Phaiakes, in Latin Phaeaciani. Corfu's nickname is the island of the Phaeacians; the name Corfù, an Italian version of the Byzantine Κορυφώ, meaning "city of the peaks", derives from the Byzantine Greek Κορυφαί, denoting the two peaks of Palaio Frourio. The northeastern edge of Corfu lies off the coast of Sarandë, separated by straits varying in width from 3 to 23 km; the southeast side of the island lies off the coast of Greece. Its shape resembles a sickle, to which it was compared by the ancients: the concave side, with the city and harbour of Corfu in the centre, lies toward the Albanian coast.
With the island's area estimated at 592.9 square kilometres, it runs 64 km long, with greatest breadth at around 32 km. Two high and well-defined ranges divide the island into three districts, of which the northern is mountainous, the central undulating, the southern low-lying; the more important of the two ranges, that of Pantokrator stretches east and west from Cape Falacro to Cape Psaromita, attains its greatest elevation in the summit of the same name. The second range culminates in the mountain of Santi Jeca, or Santa Decca, as it is called by misinterpretation of the Greek designation Άγιοι Δέκα, or the Ten Saints; the whole island, composed as it is of various limestone formations, presents great diversity of surface, views from more elevated spots are magnificent. Beaches are found in Agios Gordis, the Korission lagoon, Agios Georgios, Kassiopi, Sidari and many others. Corfu is located near the Kefalonia geological fault formation. Corfu's coastline spans 217 kilometres including capes.
The full extent of capes and promontories take in Agia Aikaterini, Drastis to the north and Asprokavos to the southeast, Megachoro to the south. Two islands are to be found at a middle point of Gouvia and Corfu Bay, which extends across much of the eastern shore of the island. Camping areas can be found in Palaiokastritsa, with four in the northern part, Roda and Messonghi; the Diapontia Islands are located in the northwest of Corfu, about 40 km away from Italian coasts. The main islands are Othonoi and Mathraki. Lazaretto Island known as Aghios Dimitrios, is located two nautical miles northeast of Corfu. During Venetian rule in the early 16th century, a monastery was built on the islet and a leprosarium established in the century, after which the island was
KOKO (music venue)
KOKO is a concert venue and former theatre in Camden Town, England. The building was known as Camden Palace from 1982 until its 2004 purchase and extensive restoration led by Oliver Bengough and Mint Entertainment. Since, the club has been known as KOKO and serves as one of the premier live music venues in London; the Camden Theatre opened on Boxing Day 1900. With a capacity of 2,434 it was one of the largest theatres in London outside the West End; the theatre was designed by the prolific theatre architect W. G. R. Sprague; the theatre was opened by Ellen Terry the most celebrated actress in England, who had lived in nearby Stanhope Street as a child. The St Pancras Gazette, a local newspaper, commented as follows in a review of the theatre's production of an opera called The Geisha in 1901: "It is a matter of special gratification that the opera was presented at our beautiful local theatre on a scale of magnificence and completeness which would do credit to a West End theatre, but this is nothing new at the Camden Theatre, being rather a continuation of the policy with which the proprietors started their enterprise, viz. to offer nothing to their patrons but standard work, which has received the unmistakable approval of critics and public."On 6 December 1909 it reopened as a variety theatre and became the Camden Hippodrome Theatre.
By 1911 films were being presented as part of the programme and in January 1913 it became a cinema known as the Camden Hippodrome Picture Theatre. In January 1928, the theatre was taken over by the Gaumont British cinema circuit. Closed during World War II, it outlived many similar buildings, including Camden Town's other theatre, the Bedford Theatre because it became a BBC radio theatre from 1945 and is Grade II architecturally listed since 1972. Among the first weekly series to be broadcast live from here were The Richard Tauber Programme. Programmes recorded at the theatre included The Goon Show and Monty Python's Flying Circus album until the BBC moved to the Golders Green Hippodrome in 1972. In 1977 the venue was renamed The Music Machine; the venue was the central location for the 1979 Disco Dance film The Music Machine. The venue was popular with new wave and first wave punk bands, hosting groups including The Boomtown Rats, The Clash and The Dickies, it was the last venue AC/DC's Bon Scott was seen drinking at before his death from alcohol poisoning in 1980 – After leaving there, Scott finished up at The Dublin Castle on Camden's Parkway where he was placed in a taxi by a school teacher and died that night.
In 1982 the venue was renamed Camden Palace. During this period it hosted the rock night "Feet First" on a Tuesday; the nights were hosted by Rusty Egan of electronic band Visage. Camden Palace was the location of Madonna's first UK performance. In the late 1990s the Camden Palace was famous for holding its weekly rave events and was illuminated with UV lights, state of the art sound system and décor of the rave scene. During this time the legendary weekly House/Acid house event, Clockwork orange was held on a Saturday with Andy Manston and Danny Gould running until 2001, Frantic and the iconic House/Trance event, Peach with Graham Gold, Darren Pearce and Dave Lambert running until the Camden palace closed in 2004. Although in recent years such events have made a return to the venue since its incarnation as Koko, including reunions of peach and clockwork orange. By 2004 the Camden Palace was rundown and in a state of disuse; that year the theatre was purchased by his company Mint Entertainment.
Bengough saw the potential of the theatre and embarked on a multimillion-pound restoration process lasting more than six months. The restoration process included all new technical facilities, enabling the scope of operations to be broadened to include live concert performances, club nights, corporate events and television production; the Daily Telegraph described the modern interior amenities and the building's historic facade as "lend a sense of grandeur to any gig". Since restoration, KOKO's commitment to sustainability has been recognised with an award for Environmental Excellence in Camden Organisations, for Innovation in Waste Management and Recycling; the venue has been praised for ‘the continued exceptional effort by staff to achieve a 95% recycling rate in the difficult events and entertainment industry, for the use of recycled materials within the building in order to close the recycling loop.’The key points in KOKO's innovative recycling and waste management strategy include: Recycling paper and cardboards, as well as 30,960 glass bottles, 20,088 aluminium cans and 77,166 plastic cups every month.
On 19 March 1964, The Rolling Stones performed there. On 10 March 1970, The Faces performed there. In 1972 the theatre was the venue for The Goon Show's reunion episode The Last Goon Show of All, attended by several senior Royal Family members and, filmed and recorded. On Monday 10 September 1979, London band Iron Maiden performed a gig at The Music Machine; the band, at the time, consisted of Steve Harris, Dave Murray, Paul Di'anno, Tony Parsons and Doug Sampson. The gig was recorded by at