IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
DOS is a family of disk operating systems, hence the name. DOS consists of MS-DOS and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS, ROM-DOS, PTS-DOS, FreeDOS. MS-DOS dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS, Apple ProDOS, Atari DOS, Commodore DOS, TRSDOS, AmigaDOS. Fictional operating systems have used this acronym as well, such as GLaDOS from the video game Portal. IBM PC DOS and its predecessor, 86-DOS, resembled Digital Research's CP/M—the dominant disk operating system for 8-bit Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 microcomputers—but instead ran on Intel 8086 16-bit processors; when IBM introduced the IBM PC, built with the Intel 8088 microprocessor, they needed an operating system. Seeking an 8088-compatible build of CP/M, IBM approached Microsoft CEO Bill Gates.
IBM was sent to Digital Research, a meeting was set up. However, the initial negotiations for the use of CP/M broke down. Digital Research founder Gary Kildall refused, IBM withdrew. IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products. There, programmer Tim Paterson had developed a variant of CP/M-80, intended as an internal product for testing SCP's new 16-bit Intel 8086 CPU card for the S-100 bus; the system was named QDOS, before being made commercially available as 86-DOS. Microsoft purchased 86-DOS for $50,000; this became Microsoft Disk Operating System, MS-DOS, introduced in 1981. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, which supplied the operating system for their own hardware, sometimes under their own names. Microsoft required the use of the MS-DOS name, with the exception of the IBM variant. IBM continued to develop their version, PC DOS, for the IBM PC. Digital Research became aware that an operating system similar to CP/M was being sold by IBM, threatened legal action.
IBM responded by offering an agreement: they would give PC consumers a choice of PC DOS or CP/M-86, Kildall's 8086 version. Side-by-side, CP/M cost $200 more than PC DOS, sales were low. CP/M faded, with MS-DOS and PC DOS becoming the marketed operating system for PCs and PC compatibles. Microsoft sold MS-DOS only to original equipment manufacturers. One major reason for this was. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code and the DOS kernel. Microsoft provided an OEM Adaptation Kit which allowed OEMs to customize the device driver code to their particular system. By the early 1990s, most PCs adhered to IBM PC standards so Microsoft began selling MS-DOS in retail with MS-DOS 5.0. In the mid-1980s Microsoft developed a multitasking version of DOS; this version of DOS is referred to as "European MS-DOS 4" because it was developed for ICL and licensed to several European companies. This version of DOS supports preemptive multitasking, shared memory, device helper services and New Executable format executables.
None of these features were used in versions of DOS, but they were used to form the basis of the OS/2 1.0 kernel. This version of DOS is distinct from the released PC DOS 4.0, developed by IBM and based upon DOS 3.3. Digital Research attempted to regain the market lost from CP/M-86 with Concurrent DOS, FlexOS and DOS Plus with Multiuser DOS and DR DOS. Digital Research was bought by Novell, DR DOS became Novell DOS 7. Gordon Letwin wrote in 1995 that "DOS was, when we first wrote it, a one-time throw-away product intended to keep IBM happy so that they'd buy our languages". Microsoft expected; the company planned to over time improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z-8000, LSI-11. IBM, did not want to replace DOS. After AT&T began selling Unix, Microsoft and IBM began developing OS/2 as an alternative; the two companies had a series of disagreements over two successor operating systems to DOS, OS/2 and Windows.
They split development of their DOS systems as a result. The last retail version of MS-DOS was MS-DOS 6.22. The last retail version of PC DOS was PC DOS 2000, though IBM did develop PC DOS 7.10 for OEMs and internal use. The FreeDOS project began on 26 June 1994, when Microsoft announced it would no longer sell or support MS-DOS. Jim Hall posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement. Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. A kernel, the COMMAND. COM command line interpreter, core utilities were created by pooling code they had wri
Doom II is a first-person shooter video game, the second title of id Software's Doom franchise. It was released for MS-DOS computers in 1994 and Macintosh computers in 1995. Unlike Doom, only available through shareware and mail order, Doom II was a commercial release sold in stores. Master Levels for Doom II, an expansion pack that includes 21 new levels, was released on December 26, 1995 by id Software. Due to its success and popularity, Doom II was released for the Game Boy Advance in 2002, on Xbox Live Arcade in 2010; the release of the original Doom source code has facilitated ports to many other platforms, including the Apple iPhone and several other types of cell phones. Doom II was not different from its predecessor. There were no major technological developments, graphical improvements, or substantial gameplay changes. Instead, the development team took advantage of advances in computer hardware since the release of the original game that allowed them to do more with their game engine by making much larger and more intricate levels.
The game still consisted of the player navigating large non-linear levels. Each level is infested with demons that can be killed with a variety of weapons that can be picked up throughout the game. Levels are completed by finding an exit, whether it be a teleporter; as with its predecessor, Doom II's levels can be completed in a straightforward fashion. However, because the levels are non-linear players can wander off the beaten path, those that do are rewarded with bonuses, like health pickups and more powerful weapons. Due to the larger and more complicated maps with larger groups of monsters, the game had somewhat higher system requirements than the original. Rather than the player playing through three related episodes as in the first Doom, gameplay takes place over one giant episode, albeit with interludes for when the story develops. Instead of watching the player's progress on a map, the screens between each level show a background; this means the player is never forced to lose all of his or her inventory after completing an episode.
Doom II doubled the number of non-boss monster types and started using bosses from the original Doom as normal level enemies, in addition to adding a new weapon, the double-barreled shotgun, a new power-up, the Megasphere. Doom's multiplayer functionality was improved in Doom II, including "out of the box" support for a vastly increased number of dial-up modems; the two-player dial-up connection allowed one player to dial into the other player's computer in order to play either cooperatively or in deathmatch-style combat. There was LAN functionality added, improved upon as patches and updates were released; this functionality was incorporated into the original Doom. As with the original Doom, multiplayer games used to be played using the dial-up or LAN by the internal setup program, through the online service DWANGO or with once-popular programs like Kali and Kahn in Windows 95. Nowadays, in the modern standards, Doom II can be played with any version of Windows across the internet using third party source ports such as Odamex, Zandronum,ZDaemon, are still popular today.
The Xbox Live Arcade port of Doom II supports online multiplayer via Xbox Live. The continuous 30 levels are divided into four areas. Following the events in Doom, the player once again assumes the role of an unnamed space marine. After defeating the demon invasion on Mars, saving the Mars base there, the marine goes on leave and lands a drop pod on Earth, finds that Earth has been invaded by the demons, who have killed billions of people; the humans who survived the attack have developed a plan to build massive spaceships which will carry the remaining survivors into space. Once the ships are ready, the survivors prepare to evacuate Earth. Earth's only ground spaceport gets taken over by the demons, who place a flame barrier over it, preventing any ships from leaving; the marine battles hordes of demons and is able to deactivate the force field, allowing the remaining humans to escape. Once all the survivors escape Earth, the marine is the only human left on the planet. Just as he sits down to await death, knowing that he saved humanity, the marine receives an off-planet transmission from the survivors in orbit, who have managed to find out where the armies of Hell are coming from.
The message reveals. He fights through the city until he reaches the base, but sees there is no way to stop the invasion on that side, he decides to step into the portal to try deactivating it from the other side, entering Hell. After fighting through the hordes of Hell, the marine reaches the location of the biggest demon he has seen, called the Icon of Sin, he kills the Icon of Sin by firing rockets into its exposed brain. Its death causes devastation on Hell, the portal to Earth has been sealed. Now with Hell defeated, the marine joins with the other humans in an effort to rebuild and restore life on Earth. Most of the levels were designed by Sandy Petersen. Master Levels for Doom II is an official expansion pack for Doom II, released on December 26, 1995 by id Software; the CD contains. The file TEETH. WAD
Alan Cox is a British computer programmer, a key figure in the development of Linux. He maintained the 2.2 branch of the Linux kernel and continues to be involved in the development of the Linux kernel, an association that dates back to 1991. He lives in Swansea, where he lived with his wife Telsa Gwynne, who died in 2015, he graduated with a BSc in Computer Science from Swansea University in 1991 and received an MBA from the same university in 2005. While employed on the campus of Swansea University, Cox installed a early version of Linux on one of the machines belonging to the university computer society; this was one of the first Linux installations on a busy network and revealed many bugs in the networking code. Cox went on to rewrite much of the networking subsystem, he became one of the main developers and maintainers of the whole kernel. He maintained the 2.2 branch, his own versions of the 2.4 branch. This branch was stable and contained bugfixes that went directly into the vendor kernels.
Cox was once regarded as being the "second in command" after Linus Torvalds himself, before reducing his involvement with Linux to study for an MBA. On 28 July 2009, Cox quit his role as the TTY layer maintainer, after disagreement with Torvalds about the scope of work required to fix an error in that subsystem. Alan was employed by the Linux distributor Red Hat during 1999–2009. Starting from 2011 he was employed by Intel Corporation but left both Intel and Linux kernel development in January 2013 to care full-time for his wife during a critical period of medical treatment, returned to both that year, he has been involved in the GNOME and X. Org projects, was the main developer of AberMUD, which he wrote whilst a student at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. Alan Cox runs a model train company producing N gauge kits. Alan Cox is an ardent supporter of programming freedom, an outspoken opponent of software patents, the DMCA and the CBDTPA, he resigned from a subgroup of Usenix in protest, said he would not visit the United States for fear of being imprisoned after the arrest of Dmitry Sklyarov for DMCA violations.
In January 2007, he applied for a series of rights management systems. It is said. Red Hat Inc. Cox's former employer, has stated that it will not use patents against free software projects. Cox is an adviser to the Foundation for Information Policy Research and the Open Rights Group. Cox was the recipient of the Free Software Foundation's 2003 Award for the Advancement of Free Software at the FOSDEM conference in Brussels. On 5 October 2005, Cox received a lifetime achievement award at the LinuxWorld awards in London; the University of Wales Trinity Saint David Awarded Cox an Honorary Fellowship on 18 July 2013. He received an honorary doctorate from the Swansea University, his Alma Mater, on 20 July 2016. Alan Cox: The maintainer of production version of the Linux kernel. Ch. 5 of ebook Open Source Pioneers, includes a lot of difficult to find interviews. Interview on his biography LWN interviews Alan Cox Interview with Alan Cox – 15 January 2002 LugRadio interview Linux Format interview – August 2005 Cathedrals and the Town Council – 1998-10-13 Ogg audio recording of a talk in Limerick, Ireland 2006-05-13, a transcript of an excerpt, about GPLv3 Video interview with Alan Cox at Hannover Industry Trade Fair, May 2008
Linux gaming refers to playing and developing video games for the Linux operating system, involving a Linux kernel–based operating system used for all computing tasks like surfing the web, office applications, desktop publishing, but for gaming. Linux gaming started as an extension of the present Unix gaming scene, with both systems sharing many similar titles; these games were either original or clones of arcade games and text adventures. A notable example of this was a collection of interactive fiction titles; the free software and open source methodologies which spawned the development of the operating system in general spawned the creation of various early free games. Popular early titles included NetHack, Netrek, XBill, XEvil, Xconq and XPilot; as the operating system itself grew and expanded, the amount of free and open-source games increased in scale and complexity. The beginning of Linux as a gaming platform for commercial video games is credited to have begun in 1994 when Dave D. Taylor ported the game Doom to Linux, as well as many other systems, during his spare time.
From there he would help found the development studio Crack dot Com, which released the video game Abuse, with the game's Linux port being published by Linux vendor Red Hat. id Software, the original developers of Doom continued to release their products for Linux. Their game Quake was ported to Linux in 1996, once again by Dave D. Taylor working in his free time. Id products continued to be ported by David Kirsch and Timothee Besset, a practice that continued until the studio's acquisition by ZeniMax Media in 2009. In 1991 DUX Software contracted Don Hopkins to port SimCity to Unix, which he ported to Linux and released as open source for the OLPC XO Laptop. Other early commercial Linux games included Hopkins FBI, an adventure game released in 1998 by MP Entertainment, Inner Worlds in 1996, released for and developed on Linux. In 1998, two programmers from Origin ported Ultima Online to Linux. A website called The Linux Game Tome began to catalog games created for or ported to Linux in 1995.
On November 9, 1998 a new software firm called Loki Software was founded by Scott Draeker, a former lawyer who became interested in porting games to Linux after being introduced to the system through his work as a software licensing attorney. Loki, although a commercial failure, is credited with the birth of the modern Linux game industry. Loki developed several free software tools, such as the Loki installer, supported the development of the Simple DirectMedia Layer, as well as starting the OpenAL audio library project; these are still credited as being the cornerstones of Linux game development. They were responsible for bringing nineteen high-profile games to the platform before its closure in 2002. Loki's initial success attracted other firms to invest in the Linux gaming market, such as Tribsoft, Hyperion Entertainment, Macmillan Digital Publishing USA, Titan Computer, Xatrix Entertainment Philos Laboratories, Vicarious Visions. During this time Michael Simms founded one of the first online Linux game retailers.
After Loki's closure, the Linux game market experienced some changes. Although some new firms, such as Linux Game Publishing and RuneSoft, would continue the role of a standard porting house, the focus began to change with Linux game proponents encouraging game developers to port their game products themselves or through individual contractors. Influential to this was Ryan C. Gordon, a former Loki employee who would over the next decade port several game titles to multiple platforms, including Linux. Around this time many companies, starting with id Software began to release legacy source code leading to a proliferation of source ports of older games to Linux and other systems; this helped expand the existing free and open-source gaming scene with regards to the creation of free first person shooters. The Linux gaming market started to experience some growth towards the end of the decade with the rise of independent video game development, with many "indie" developers favouring support for multiple platforms.
The Humble Indie Bundle initiatives helped to formally demonstrate this trend, with Linux users representing a sizable population of their purchase base, as well as being the most financially generous in terms of actual money spent. The release of a Linux version of Desura, a digital distribution platform with a primary focus on small independent developers, was heralded by several commentators as an important step to greater acknowledgement of Linux as a gaming platform. In 2009, the small indie game company Entourev LLC published Voltley to Linux, the first commercial exclusive game for this operating system. In the same year, LGP released Shadowgrounds, the first commercial game for Linux using the Nvidia PhysX middleware. In July 2012, game developer and content distributor Valve Software announced a port of their Source engine for Linux as well as stating their intention to release their Steam digital distribution service for Linux; the potential availability of a Linux Steam client has attracted other developers to consider porting their titles to Linux, including Mac OS only porting houses such as Aspyr Media and Feral Interactive.
In November 2012, Unity Technologies ported their Unity engine and game creation system to Linux starting with version 4. All of the games created with the Unity engine can now be ported to Linux easily. In September 2013 Valve announced that they were releasing a gaming oriented Linux based operating system called SteamOS with Valve saying they had "come to the conclusion that
Ingo Molnár, employed by Red Hat as of May 2013, is a Hungarian Linux hacker. He is best known for his contributions to the operating system in terms of performance. Molnár studied at Eötvös Loránd University; some of his additions to the Linux kernel include the O scheduler of Linux-2.6.0 and the Completely Fair Scheduler of Linux-2.6.23, the in-kernel TUX HTTP / FTP server, as well as his work to enhance thread handling. He wrote a kernel security feature called "Exec Shield", which prevents stack-based buffer overflow exploits in the x86 architecture by disabling the execute permission for the stack. Together with Thomas Gleixner, he worked on the real-time preemption patch set, which aims to reduce the maximum thread switching latency of the Linux kernel from an unbounded number of milliseconds to down to bounded values in the order of tens of microseconds; as of 2011, Thomas Gleixner is working on further improving the patch and getting important infrastructure patches of the patch set merged into the Mainline Linux kernel.
Between Linux 2.6.21 and Linux 2.6.24, he worked on the Completely Fair Scheduler, inspired by the scheduler work of Con Kolivas. CFS replaced the previous process scheduler of the Linux kernel with Linux-2.6.23. In 2012 Molnar criticized the Linux desktop as "not free enough" for the users with respect to the applications, he argues that the used system of software distribution and deployment by a centrally organized Linux distributions is not fast and flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of users and application producers alike. Molnár suggests a decentral deployment method which allows a more flexible application infrastructure formed by a stable platform and independent software providers. On the question, why the Linux desktop has not been adopted by the mainstream users yet: Ingo Molnár's homepage at Red Hat Ingo Molnár's RT-kernel homepage The RT-kernel Wiki Ingo LKML activity
First-person shooter is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, multiplayer gaming has been integral; the first-person shooter genre has been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, 1974's Spasim. And after more playful titles like MIDI Maze in 1987, the genre coalesced into a more violent form with 1992's Wolfenstein 3D, credited with creating the genre's basic archetype upon which subsequent titles were based. One such title, the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was Doom, one of the most influential games in this genre. Corridor shooter was another common name for the genre in its early years, since processing limitations of the era's hardware meant that most of the action in the games had to take place in enclosed areas.1998's Half-Life—along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2—enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements.
In 1999, the Half-Life mod Counter-Strike was released and, together with Doom, is one of the most influential first-person shooters. GoldenEye 007, released in 1997, was a landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, while the Halo series heightened the console's commercial and critical appeal as a platform for first-person shooter titles. In the 21st century, the first-person shooter is the most commercially viable video game genre, in 2016, shooters accounted for over 27% of all video game sales. Several first-person shooters have been popular games for eSports and competitive gaming competitions as well. First-person shooters are a type of three-dimensional shooter game, featuring a first-person point of view with which the player sees the action through the eyes of the player character, they are unlike third-person shooters, in which the player can see the character they are controlling. The primary design element is combat involving firearms. First person-shooter games are often categorized as being distinct from light gun shooters, a similar genre with a first-person perspective which use light gun peripherals, in contrast to first-person shooters which use conventional input devices for movement.
Another difference is that first-person light-gun shooters like Virtua Cop feature "on-rails" movement, whereas first-person shooters like Doom give the player more freedom to roam. The first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn a subgenre of the wider action game genre. Following the release of Doom in 1993, games in this style were termed "Doom clones". Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has been credited with introducing the genre, but critics have since identified similar though less advanced games developed as far back as 1973. There are occasional disagreements regarding the specific design elements which constitute a first-person shooter. For example, Deus Ex or BioShock may be considered as first-person shooters, but may be considered role-playing video games as they borrow from this genre extensively. Certain puzzle games like Portal are called first-person shooters, but lack any direct combat or shooting element, instead using the first-person perspective to help immerse players within the game to help solve puzzles.
Some commentators extend the definition to include combat flight simulators where the cockpit or vehicle takes place of the hands and weapons. Like most shooter games, first-person shooters involve an avatar, one or more ranged weapons, a varying number of enemies; because they take place in a 3D environment, these games tend to be somewhat more realistic than 2D shooter games, have more accurate representations of gravity, lighting and collisions. First-person shooters played on personal computers are most controlled with a combination of a keyboard and mouse; this system has been claimed as superior to that found in console games, which use two analog sticks: one used for running and sidestepping, the other for looking and aiming. It is common to display the character's hands and weaponry in the main view, with a head-up display showing health and location details, it is possible to overlay a map of the surrounding area. First-person shooters focus on action gameplay, with fast-paced and bloody firefights, though some place a greater emphasis on narrative, problem-solving and logic puzzles.
In addition to shooting, melee combat may be used extensively. In some games, melee weapons are powerful, a reward for the risk the player must take in maneuvering his character into close proximity to the enemy. In other situations, a melee weapon may be necessary as a last resort. "Tactical shooters" are more realistic, require teamwork and strategy to succeed. First-person shooters give players a choice of weapons, which have a large impact on how the player will approach the game; some game designs have realistic models of actual existing or historical weapons, incorporating their rate of fire, magazine size, ammunition amount and accuracy. Other first-person shooter games may incorporate imaginative variations of weapons, including future prototypes, "alien te