William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey was the son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and his first wife Gundred. He was more referred to as Earl Warenne or Earl of Warenne than as Earl of Surrey, his father, the 1st Earl, was one of the Conqueror's most trusted and most rewarded barons who, at his death in 1088, was the 3rd or 4th richest magnate in England. In 1088 William II inherited his father's lands in England and his Norman estates including the castles of Mortemer and Bellencombre in Haute-Normandy, but William II was not as disposed to serve the king. In January 1091, William assisted Hugh de Grandmesnil in his defence of Courcy against the forces of Robert de Belleme and Duke Robert of Normandy. In 1093 he attempted to marry daughter of king Malcolm III of Scotland, she instead married Henry I of England, this may have been the cause of William's great dislike of Henry I, which motivated him in the following years. When Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy invaded, but when Curthose promptly surrendered to Henry I, William lost his English lands and titles and was exiled to Normandy.
There he complained to Curthose that he had expended great effort on the duke's behalf and in return lost all of his English possessions. Curthose's return to England in 1103 was made to convince his brother, the king, to restore William's earldom; this was successful, though Curthose had to give up his 3000 mark annual pension he had received after the 1101 invasion, after which William's lands and titles were restored to him. To further insure William's loyalty Henry considered marrying him to one of his many illegitimate daughters. Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury forbade the marriage based on the couple being related in the 4th generation on one side, in the 6th generation on the other. William was one of the commanders on Henry's side at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106. Afterwards, with his loyalty thus proven, he became more prominent in Henry's court. In 1110, Curthose's son William Clito escaped along with Helias of Saint-Saens, afterwards Warenne received the forfeited Saint-Saens lands, which were near his own in upper Normandy.
In this way king Henry further assured his loyalty, for the successful return of Clito would mean at the least Warenne's loss of this new territory. He fought for Henry I at the Battle of Bremule in 1119. William, the second Earl of Surrey was present at Henry's deathbed in 1135. After the king's death disturbances broke out in Normandy and William was sent to guard Rouen and the Pays de Caux. William was a donor to a number of priories, with his donations being mentioned in charters issued between 1130 and 1138 to Longueville Priory near Rouen, Normandy and to the priory of Bellencombre in 1135, his sons and his wife were witnesses to many of these charters. William's death is recorded as 11-May-1138 in the register of Lewes Priory and he was buried at his father's feet at the Chapter house there, his wife, the countess Elizabeth, survived him, dying before July 1147. In 1118, William acquired the royal-blooded bride he desired when he married Elizabeth of Vermandois, she was a daughter of Hugh I, Count of Vermandois and granddaughter of Henry I, King of France, as well as the widow of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester.
By his wife Elizabeth, he had three sons and two daughters: William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy, including the castles of Bellencombre and Morteme. He married Alice de Wormegay, daughter of William de Wormegay, Lord of Wormegay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son, William de Warenne, whose daughter and sole heir, Beatrice de Warenne, married firstly, Lord Bardolf, secondly, Hubert de Burgh. Reginald was one of the persecutors of Archbishop Thomas Becket in 1170. Ralph de Warenne Gundred de Warenne, who married firstly, Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick, secondly, William de Lancaster, Lord of Kendal, is most remembered for expelling King Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle. Ada de Warenne, who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, was the mother of two Scottish kings, she made many grants to the priory of Lewes. Farrer, William. Early Yorkshire Charters Volume 8: The Honour of Warenne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
"Warenne, William de". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Alan of Galloway
Alan of Galloway known as Alan fitz Roland, was a leading thirteenth-century Scottish magnate. As the hereditary Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland, he was one of the most influential men in the Kingdom of Scotland and Irish Sea zone. Alan first appears in courtly circles in about 1200, about the time he inherited his father's possessions and offices. After he secured his mother's inheritance two decades Alan became one of the most powerful magnates in the Scottish realm. Alan held lands in the Kingdom of England, was an advisor of John, King of England concerning Magna Carta. Alan played a considerable part in Alexander II of Scotland's northern English ambitions during the violent aftermath of John's repudiation of Magna Carta. Alan participated in the English colonisation of Ulster, receiving a massive grant in the region from the English king, aided the Scottish crown against rebel claimants in the western and northern peripheries of the Scottish realm. Alan entered into a vicious inter-dynastic struggle for control of the Kingdom of the Isles, supporting one of his kinsman against another.
Alan's involvement in the Isles, a region under nominal Norwegian authority, provoked a massive military response by Haakon IV of Norway, causing a severe crisis for the Scottish crown. As ruler of the semi-autonomous Lordship of Galloway, Alan was courted by the Scottish and English kings for his remarkable military might, was noted in Norse saga-accounts as one of the greatest warriors of his time. Like other members of his family, he was a generous religious patron. Alan died in February 1234. Although under the traditional Celtic custom of Galloway, Alan's illegitimate son could have succeeded to the Lordship of Galloway, under the feudal custom of the Scottish realm, Alan's nearest heirs were his surviving daughters. Using Alan's death as an opportunity to further integrate Galloway within his realm, Alexander forced the partition of the lordship amongst Alan's daughters. Alan was the last legitimate ruler of Galloway, descending from the native dynasty of Fergus, Lord of Galloway. Alan was born sometime before 1199.
He was the eldest son of Roland fitz Uhtred, Lord of Galloway, his wife, Helen de Morville. His parents were married before 1185 at some point in the 1170s, since Roland was compelled to hand over three sons as hostages to Henry II of England in 1186. Roland and Helen had three sons, two daughters; the name of one of Alan's brothers is unknown, suggesting. The other, became Earl of Atholl by right of his wife. One of Alan's sisters, married Walter Bisset, Lord of Aboyne; the other, married Nicholas de Stuteville, Lord of Liddel. Alan's mother was the sister and heir of William de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale and Cunningham, Constable of Scotland. Alan's father was Lord of Galloway, son of Fergus, Lord of Galloway; the familial origins of Fergus are unknown, he first appears on record in 1136. The mother of at least two of his children and Affraic, was an unknown daughter of Henry I of England, it was not long after Fergus' emergence into recorded history that he gave away Affraic in marriage to Amlaíb mac Gofraid, King of the Isles.
One after-effect of these early twelfth-century marital alliances was that Alan—Fergus' great-grandson—was a blood relative of the early thirteenth-century kings of England and the kings of the Isles—men who proved to be important players throughout Alan's career. Roland died in December 1200. Alan inherited the constableship of Scotland, a pre-eminent position which had passed to Roland from the Morvilles by right of Roland's wife, the only surviving heir of Richard de Morville; as constable, like the earls of the realm, was responsible for leading the king's royal forces. It is uncertain whether the constable of this period took precedence over the earls in command of the king's army, or if the constable had charge of the realm's numerous marischals, his attachment to the importance of his posisition as constable is evidenced by the fact that this title tends to have taken priority over his hereditary title as ruler of Galloway. Before Roland's death, Alan was active in courtly circles serving as his father's deputy.
Alan's first known important attestation occurs late in December 1199, when he witnessed a royal charter at Forfar. From this point in his career until 1209, Alan appears to have been most in the attendance of the Scottish king, witnessing several of the latter's royal charters. Alan's eminent standing in society is evidenced by the fact that, within these sources, his name tends to appear amongst the top four recorded names, is the first name of non-comital rank, his second marriage, in about 1209, to the king's niece, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon reveals Alan's significant social standing. From about 1210 to 1215, his activity in Scottish affairs dwindles whilst his activity in English affairs increases steadily. At some point in the first quarter of the thirteenth century, Alan was granted a vast swathe of territory in Ulster from King John of England; the transaction itself certainly took place in the aftermath of the John's expedition to Ireland in 1210. The exact date of the transaction, cannot be ascertained due to a gap in English charter records between the months of April 1209 and May 1212.
The brunt of John's nine-week Irish campaign appears to have been directed at wayward Anglo-Norman magnates—the troublesome Lacy family in particular. With his subsequent destruction of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster, the confiscation of the latter's Irish earldom, J
Competitors for the Crown of Scotland
When the crown of Scotland became vacant in September 1290 on the death of the child monarch Margaret, the Maid of Norway, a total of thirteen claimants to the throne came forward. Those with the most credible claims were John Balliol, Robert Bruce, John Hastings and Floris V, Count of Holland. Fearing civil war, the Guardians of Scotland asked Edward I of England to arbitrate. Before agreeing, Edward obtained concessions going some way to revive English overlordship over the Scots. A commission of 104 "auditors" was appointed: 24 were appointed by Edward himself acting as president, the remainder by Bruce and Balliol in equal numbers. In November 1292 this body decided in favour of John Balliol, whose claim was based on the traditional criterion of primogeniture—inheritance through a line of firstborn sons; the decision was accepted by the majority of the powerful in Scotland, John ruled as King of Scots from until 1296. With the death of King Alexander III in 1286, the crown of Scotland passed to his only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret.
In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland, appointed to govern the realm during the young Queen's minority, drew up the Treaty of Birgham, a marriage contract between Margaret and the five-year-old Edward of Caernarvon, heir apparent to the English throne. The treaty, amongst other points, contained the provision that although the issue of this marriage would inherit the crowns of both England and Scotland, the latter kingdom should be "separate and free in itself without subjection to the English Kingdom"; the intent was to keep Scotland as an independent entity. Margaret died on 26 September 1290 in Orkney on her way to Scotland; the Guardians called upon her fiancé's father, Edward I of England, to conduct a court in which 104 auditors would choose from among the various competitors for the Scottish throne in a process known as the Great Cause. One of the strongest claimants, John Balliol, Lord of Galloway, forged an alliance with the powerful Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, the representative of Edward I in Scotland and began styling himself'heir of Scotland', while another, Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, turned up to the site of Margaret's supposed inauguration with a force of soldiers amidst rumours that his friends the Earl of Mar and the Earl of Atholl were raising their forces.
Scotland looked to be headed for civil war. To avoid the catastrophe of open warfare between the Bruce and Balliol, the Guardians and other Scots magnates asked Edward I to intervene. Edward seized the occasion as an opportunity to gain something he had long desired—legal recognition that the realm of Scotland was held as a feudal dependency to the throne of England; the English kings had a long history of presuming an overlordship of Scotland, harking back to the late 12th century when Scotland had been a vassal state of England for 15 years from 1174 until the Quitclaim of Canterbury, but the legality of the 13th century claim was questionable. Alexander III, giving homage to Edward, had chosen his words carefully: "I become your man for the lands I hold of you in the Kingdom of England for which I owe homage, saving my Kingdom". In line with this desire, Edward demanded in May 1291 that his claim of feudal overlordship of Scotland be recognised before he would step in and act as arbiter.
He demanded that the Scots produce evidence to show that he was not the lawful overlord, rather than presenting them with evidence that he was. The Scots' reply came that without a king there was no one in the realm responsible enough to make such an admission, so any assurances given by the Scots were worthless. Although technically and correct by the standards of the time, this reply infuriated Edward enough that he refused to have it entered on the official record of the proceedings; the Guardians and the claimants still needed Edward's help, he did manage to press them into accepting a number of lesser though still important terms. The majority of the competitors and the Guardians did step forward to acknowledge Edward as their rightful overlord though they could not be taken as speaking for the realm as a whole, they agreed to put Edward in temporary control of the principal royal castles of Scotland despite the castles in question not being theirs to give away. For his part, Edward agreed that he would return control of both kingdom and castles to the successful claimant within two months.
In the ongoing negotiations between the two countries, the Scots continued to use the Treaty of Birgham as a reference point, indicating that they still wished to see Scotland retain an independent identity from England. Having got these concessions, Edward arranged for a court to be set up to decide which of the claimants should inherit the throne, it consisted of 104 auditors plus Edward himself as president. Edward chose 24 of the auditors while the two claimants with the strongest cases—Bruce and Balliol—were allowed to appoint forty each; when Margaret died, there were no close relatives to whom the succession might pass in a smooth and clear manner. Her nearest relatives derived through legitimate descent from prior kings were the descendants of Margaret's great-great-great-grandfather, the son of king David I of Scotland, though there were noblemen descended from illegitimate daughters of more recent Scottish kings who made claims. Thirteen nobles put themselves forward as candidates for the throne: John Balliol, Lord of Galloway, son of Devorguilla, daughter of Margaret, eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Henry, Earl of H
Dundee Parish Church (St Mary's)
Dundee Parish Church is located in the east section of Dundee's "City Churches", the other being occupied by the Steeple Church. Both are congregations in the Church of Scotland, although with differing styles of worship. Dundee played an important role in the Reformation, John Knox asserts in his History of the Reformation that "the first face of a public church Reformed" was that of St Mary's in Dundee, by 1556; the church dates back to 1190, when it was founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion, King of Scots. The original buildings have not survived. In 1303 the church was burnt by an invading English army. Following a further invasion in 1547 the church was burnt down again. In the late Middle Ages, Dundee's was the largest parish church in Scotland with, in the Old Steeple, the tallest tower. In 1841 three of the City Churches were again destroyed by fire. Two were the South Church or St Paul's and the East Church or St Mary's. St Mary's, now known as Dundee Parish Church was rebuilt being completed in 1844 to the design of William Burn.
In 1847 the rebuilt South Church was reopened under the name St Paul's Church. The Old Steeple dates back to the 1480s. Between 1782 and 1841 there were no fewer than four Church of Scotland congregations occupying the City Churches under one roof but with separate sanctuaries. After the post 1841 rebuilding there were three congregations two since the 1980s – namely Dundee Parish Church and the Steeple Church. Several past ministers have served as Moderators of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, most the late Very Reverend Dr William B. R. Macmillan in 1991. In 1690, following the Glorious Revolution the Church of Scotland permanently switched to Presbyterian Government; the incumbent minister of the Parish of Dundee, Henry Scrymgeour demitted office in 1690 and the charge was declared vacant in 1694. The charge was not filled until 1699. Since that time the following have served as minister of the charge: Samuel Johnstone MA 1699–1731 Thomas Davidson 1732–1760 Robert Small DD 1761–1808 Archibald McLachlan DD 1808–1848 Charles Adie DD 1848–1861 Archibald Watson MA DD 1862–1881 Colin Campbell MA BD DD 1882–1905 William L. Wilson MA 1905–1911 Adam W. Fergusson MA BD 1911–1933 Alfred Ernest Warr BD 1933–1936 John Henry Duncan MA BPhil DD 1937–1951 Hugh O. Douglas MA DD LLD KVCO CBE 1951–1977 William B. R. MacMillan MA BD LLD DD 1978–1993 Keith F. Hall MA BD 1994–present The church includes a memorial to the soldiers of the 4th Battalion & 4/5th Battalion, the Black Watch, who died during the First World War.
A new memorial and roll of honour to commemorate over 600 local seamen and women who died during the Great War was placed in the church in 2017. The memorial was unveiled by Her Royal Highness Anne, Princess Royal during a special service held in the church on 10 July 2017. Dundee Church of Scotland List of Church of Scotland parishes Dundee Parish Church
William the Lion
William the Lion, sometimes styled William I known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough", reigned as King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214. He had the second-longest reign in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707. James VI would have the longest. William was born circa 1142, during the reign of his grandfather King David I of Scotland, his parents were his wife Ada de Warenne. William was around 10 years old when his father died in 1152, making his elder brother Malcolm the heir apparent to their grandfather. From his father William inherited the Earldom of Northumbria. David I died the next year, William became heir presumptive to the new king, Malcolm IV. In 1157, William lost the Earldom of Northumbria to Henry II of England. Malcolm IV did not live for long, upon his death on 9 December 1165, at age 24, William ascended the throne; the new monarch was crowned on 24 December 1165. In contrast to his religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built and headstrong, he was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of his paternal inheritance of Northumbria from the Anglo-Normans.
Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the Declaration of Arbroath. He was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess, it was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant with a forked tail on a yellow background. This went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland, it became attached to him because the chronicler John of Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice". William was a key player in the Revolt of 1173–74 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle Northampton, transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry sent an army to Scotland and occupied it.
As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. The cost was equal to 40,000 Scottish Merks; the church of Scotland was subjected to that of England. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise, he was allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle; the humiliation of the Treaty of Falaise triggered a revolt in Galloway which lasted until 1186, prompted construction of a castle at Dumfries. In 1179, meanwhile and his brother David led a force northwards into Easter Ross, establishing two further castles, north of the Beauly and Cromarty Firths; the aim was to discourage the Norse Earls of Orkney from expanding beyond Caithness. A further rising in 1181 involved Donald Meic Uilleim, descendant of King Duncan II. Donald took over Ross. Further royal expeditions were required in 1197 and 1202 to neutralise the Orcadian threat.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. The English king Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks, on 5 December 1189. William attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard in 1194. However, his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to wanting the castles within the lands, which Richard was not willing to give. Despite the Scots regaining their independence, Anglo-Scottish relations remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century. In August 1209 King John decided to flex the English muscles by marching a large army to Norham, in order to exploit the flagging leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch; as well as promising a large sum of money, the ailing William agreed to his elder daughters marrying English nobles and, when the treaty was renewed in 1212, John gained the hand of William's only surviving legitimate son, heir, for his eldest daughter, Joan. Despite continued dependence on English goodwill, William's reign showed much achievement.
He threw himself into government with energy and diligently followed the lines laid down by his grandfather, David I. Anglo-French settlements and feudalization were extended, new burghs founded, criminal law clarified, the responsibilities of justices and sheriffs widened, trade grew. Arbroath Abbey was founded, the bishopric of Argyll established in the same year as papal confirmation of the Scottish church by Pope Celestine III. According to legend, "William is recorded in 1206 as curing a case of scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York". William lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, his son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1249. Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride; as a result, William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a great-granddaughter of King Henry I of England, at Woodstock Palace in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her
Hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family. It represents an institutionalised form of nepotism, it is the most common type of monarchy and remains the dominant form in extant monarchies. It has the advantages of continuity of the concentration of power and wealth and predictability of who one can expect to control the means of governance and patronage. Provided that a monarch is competent, not oppressive, maintains an appropriate royal dignity, it might offer the stabilizing factors of popular affection for and loyalty to a royal family; the adjudication of what constitutes oppressive and popular tends to remain in the purview of the monarch. A major disadvantage of hereditary monarchy arises when the heir apparent may be physically or temperamentally unfit to rule. Other disadvantages include the inability of a people to choose their head of state, the ossified distribution of wealth and power across a broad spectrum of society, the continuation of outmoded religious and social-economic structures for the benefit of monarchs, their families, supporters.
In most extant hereditary monarchies, the typical order of succession uses some form of primogeniture, but there exist other methods such as seniority and tanistry. Theoretically, when the king or queen of a hereditary monarchy dies or abdicates, the crown passes to the next generation of the family. If no qualified child exists, the crown may pass to a brother, nephew, cousin, or other relative, in accordance with a predefined order of succession enshrined in legislation; such a process establishes who will be the next monarch beforehand and avoids disputes among members of the royal family. Usurpers may resort to inventing semi-mythical genealogies to bolster their respectability. There have been differences in systems of succession revolving around the question of whether succession is limited to males, or whether females are eligible. Agnatic succession refers to systems where females are neither allowed to succeed nor to transmit succession rights to their male descendants. An agnate is a kinsman with.
Cognatic succession once referred to any succession which allowed both males and females to be heirs, although in modern usage it refers to succession by seniority regardless of sex. Another factor which may be taken into account is the religious affiliation of the candidate or the candidate's spouse where the monarch has a religious title or role. Elective monarchy can function as de facto hereditary monarchy. A specific type of elective monarchy known as tanistry limits eligibility to members of the ruling house, but hereditary succession can occur in practice despite any such legal limitations. For example, if the majority of electors belong to the same house they may elect only family members. Or a reigning monarch might have sole power to elect a relative. Many late-medieval countries of Europe were elective monarchies, but in fact pseudo-elective. Exceptions such as the Holy Roman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth prove the rule. List of hereditary monarchies Family dictatorship Heir apparent Heir presumptive
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet was a Scottish historical novelist, poet and historian. Many of his works remain classics of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor. Although remembered for his extensive literary works and his political engagement, Scott was an advocate and legal administrator by profession, throughout his career combined his writing and editing work with his daily occupation as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an active member of the Highland Society, served a long term as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and was a Vice President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; as Encyclopædia Britannica argues: "Scott gathered the disparate strands of contemporary novel-writing techniques into his own hands and harnessed them to his deep interest in Scottish history and his knowledge of antiquarian lore.
The technique of the omniscient narrator and the use of regional speech, localized settings, sophisticated character delineation, romantic themes treated in a realistic manner were all combined by him into a new literary form, the historical novel. His influence on other European and American novelists was immediate and profound, though interest in some of his books declined somewhat in the 20th century, his reputation remains secure." Walter Scott was born on 15 August 1771. He was the ninth child of a Writer to the Signet and Anne Rutherford, his father was a member of a cadet branch of the Scott Clan, his mother descended from the Haliburton family, the descent from whom granted Walter's family the hereditary right of burial in Dryburgh Abbey. Via the Haliburton family, Walter was a cousin of the pre-eminent contemporaneous property developer James Burton, a Haliburton who had shortened his surname, of his son, the architect Decimus Burton. Walter subsequently became a member of the Clarence Club, of which the Burtons were members.
Five of Walter's siblings died in infancy, a sixth died when he was five months of age. Walter was born in a third-floor flat on College Wynd in the Old Town of Edinburgh, a narrow alleyway leading from the Cowgate to the gates of the University of Edinburgh, he survived a childhood bout of polio in 1773 that left him lame, a condition, to have a significant effect on his life and writing. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live in the rural Scottish Borders at his paternal grandparents' farm at Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower, the earlier family home. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to Edinburgh, that summer went with his aunt Jenny to take spa treatment at Bath in England, where they lived at 6 South Parade. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt at a water cure at Prestonpans during the following summer.
In 1778, Scott returned to Edinburgh for private education to prepare him for school, joined his family in their new house built as one of the first in George Square. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh, he was now well able to explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, poems and travel books, he was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and writing, learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland with emphasis on the Covenanters. After finishing school he was sent to stay for six months with his aunt Jenny in Kelso, attending the local grammar school where he met James and John Ballantyne, who became his business partners and printed his books. Scott began studying classics at the University of Edinburgh in November 1783, at the age of 12, a year or so younger than most of his fellow students. In March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his father's office to become a Writer to the Signet. Whilst at both high school and university, Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, the son of Professor Adam Ferguson who hosted literary salons.
Scott met the blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macpherson's Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott met Robert Burns at one of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting; when Burns noticed a print illustrating the poem "The Justice of the Peace" and asked who had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne, was thanked by Burns. Scott describes this event in his memoirs where he whispers the answer to his friend Adam who tells Burns Another version of the event is described in Literary Beginnings When it was decided that he would become a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking classes in moral philosophy and universal history in 1789–90. After completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh; as a lawyer's clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction. He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792, he had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, who married Scott's friend Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet.
As a boy and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral traditions of the Scottish Borders. He was an obsessive collector of stories, developed an innovative method of recording what he heard at the feet of local story-tellers using carvings on twigs, to avoid