William Scott Vare
William Scott Vare was an American politician from Pennsylvania who served as a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives for Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district from 1912 to 1927. He served as a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate from the 1st Senatorial District from 1922 to 1923, he won election to the United States Senate for Pennsylvania in 1926 but was never seated and was removed in 1929 due to allegations of corruption and voter fraud. He was a notorious political boss in the Philadelphia Republican machine of the early 20th century. Vare and his two brothers and George, were known as the "Dukes of South Philadelphia" and held political control over South Philadelphia ward leadership and patronage jobs for decades; the contracting business he owned along with his brothers was involved in the construction of well-known sites in Philadelphia such as Municipal Stadium, the Broad Street subway and the Philadelphia Art Museum. Vare was born in Pennsylvania to Augustus and Abigail Vare.
He was the youngest of three brothers, all of whom were politicians. George and William were known as the "Dukes of South Philadelphia" and controlled ward leadership and patronage jobs for decades, he grew up on a pig and produce farm in Philadelphia on the current location of Fourth Street and Snyder Avenue. John Wanamaker, the Department Store magnate took young Bill under his wing and paid for his tuition at Central High School in Philadelphia, he worked as a storeboy at Wanamaker's. At age 15, Vare entered the mercantile business and became a general contractor in 1893, his political career began in 1884 when he observed the Mummers parade on New Years Day and realized that such marches could be employed in political campaigns. The Vare brothers started a family business hauling garbage in South Philadelphia. In 1890 he started construction contracting with his two older brothers. Vare Brothers contracting worked on excavating and municipal contracts for the city of Philadelphia that totaled $7 million between 1909 and 1912.
Their projects included building trolley tracks, the Municipal Stadium, the Broad Street subway and excavating the site of the Philadelphia Art Museum. Vare was elected to Philadelphia City Council in 1898 and served until 1901, he served as Recorder of Deeds for Philadelphia from 1902 to 1912. In 1911, he ran for mayor as a moderate Republican; the primary was won by George Earle, Jr. but it split the Republican organization in Philadelphia three different ways, it was these splits that accounted for Independent Rudolph Blankenburg's election in 1911. In 1912, Vare was elected to the Pennsylvania State Senate and at the same time was elected to the U. S. Congress for the Pennsylvania 1st congressional district seat left vacant by the death of Henry H. Bingham. In November 1922, he was elected to the Pennsylvania Senate in a special election to fill the first district seat left vacant by his brother Edwin's death. Vare resigned the seat a year later, his sister-in-law Flora, won the ensuing special election, becoming the first woman to serve in the chamber.
In 1912, Vare was elected to the first of seven terms in the House of Representatives. While in the House, his voting record took a much more pronounced turn to the left, he supported the abolition of child labor, the federal income tax, the rights of unions to bargain collectively, voting rights for women and the ending of segregation on passenger rail cars. In 1921 Vare's rival, Senator Boies Penrose, died; the following year his older brother Ed died. This left Bill Vare as the undisputed political leader of Philadelphia, with broad influence over the burgeoning industrial and economic region of the middle Atlantic seaboard. Vare's voting record in the United States House of Representatives was classically Pennsylvania Republican, or more liberal on social issues and more conservative on issues of pure business. Vare pursued the repeal of Prohibition because of the cruel police state it imposed, was able to show, that alcohol-related crimes increased threefold in Philadelphia during the first years of Prohibition.
It was a testament to his moral character that he argued this way, as it has been inferred that the Philadelphia Republican Party machine relied on alcohol-related revenues to fund its core activities, Vare thus stood to lose much of his financial backing by pursuing Prohibition's repeal. The Republican organization in Philadelphia received many offers to do business from the likes of Waxey Gordon and "Lucky" Luciano, but this was no ordinary arrangement, as Vare forced both Gordon and Luciano to agree that Vare would hold a veto power over any racket operating in Philadelphia. In a further bid to gird the fiscal foundation of the Party, Vare decided to extract "loyalty oaths" from the entire Philadelphia Republican organization. Vare was able to exert tremendous influence over Philadelphia's legal business; this was a strong form of politics. Vare used his political power to relocate the Sesquicentennial Exposition from Center City, Philadelphia to South Philadelphia and provide his constituents with millions of dollars worth of jobs and infrastructure investment.
In 1926 Vare announced his candidacy for the United States Senate. Both the primaries and general election were mired in scandal. After Vare won the election against William B. Wilson, Governor Gifford Pinchot, beaten by Vare in the primary, refused to certify the election. In January 1927, Pinchot testified before the Senate, producing several thousand illegal paper ballots. Wilson alleged that voter fraud in the election included p
United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
The United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs is the chief oversight committee of the United States Senate. It has jurisdiction over matters related to the Department of Homeland Security and other homeland security concerns, as well as the functioning of the government itself, including the National Archives and accounting measures other than appropriations, the Census, the federal civil service, the affairs of the District of Columbia and the United States Postal Service, it was called the United States Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs before homeland security was added to its responsibilities in 2004. It serves as the Senate's chief investigative and oversight committee, its chair is the only Senate committee chair. While elements of the Committee can be traced back into the 19th century, its modern origins began with the creation of the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments on April 18, 1921; the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Department was renamed the Committee on Government Operations in 1952, reorganized as the Committee on Governmental Affairs in 1978.
After passage of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Prevention Act of 2004, the Committee became the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and added homeland security to its jurisdiction. Of the five current subcommittees, the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations is the oldest and most storied, having been created at the same time as the Committee on Government Operations in 1952; the Subcommittee on the Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, the District of Columbia was established after the creation of the Committee on Governmental Affairs in 1978. The Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services and International Security was created in 2003. Two ad hoc subcommittees were established in January 2007 to reflect the Committee's expanded homeland security jurisdiction, they were the Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery and the Subcommittee on State and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration. The Subcommittee on Contracting was added in 2009.
In 2011, the Disaster and State and Private Sector subcommittees were merged to form the Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery and Intergovernmental Affairs. Over the years, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and its predecessors have dealt with a number of important issues, including government accountability, Congressional ethics, regulatory affairs, systems and information security. In 2003, after the Homeland Security Act of 2002 established the Department of Homeland Security, the Committee adopted primary oversight of the creation and subsequent policies and actions of the Department. In the past decade, the committee has focused on the Department of Homeland Security's ability to respond to a major catastrophe, such as Hurricane Katrina. In February 2014, staff working for committee ranking member Senator Tom Coburn issued a report raising concerns that some passwords protecting sensitive government data “wouldn’t pass muster for the most basic civilian email account.”
Source Medill McCormick 1921–1925 David A. Reed 1925–1927 Frederic M. Sackett 1927–1930 Guy D. Goff 1930–1931 Frederick Steiwer 1931–1933 J. Hamilton Lewis 1933–1939 Frederick Van Nuys 1939–1942 J. Lister Hill 1942–1947 George D. Aiken 1947–1949 John L. McClellan 1949-1952 John L. McClellan 1952–1953 Joseph R. McCarthy 1953–1955 John L. McClellan 1955–1972 Samuel J. Ervin Jr. 1972–1974 Abraham A. Ribicoff 1974–1977 Abraham A. Ribicoff 1977–1981 William V. Roth, Jr. 1981–1987 John H. Glenn, Jr. 1987–1995 William V. Roth, Jr. 1995 Theodore F. Stevens 1995–1997 Fred D. Thompson 1997–2001 Joseph I. Lieberman 2001 Fred D. Thompson 2001 Joseph I. Lieberman 2001–2003 Susan M. Collins 2003–2005 Susan M. Collins 2005–2007 Joseph I. Lieberman 2007–2013 Tom Carper 2013–2015 Ron Johnson 2015–present List of current United States Senate committees Official Committee Website Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee. Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov. U. S. Government Printing Office Page for the Committee of Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Bachelor of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate degree in law originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer. It served this purpose in the U. S. as well, but was phased out in the mid-1960s in favor of the Juris Doctor degree, Canada followed suit. In Canada, Bachelor of Laws was the name of the first degree in common law, but is the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Canadian common-law LL. B. programmes were, in practice, second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the vast majority of those admitted to an LL. B. programme were holders of one or more degrees, or, at a minimum, have completed two years of study in a first-entry, undergraduate degree in another discipline. Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, respectively.
The first academic degrees were all law degrees in medieval universities, the first law degrees were doctorates. The foundations of the first universities were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law; the first university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age. While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, such was not the case with England because of the English rejection of Roman law, although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law until the English Reformation, its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions. "LL. B." Stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. The "LL." of the abreviation for the degree is from the genitive plural legum. Creating an abbreviation for a plural from Latin, is done by doubling the first letter, It is sometimes erroneously called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L".
The bachelor's degree originated at the University of Paris, whose system was implemented at Oxford and Cambridge. The "arts" designation of the degree traditionally signifies that the student has undertaken a certain amount of study of the classics. In continental Europe the bachelor's degree was phased out in the 18th or early 19th century but it continued at Oxford and Cambridge; the teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practise law. Professional training for practising common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation. However, because of the lack of standardization of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world.
In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system. The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the seventeenth century, the Inns obtained a status as a kind of university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only; the apprenticeship programme for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenticeship programmes for the trades.
The training of solicitors by apprenticeship was formally established by an act of parliament in 1729. William Blackstone became the first lecturer in English common law at the University of Oxford in 1753, but the university did not establish the programme for the purpose of professional study, the lectures were philosophical and theoretical in nature. Blackstone insisted that the study of law should be university based, where concentration on foundational principles can be had, instead of concentration on detail and procedure had through apprenticeship and the Inns of Court; the Inns of Court continued but became less effective and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination, therefore in 1846 the Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to the legal education provided in the United States. Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not established until in the century, then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.
When law degrees were required by the English bar and bar associations in other common law countries, the LL. B. became the uniform degree for l
Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia referred to as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia. In 2016, the county's population was estimated at 230,050, making it the sixth-largest county in Virginia, or the fourth-largest city if it were incorporated as such, it is the 5th highest-income county in the U. S. by median family income and has the highest concentration of singles in the region. The county is coterminous with the U. S. Census Bureau's census-designated place of Arlington. Though a county, it is treated as the second-largest principal city of the Washington metropolitan area; the county is situated in Northern Virginia on the southwestern bank of the Potomac River directly across from the District of Columbia, of which it was once a part. With a land area of 26 square miles, Arlington is the geographically smallest self-governing county in the U. S. and by reason of state law regarding population density, has no incorporated towns within its borders. Due to the county's proximity to downtown Washington, D.
C. Arlington is home to many important installations for the capital region and U. S. government, including the Pentagon, Reagan National Airport, Arlington National Cemetery. Many schools and universities have campuses in Arlington, most prominently the Antonin Scalia Law School of George Mason University; the area that now constitutes Arlington County was part of Fairfax County in the Colony of Virginia. Land grants from the British monarch were awarded to prominent Englishmen in exchange for political favors and efforts at development. One of the grantees was Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who lends his name to both Fairfax County and the City of Fairfax; the county's name "Arlington" comes via Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, a Plantation along the Potomac River, Arlington House, the family residence on that property. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of First Lady Martha Washington, acquired this land in 1802; the estate was passed down to Mary Anna Custis Lee, wife of General Robert E. Lee.
The property became Arlington National Cemetery during the American Civil War, lent its name to present-day Arlington County. The area that now contains Arlington County was ceded to the new United States federal government by Virginia. With the passage of the Residence Act in 1790, Congress approved a new permanent capital to be located on the Potomac River, the exact area to be selected by U. S. President George Washington; the Residence Act only allowed the President to select a location within Maryland as far east as what is now the Anacostia River. However, President Washington shifted the federal territory's borders to the southeast in order to include the pre-existing city of Alexandria at the District's southern tip. In 1791, Congress, at Washington's request, amended the Residence Act to approve the new site, including the territory ceded by Virginia. However, this amendment to the Residence Act prohibited the "erection of the public buildings otherwise than on the Maryland side of the River Potomac."
As permitted by the United States Constitution, the initial shape of the federal district was a square, measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants placed boundary stones at every mile point. Fourteen of these markers were in Virginia and many of the stones are still standing; when Congress arrived in the new capital, they passed the Organic Act of 1801 to organize the District of Columbia and placed the entire federal territory, including the cities of Washington and Alexandria, under the exclusive control of Congress. Further, the unincorporated territory within the District was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the west, it included all of the present Arlington County, plus part of what is now the independent city of Alexandria. This Act formally established the borders of the area that would become Arlington but the citizens located in the District were no longer considered residents of Maryland or Virginia, thus ending their representation in Congress.
Residents of Alexandria County had expected the federal capital's location to result in higher land prices and the growth of commerce. Instead the county found itself struggling to compete with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal at the port of Georgetown, farther inland and on the northern side of the Potomac River next to the city of Washington. Members of Congress from other areas of Virginia used their power to prohibit funding for projects, such as the Alexandria Canal, which would have increased competition with their home districts. In addition, Congress had prohibited the federal government from establishing any offices in Alexandria, which made the county less important to the functioning of the national government. Alexandria had been an important center of the slave trade. Rumors circulated. At the same time, an active abolitionist movement arose in Virginia that created a division on the question of slavery in the Virginia General Assembly. Pro-slavery Virginians recognized that if Alexandria were returned to Virginia, it could provide two new representatives who favored slavery in the state legislature.
During the American Civil War, this division led to the formation of the state of West Virginia, which comprised the 55 counties in the northwest that favored abolitionism. As a result of the economic neglect by Congress, divisions over slavery, the lack of voting
A college-preparatory school is a type of secondary school. The term can refer to public, private independent or parochial schools designed to prepare students for higher education. In the United States, there are public and charter college preparatory schools and they can be either parochial or secular. Admission is sometimes based on specific selection criteria academic, but some schools have open enrollment. Fewer than 1% of students enrolled in school in the United States attend an independent, private preparatory school, compared to 9% who attend parochial schools and 88% who attend public schools. Public and charter college preparatory schools are connected to a local school district and draw from the entire district instead of the closest school zone; some offer specialized courses or curricula that prepare students for a specific field of study, while others use the label as a promotional tool without offering programs that differ from a conventional high school. The term "prep school" in the U.
S. is associated with private, elite institutions that have selective admission criteria and high tuition fees. Prep schools can be day schools, boarding schools, or both, may be co-educational or single-sex. Day schools are more common than boarding, since the 1970s co-educational schools are more common than single-sex. Unlike the public schools which are free, they charge tuition; some prep schools are affiliated with a particular religious denomination. Unlike parochial schools, independent preparatory schools are not governed by a religious organization, students are not required to receive instruction in one particular religion. While independent prep schools in the United States are not subject to government oversight or regulation, they are accredited by one of the six regional accreditation agencies for educational institutions. In most parts of Europe, such as Germany, the Netherlands, France and Scandinavia, there are state-funded secondary schools specializing in university-preparatory education.
These go by many names depending on the country but may be called gymnasia, athenaea, a lycee or a liceo, depending on the nation. In France, certain private or public secondary schools offer special post-secondary classes called classes préparatoires, equivalent in level to the first years of university, for students who wish to prepare for the competitive exams for the entrance in the Grandes écoles, prestigious graduate schools. Unlike American prep schools they begin after high-school graduation; the most famous French classes préparatoires are exceptionally intensive and selective, taking only the best students graduating from high schools but not charging fees. As a result, 90% of the students in the scientific classes préparatoires become engineers or scientists. High school graduates that chooses to attend a classe préparatoire have the choice between 3 main curriculums: Science and litterature. To gain admission into engineering or business grandes écoles. A Gymnasium is a particular type of school in Germany and other countries in Europe, with the goal to prepare its pupils to enter a university.
Germany's oldest Gymnasien include Gymnasium Paulinum, Gymnasium Theodorianum and Gymnasium Carolinum. In Italy, there are several kinds of high schools, both public and private, whose curriculum has as a primary aim the preparation for university; these are called "Liceo", plural "Licei". The name comes from "Lyceum", the Latin rendering of the Ancient Greek Λύκειον, the name of a gymnasium in Classical Athens dedicated to Apollo Lyceus; this original Lyceum is remembered as the location of the peripatetic school of Aristotle. Until 1969, the Liceo Classico was the only secondary education track that allowed a student access to any kind of Italian university, while other secondary education tracks allowed only a restricted access path. There are four main types of Liceo: Liceo Classico, Liceo Scientifico, Liceo Artistico (focusing on artistic subjects as Art History and Drawing and Liceo Linguistico. Other kind of high schools referred to as "technical institutes" offer the possibility to attain university after graduation, although they form students to have some kind of professional prospective after graduation.
In the Netherlands, the official terminology is voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs meaning "preparatory academic education". The vwo is divided into the gymnasium; these are identical in duration and level of education, except that the gymnasium includes Latin and Ancient Greek as compulsory subjects in the first few years, a pupil must include at least one of these classical languages in his final exams. In the Netherlands, education is state funded for both special schools. In the Slovak Republic, gymnázium is one of the school types providing secondary education that leads to the maturita exam, a prerequisite for higher education. Gymnáziums
Embassy of Laos in Washington, D.C.
The Embassy of Laos in Washington, D. C. is the Lao People's Democratic Republic's diplomatic mission to the United States. It is located at 2222 S Street N. W. in Washington, D. C.'s Kalorama neighborhood. The Ambassador is Mai Sayavongs. Official website wikimapia