Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, United States owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. 99 percent of the students are members of the LDS Church and one-third of its U. S. students are from Utah. The university's primary focus is on undergraduate education, but it has 68 master's and 25 doctoral degree programs. Students attending BYU agree to follow an honor code, which mandates behavior in line with LDS teachings such as academic honesty, adherence to dress and grooming standards, abstinence from extramarital sex and from the consumption of drugs and alcohol; the university curriculum includes religious education, with required courses in, the Bible, LDS scripture and history, the university sponsors weekly devotional assemblies with most speakers addressing religious topics. Many students either delay enrollment or take a hiatus from their studies to serve as LDS missionaries.
An education at BYU is less expensive than at similar private universities, since "a significant portion" of the cost of operating the university is subsidized by the church's tithing funds. BYU offers a variety of academic programs, including liberal arts, agriculture, management and mathematical sciences and law; the university is broadly organized into 11 colleges or schools at its main Provo campus, with certain colleges and divisions defining their own admission standards. The university administers two satellite campuses, one in Jerusalem and one in Salt Lake City, while its parent organization, the Church Educational System, sponsors sister schools in Hawaii and Idaho. BYU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the BYU Cougars, their college football team is an NCAA Division I Independent, while their other sports teams compete in either the West Coast Conference or Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. BYU's sports teams have won a total of fourteen national championships.
Brigham Young University's origin can be traced back to 1862 when a man named Warren Dusenberry started a Provo school in Cluff Hall, a prominent adobe building in the northeast corner of 200 East and 200 North. After some financial difficulties the school was recreated in the Kinsey and Lewis buildings on Center street in Provo, after gaining some recognition for its quality, was adopted to become the Timpanogos branch of the University of Deseret; when financial difficulty forced another closure, on October 16, 1875, Brigham Young president of the LDS Church, deeded the property to trustees to create Brigham Young Academy after earlier hinting a school would be built in Draper, Utah, in 1867. Hence, October 16, 1875, is held as BYU's founding date. Brigham Young had been envisioning for several years the concept of a church university. Said Young about his vision: "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country."
Brigham Young Academy classes commenced on January 3, 1876. Warren Dusenberry served as interim principal for several months until April 1876 when Brigham Young's choice for principal arrived—a German immigrant named Karl Maeser. Under Maeser's direction, the school educated many luminaries including future U. S. Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland and future U. S. Senator Reed Smoot; the school, did not become a university until the end of Benjamin Cluff's term at the helm of the institution. At that time, the school was still supported by members of the community and was not absorbed and sponsored by the LDS Church until July 18, 1896. A series of odd managerial decisions by Cluff led to his demotion; the suggestion received a large amount of opposition, with many members of the Board saying the school wasn't large enough to be a university, but the decision passed. One opponent to the decision, Anthon H. Lund said, "I hope their head will grow big enough for their hat."In 1903 Brigham Young Academy was dissolved, was replaced by two institutions: Brigham Young High School, Brigham Young University.
The BY High School class of 1907 was responsible for the famous giant "Y", to this day embedded on a mountain near campus. The Board elected George H. Brimhall as the new President of BYU, he had not received a high school education. He was an excellent orator and organizer. Under his tenure in 1904 the new Brigham Young University bought 17 acres of land from Provo called "Temple Hill". After some controversy among locals over BYU's purchase of this property, construction began in 1909 on the first building on the current campus, the Karl G. Maeser Memorial. Brimhall presided over the University during a brief crisis involving the theory of evolution; the religious nature of the school seemed at the time to collide with this scientific theory. Joseph F. Smith, LDS Church president, settled the question for a time by asking that evolution not be taught at the school. A few have described the school at this time as nothing more than a "religious seminary". However, many of its graduates at this time would go on to great success and become well renowned in their fields.
Franklin S. Harris was appointed the university's president in 1921, he was the first BYU president to have a doctoral degree. Harris made several
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered in Chennai. It was started as a weekly in 1878 and became a daily in 1889, it is one of the Indian newspapers of record and the second most circulated English-language newspaper in India, after The Times of India with average qualifying sales of 1.21 million copies as of Jan–Jun 2017. The newspaper and other publications in The Hindu Group are owned by a family-held company and Sons Ltd; the newspaper employed over 1,600 workers and annual turnover reached $200 million according to data from 2010. Most of the revenue comes from subscription; the Hindu became, in 1995. As of March 2018, The Hindu is published from 21 locations across 11 states: Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Kolkata, Coimbatore, Noida, Kochi, Tiruchirappalli, Mohali, Kozhikode, Tirupati and Patna; the Hindu was founded in Madras on 20 September 1878 as a weekly newspaper, by what was known as the Triplicane Six consisting of 4 law students and 2 teachers:- T. T. Rangacharya, P. V. Rangacharya, D. Kesava Rao Pantulu and N. Subba Rao Pantulu, led by G. Subramania Iyer and M. Veeraraghavacharyar, a lecturer at Pachaiyappa's College.
Started in order to support the campaign of Sir T. Muthuswamy Iyer for a judgeship at the Madras High Court and to counter the propaganda against him carried out by the Anglo-Indian press, The Hindu was one of the many newspapers of the period established to protest the policies of the British Raj. About 100 copies of the inaugural issue were printed at Srinidhi Press, Georgetown on one rupee and twelves annas of borrowed money. Subramania Iyer became the first editor and Veera Raghavacharya, the first managing director of the newspaper; the paper was printed from Srinidhi Press but moved to Scottish Press to The Hindu Press, Mylapore. Started as a weekly newspaper, the paper became a tri-weekly in 1883 and an evening daily in 1889. A single copy of the newspaper was priced at four annas; the offices moved to rented premises at 100 Mount Road on 3 December 1883. The newspaper started printing at its own press there, named "The National Press,", established on borrowed capital as public subscriptions were not forthcoming.
The building itself became The Hindu's in 1892, after the Maharaja of Vizianagaram, Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, gave The National Press a loan both for the building and to carry out needed expansion. The Hindu was liberal in its outlook and is now considered left leaning, its editorial stances have earned it the nickname, the'Maha Vishnu of Mount Road'. "From the new address, 100 Mount Road, to remain The Hindu's home till 1939, there issued a quarto-size paper with a front-page full of advertisements—a practice that came to an end only in 1958 when it followed the lead of its idol, the pre-Thomson Times —and three back pages at the service of the advertiser. In between, there were more views than news." After 1887, when the annual session of Indian National Congress was held in Madras, the paper's coverage of national news increased and led to the paper becoming an evening daily starting 1 April 1889. The partnership between Veeraraghavachariar and Subramania Iyer was dissolved in October 1898.
Iyer quit the paper and Veeraraghavachariar became the sole owner and appointed C. Karunakara Menon as editor. However, The Hindu's adventurousness began to decline in the 1900s and so did its circulation, down to 800 copies when the sole proprietor decided to sell out; the purchaser was The Hindu's Legal Adviser from 1895, S. Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, a politically ambitious lawyer who had migrated from a Kumbakonam village to practise in Coimbatore and from thence to Madras. In the late 1985s, when its ownership passed into the hands of the family's younger members, a change in political leaning was observed. Worldpress.org lists The Hindu as a left-leaning independent newspaper. Joint managing director N. Murali said in July 2003, "It is true that our readers have been complaining that some of our reports are partial and lack objectivity, but it depends on reader beliefs." N. Ram was appointed on 27 June 2003 as its editor-in-chief with a mandate to "improve the structures and other mechanisms to uphold and strengthen quality and objectivity in news reports and opinion pieces", authorised to "restructure the editorial framework and functions in line with the competitive environment".
On 3 and 23 September 2003, the reader's letters column carried responses from readers saying the editorial was biased. An editorial in August 2003 observed that the newspaper was affected by the'editorialising as news reporting' virus, expressed a determination to buck the trend, restore the professionally sound lines of demarcation, strengthen objectivity and factuality in its coverage. In 1987–88, The Hindu's coverage of the Bofors arms deal scandal, a series of document-backed exclusives, set the terms of the national political discourse on this subject; the Bofors scandal broke in April 1987 with Swedish Radio alleging that bribes had been paid to top Indian political leaders and Army officers in return for the Swedish arms manufacturing company winning a hefty contract with the Government of India for the purchase of 155 mm howitzers. During a six-month period, the newspaper published scores of copies of original papers that documented the secret payments, amounting to $50 million, into Swiss bank accounts, the agreements behind the payments, communications relating to the payments and the crisis response, other material.
The investigation was led by a part-time correspondent of The Hindu, Ch
Stanford Law School
Stanford Law School is a professional graduate school of Stanford University, located in Silicon Valley near Palo Alto, California. Established in 1893, Stanford Law has been ranked one of the top three law schools in the country, with Yale Law School and Harvard Law School, every year since 1992. Since 2016, Stanford Law has been ranked 2nd. Stanford Law is regarded as one of the most prestigious law schools in the world. Stanford Law School employs more than 90 full-time and part-time faculty members and enrolls over 550 students who are working toward their Doctor of Jurisprudence degree. Stanford Law confers four advanced legal degrees: a Master of Laws, a Master of Studies in Law, a Master of the Science of Law, a Doctor of the Science of Law; each fall, Stanford Law enrolls a J. D. class of 180 students, giving Stanford the smallest student body of any law school ranked in the top fourteen. Stanford maintains eleven full-time legal clinics, including the nation's first and most active Supreme Court litigation clinic, offers 27 formal joint degree programs.
Stanford Law alumni include several of the first women to occupy Chief Justice or Associate Justice posts on supreme courts: current Chief Justice of New Zealand Sian Elias, retired U. S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, the late Associate Justice of the Hawaii Supreme Court Rhoda V. Lewis, the late Chief Justice of Washington Barbara Durham. Other justices of supreme courts who graduated from Stanford Law include the late Chief Justice of the United States William Rehnquist, retired Chief Justice of California Ronald M. George, retired California Supreme Court Justice Carlos R. Moreno, the late California Supreme Court Justice Frank K. Richardson. Stanford first offered a curriculum in legal studies in 1893, when the university hired its first two law professors: former U. S. president Benjamin Harrison and Nathan Abbott. Abbott assembled a small faculty over the next few years; the law department enrolled undergraduate majors at this time and included a large number of students who might not have been welcome at more traditional law schools at the time, including women and students of color Hispanic and Japanese students.
In 1900, the department moved from its original location in Encina Hall to the northeast side of the Inner Quadrangle. These larger facilities included Stanford’s first law library. Beginning to focus more on professional training, the school implemented its first three-year curriculum and became one of 27 charter members of the Association of American Law Schools. In 1901, the school awarded the Bachelor of Laws. Starting in 1908, the law department began its transition into an professional school when Stanford's Board of Trustees passed a resolution to change its name from Law Department to Law School. Eight years Frederic Campbell Woodward became the first dean of the law school, in 1923, the law school received accreditation from the American Bar Association. In 1924, Stanford's law program transitioned into a modern professional school when it began requiring a bachelor's degree for admission; the 1940s and 1950s brought considerable change to the law school. After World War II caused the law school's enrollment to drop to fewer than 30 students, the school expanded once the war ended in 1945.
A move to a new location in the Outer Quadrangle, as well as the 1948 opening of the law school dormitory Crothers Hall, allowed the school to grow, while the 1948 inaugural publication of the Stanford Law Review helped to augment the law school's national reputation. The decision that Stanford should remain a small law school with a limited enrollment emerged during this period. For the third time in its history, the law school relocated in the 1970s, this time to its current location in the Crown Quadrangle. In the 1960s and 1970s, the law school aimed to diversify its student body. During this period, students established a large number of new and progressive student organizations, including the Women of Stanford Law, the Stanford Chicano Law Student Association, the Environmental Law Society, the Stanford Public Interest Foundation. Additionally, in 1966, the school sought to academically diversify its student body by collaborating with the Stanford Business School to create its first joint-degree program.
A year earlier, in 1965, the law school enrolled its first black student, Sallyanne Payton'68, in 1972, the school hired its first female law professor, Barbara Babcock, its first professor of color, William Gould. In 1968, Stanford appointed Thelton Henderson, future judge of the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California, as the first assistant dean for minority admissions. Henderson expanded minority enrollment from a single student to a fifth of the student body. Stanford Law's commitment to diversity continues today, The Princeton Review ranks Stanford Law as one of the ten best law schools for minority students. Earning national recognition in the 1980s and 1990s, the law school embarked on innovating its curriculum. Stanford offered new courses focusing on law and technology, environmental law, intellectual property law, international law, allowing students to specialize in emerging legal fields. In 1984, it launched the East Palo Alto Community Law Project. By the 21st century, a new focus on interdisciplinary education emerged.
In 2009, it transitioned from a semester system to
University of the People
University of the People is an American non-profit distance education institution of higher education that offers undergraduate and graduate degrees. It was founded by entrepreneur Shai Reshef in 2009. University of the People was launched by educational entrepreneur Shai Reshef in January 2009. Although the university has no campus due to its online distance learning nature, it uses a shared office in California as an office of admission; the first intake of UoPeople students began studying in September 2009, studying for associate and bachelor's degrees in business administration and computer science. At that time, the school did not charge any fees or tuition. In September 2009, Yale Law School's Information Society Project entered into a research partnership with University of the People, for the study of education over digital networks and social software platforms. In 2011, the university formed a partnership with the New York University at Abu Dhabi. In February 2012, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awarded the University of the People a grant of $613,282 for the purposes of helping the university earn national accreditation.
In 2013, the International Student Identity Card Association and MasterCard Worldwide announced that the University of the People was the winner of the 2013 ISIC Award. In August 2013, Microsoft launched its 4Afrika Scholarship program in collaboration with its 4Afrika Initiative and University of the People was the first participating higher-education institution. In 2014 University of the People gained accreditation for degree granting programs through the Distance Education Accrediting Commission, recognized by the United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. In March 2016, the university began offering an online MBA, with the course itself beginning in September 2016; the MBA is not accredited by any business school accreditation bodies. In April 2016, the university signed an articulation agreement with the University of California, Berkeley regarding top associate degree graduates. From 2016 the University offers an associate and a bachelor's degree in Health Science.
In 2017 the University of Edinburgh partnered with the school so that graduates of the University of the People could complete a bachelor’s or postgraduate degree at the University. That same year, Olympian Simone Biles became a student and a spokeswoman for the school, in 2018 she set up a scholarship fund to help financially struggling students. According to the International Baccalaureate the organization partnered with the University of the People to offer a Master's of Education in Advanced Teaching which started in January 2019.. In April 2019 it was announced in the World Economic Forum that the University of the People will be launched in Arabic. University of the People is a nationally accredited online university in the United States, it is accredited by the Distance Education Accrediting Commission. University of the People is approved by the California Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education. University of the People is tuition-free, but students must pay some administrative costs to cover course assesssment fees.
These include processing fees for final exam assessments. Furthermore, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees the University of the People offers scholarships for refugees. Degree Programs offered at the University of the People include: Business Administration Master's Degree Bachelor's Degree Associate's DegreeComputer Science Bachelor's Degree Associate's DegreeHealth Science Bachelor's Degree Associate's DegreeEducation Master of Education Cooperative learning Cooperative education Regional accreditation vs. national accreditation Official website
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Open content is a neologism coined by David Wiley in 1998 which describes a creative work that others can copy or modify without asking for permission. The term evokes the related concept of open-source software; such content is said to be under an open licence. The concept of applying free software licenses to content was introduced by Michael Stutz, who in 1994 wrote the paper "Applying Copyleft to Non-Software Information" for the GNU Project; the term "open content" was coined by David A. Wiley in 1998 and evangelized via the Open Content Project, describing works licensed under the Open Content License and other works licensed under similar terms, it has since come to describe a broader class of content without conventional copyright restrictions. The openness of content can be assessed under the'5Rs Framework' based on the extent to which it can be reused, revised and redistributed by members of the public without violating copyright law. Unlike free content and content under open-source licenses, there is no clear threshold that a work must reach to qualify as'open content'.
Although open content has been described as a counterbalance to copyright, open content licenses rely on a copyright holder's power to license their work as copyleft which utilizes copyright for such a purpose. In 2003 Wiley announced that the Open Content Project has been succeeded by Creative Commons and their licenses, where he joined as "Director of Educational Licenses". In 2006 the Creative Commons' successor project was the Definition of Free Cultural Works for free content, put forth by Erik Möller, Richard Stallman, Lawrence Lessig, Benjamin Mako Hill, Angela Beesley, others; the Definition of Free Cultural Works is used by the Wikimedia Foundation. In 2008, the Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike Creative Commons licenses were marked as "Approved for Free Cultural Works" among other licenses. Another successor project is the Open Knowledge Foundation, founded by Rufus Pollock in Cambridge, UK in 2004 as a global non-profit network to promote and share open content and data. In 2007 the Open Knowledge Foundation gave an Open Knowledge Definition for "Content such as music, books.
In October 2014 with version 2.0 Open Works and Open Licenses were defined and "open" is described as synonymous to the definitions of open/free in the Open Source Definition, the Free Software Definition and the Definition of Free Cultural Works. A distinct difference is the focus given to the public domain and that it focuses on the accessibility and the readability. Among several conformant licenses, six are recommended, three own and the CC BY, CC BY-SA, CC0 creative commons licenses; the OpenContent website once defined OpenContent as'freely available for modification and redistribution under a license similar to those used by the open-source / free software community'. However, such a definition would exclude the Open Content License because that license forbade charging'a fee for the itself', a right required by free and open-source software licenses; the term since shifted in meaning. OpenContent "is licensed in a manner that provides users with free and perpetual permission to engage in the 5R activities."The 5Rs are put forward on the OpenContent website as a framework for assessing the extent to which content is open: Retain – the right to make and control copies of the content Reuse – the right to use the content in a wide range of ways Revise – the right to adapt, modify, or alter the content itself Remix – the right to combine the original or revised content with other open content to create something new Redistribute – the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others This broader definition distinguishes open content from open-source software, since the latter must be available for commercial use by the public.
However, it is similar to several definitions for open educational resources, which include resources under noncommercial and verbatim licenses. The Open Definition by the Open Knowledge Foundation define open knowledge with open content and open data as sub-elements and draws on the Open Source Definition. "Open access" refers to toll-free or gratis access to content published peer-reviewed scholarly journals. Some open access works are licensed for reuse and redistribution, which would qualify them as open content. Over the past decade, open content has been used to develop alternative routes towards higher education. Traditional universities are expensive, their tuition rates are increasing. Open content allows a free way of obtaining higher education, "focused on collective knowledge and the sharing and reuse of learning and scholarly content." There are multiple projects and organizations that promote learning through open content, including OpenCourseWare Initiative, The Saylor Foundation and Khan Academy.
Some universities, like MIT, Tufts are making their courses available on the internet. The textbook industry is one of the educational in
Creative Commons is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses, known as Creative Commons licenses, free of charge to the public; these licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses are based upon it, they replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, benefiting both copyright owners and licensees.
The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, Eric Eldred with the support of Center for the Public Domain. The first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002; the first set of copyright licenses was released in December 2002. The founding management team that developed the licenses and built the Creative Commons infrastructure as we know it today included Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia, Ben Adida. In 2002 the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A. Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project and Wiley joined as CC director. Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of Creative Commons; as of May 2018 there were an estimated 1.4 billion works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses. Wikipedia uses one of these licenses; as of May 2018, Flickr alone hosts over 415 million Creative Commons licensed photos. Creative Commons is governed by a board of directors.
Their licenses have been embraced by many as a way for creators to take control of how they choose to share their copyrighted works. Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the copyleft movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer public domain by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" copyright, has been dubbed "some rights reserved". David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of intellectual property and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "commons" in the "information age". Beyond that, Creative Commons has provided "institutional and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely."Creative Commons attempts to counter what Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, considers to be a dominant and restrictive permission culture. Lessig describes this as "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past."
Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions. Until April 2018 Creative Commons had over 100 affiliates working in over 75 jurisdictions to support and promote CC activities around the world. In 2018 this affiliate network has been restructured into a network organisation; the network no longer relies on affiliate organisation but on individual membership organised in Chapter. Creative Commons Japan is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in Japan. In 2003, the International University GLOCOM hold a meeting for the CC Japan preparing. In March 2004, CC Japan was initiated by that University, that, the second CC created among the world. In March 2006, the CC Japan be in motion. In the same year of March, the CC founder Lawrence Lessig came to Japan to be one of the main holder of the open ceremony.
Within same year of May to June, different international events hold in Japan which include iSummit 06 and the first to third round CCJP held. In 2007 of February, ICC x ClipLife 15 sec CM open. In June, iSummit 07 held on. After that month, the fourth CCJP held on. In the 25/7/2007, Tokyo approve Nobuhiro Nakayamato become the NGO chairman of CCJP. In 2008, Taipie ACIA join CCJP; the main theme music which chose by CCJP announced. In 2009, INTO INFINITY shown in Sapporo. I-phone held the shows with Audio Visual Mixer for INTO INFINITY. 2012, the 10 anniversary ceremony held on Japan. 2015, the renew version of CCJP overt. Creative Commons Japan Zero overt. Creative Commons Korea is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in South Korea. In March 2005, CC Korea was initiated by Jongsoo Yoon, a Presiding Judge of Incheon District Court, as a project of Korea Association for Infomedia Law; the major Korean portal sites, including Daum and Naver, have been participating in the use of Creative Commons licences.
In January 2009, the Creative Commons Korea Association was founded as a non-profit incorporated association. Since CC Korea has been promoting the liberal and open culture of creation as well as leading the diffusion of Creative Common in the country. Creative Commons Korea Creative Commons Asia Conference 2010