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1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt known as the August Coup, was an attempt made by members of the government of the Soviet Union to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. The coup leaders were hard-line members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union who were opposed to Gorbachev's reform program and the new union treaty that he had negotiated which decentralized much of the central government's power to the republics, they were opposed in Moscow, by a short but effective campaign of civil resistance led by Russian president Boris Yeltsin, both an ally and critic of Gorbachev. Although the coup collapsed in only two days and Gorbachev returned to power, the event destabilized the USSR and is considered to have contributed to both the demise of the CPSU and the dissolution of the USSR. After the capitulation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency, popularly referred to as the "Gang of Eight", both the Supreme Court of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev described their actions as a coup attempt.

Since assuming power as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, Gorbachev had embarked on an ambitious program of reform, embodied in the twin concepts of perestroika and glasnost, meaning economic/political restructuring and openness, respectively. These moves prompted suspicion on the part of hardline members of the nomenklatura; the reforms unleashed some forces and movements that Gorbachev did not expect. Nationalist agitation on the part of the Soviet Union's non-Russian minorities grew, there were fears that some or all of the union republics might secede. In 1991, the Soviet Union was in a severe political crisis. Scarcity of food and other consumables was widespread, people had to stand in long lines to buy essential goods, fuel stocks were up to 50% less than the estimated need for the approaching winter, inflation was over 300% per year, with factories lacking in cash needed to pay salaries. In 1990, Latvia, Lithuania and Georgia had declared the restoration of their independence from the Soviet Union.

In January 1991, there was an attempt to return Lithuania to the Soviet Union by force. About a week there was a similar attempt by local pro-Soviet forces to overthrow the Latvian authorities. There were continuing armed ethnic conflicts in South Ossetia. Russia declared its sovereignty on 12 June 1990 and thereafter limited the application of Soviet laws, in particular the laws concerning finance and the economy, on Russian territory; the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR adopted laws. In the unionwide referendum on 17 March 1991, boycotted by the Baltic states, Armenia and Moldova, the majority of the residents of the rest of the republics expressed the desire to retain the renewed Soviet Union. Following negotiations, eight of the nine republics approved the New Union Treaty with some conditions; the treaty would make the Soviet Union a federation of independent republics with a common president, foreign policy, military. Russia and Uzbekistan were to sign the Treaty in Moscow on 20 August 1991.

On 11 December 1990, KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov, made a "call for order" over Central television in Moscow. That day, he asked two KGB officers to prepare a plan of measures that could be taken in case a state of emergency was declared in the USSR. Kryuchkov brought Soviet Defense Minister Dmitry Yazov, Internal Affairs Minister Boris Pugo, Premier Valentin Pavlov, Vice-President Gennady Yanayev, Soviet Defense Council deputy chief Oleg Baklanov, Gorbachev secretariat head Valery Boldin, CPSU Central Committee Secretary Oleg Shenin into the conspiracy; the members of the GKChP hoped that Gorbachev could be persuaded to declare the state of emergency and to "restore order". On 23 July 1991, a number of party functionaries and literati published in the hardline newspaper Sovetskaya Rossiya a piece entitled A Word to the People which called for decisive action to prevent disastrous calamity. Six days Gorbachev, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev discussed the possibility of replacing such hardliners as Pavlov, Yazov and Pugo with more liberal figures.

Kryuchkov, who had placed Gorbachev under close surveillance as Subject 110 several months earlier got wind of the conversation. On 4 August, Gorbachev went on holiday to his dacha in Crimea, he planned to return to Moscow in time for the New Union Treaty signing on 20 August. On 17 August, the members of the GKChP met at a KGB guesthouse in Moscow and studied the treaty document, they believed the pact would pave the way to the Soviet Union's breakup, decided that it was time to act. The next day, Boldin, USSR Deputy Defense Minister General Valentin Varennikov flew to Crimea for a meeting with Gorbachev, they demanded that Gorbachev either declare a state of emergency or resign and name Yanayev as acting president to allow the members of the GKChP "to restore order" in the country. Gorbachev has always claimed. Varennikov has insisted. Do what you want, but report my opinion!" However, those present at the dacha at the time testified that Baklanov, Boldin and Varennikov had been disappointed and nervous after the meeting with Gorbachev.

With Gorbachev's refusal, the conspirators ordered.


Bolstadfjorden is a 12 km long fjord in Vaksdal and Voss municipalities in Vestland county, Norway. The Bolstadfjorden is a continuation of Vikafjorden. Vikafjorden meets the mouth of Bolstadfjorden, it is the innermost point of the fjord system surrounding the city of Bergen. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a threshold of only 1.5 metres which creates a strong tidal current. Bolstadfjorden has a surface area of 7.1 km2. There is a threshold at 35 metres creating two basins, the outer 4.6 km2. The Vosso river brings freshwater from a 1,500 km2 catchment area. Freshwater inflow peaks in May to June. Freshwater or brackish water on the surface obstructs circulation of the heavier saltwater leaving the saltwater in the deeper part deprived of oxygen. Measurements in April and August 2006 showed indicated that there was no oxygen at 50 metres or deeper. In April the layer of brackish water was about 5 metres deep, while in August the brackish water was 20 meters deep; the main road from Bergen-Voss-Oslo runs along the south shores of the fjord.

The Voss Line ran along the south shore through 10 short tunnels. When the Bergen Line in 1987 was shifted deeper into the bedrock, the E16 highway took over abandoned tunnels and rail tracks along Bolstadfjorden. List of Norwegian fjords

1945–46 Taça de Portugal

The 1945–46 Taça de Portugal was the 8th season of the Taça de Portugal, the premier Portuguese football knockout competition, organized by the Portuguese Football Federation. Sporting Clube de Portugal was the defending champion and played Atlético Clube de Portugal in the final on 30 June 1946. Associação Académica de Coimbra – Organismo Autónomo de Futebol Atlético Clube de Portugal Clube de Futebol Os Belenenses Sport Lisboa e Benfica Boavista Futebol Clube Sport Lisboa e Elvas Sporting Clube Olhanense União Desportiva Oliveirense Futebol Clube do Porto Sporting Clube de Portugal Vitória Sport Clube "de Guimarães" Vitória Futebol Clube "de Setúbal" Grupo Desportivo Estoril Praia Futebol Clube Famalicão Portimonense Sporting Clube Clube de Futebol União de Coimbra Official webpage 1945–46 Taça de Portugal at

1998–99 Phoenix Suns season

The 1998–99 NBA season was the 31st season for the Phoenix Suns in the National Basketball Association. During the offseason, the Suns signed free agent Tom Gugliotta while acquiring Luc Longley from the Chicago Bulls. Head coach Danny Ainge returned for his third season as the team finished tied for third in the Pacific Division with a record of 27–23 in the shortened lockout season; the 7th-seeded Suns made the playoffs for the 11th consecutive season before being swept in the first round to the 2nd-seeded and Pacific winner-Portland Trail Blazers, three games to zero. All home games were played in America West Arena. Starting point guard Jason Kidd finished the regular season leading the league in assists per game at 10.8. Three Suns would average 16 points or more per game, with Gugliotta notching 17, Kidd 16.9 and Clifford Robinson at 16.4 per game. Kidd led the league in total minutes played and was third in total steals, before being selected to both the All-NBA and All-Defensive First Teams.

Following the season, Danny Manning was traded to the Orlando Magic, who traded him to the Milwaukee Bucks two weeks and George McCloud signed as a free agent with the Denver Nuggets. This was the first year in franchise history, their first-round pick was traded to the Denver Nuggets the previous year in the Antonio McDyess deal, their second-round pick was traded to the Dallas Mavericks in 1996 in the Jason Kidd deal. Jason Kidd was named Player of the Month for April. Jason Kidd was named Player of the Week for games played April 12 through April 18. All-Star weekend was cancelled due to the 1998–99 NBA lockout. Jason Kidd was named to the All-NBA First Team. Kidd finished fifth in MVP voting. Jason Kidd was named to the NBA All-Defensive First Team. Clifford Robinson finished seventh in Defensive Player of the Year voting, finished tenth in Most Improved Player voting. Jason Kidd led the league in assists per game with a 10.8 average, total assists with 539. Jason Kidd led the league in minutes played with 2060.

† – Minimum 183 field goals made.^ – Minimum 34 three-pointers made.# – Minimum 76 free throws made. ^ – Minimum 5 three-pointers made.# – Minimum 10 free throws made

Aristotle Lane

Aristotle Lane is a road in north Oxford, England. The lane links North Oxford, leading from the junction of Kingston Road and Hayfield Road, with Port Meadow to the west, via bridges over the Oxford Canal and railway; the other access to the meadow from North Oxford is via Walton Well Road to the south. St Philip & St James Primary School is located in Aristotle Lane, having below in Leckford Road to the south; the Aristotle Lane Allotments are located here. To the north of the allotments is the Burgess Field Nature Park a landfill site. In addition, there is a recreation ground. There is evidence of Iron Age tracks from the location of Aristotle Lane across Port Meadow to Binsey Ford; the lane is named after Aristotle's Well in the vicinity, deriving from the name of the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. On 3 June 1644, King Charles I passed this way with around 5,000 men, strategically withdrawing from Oxford, his temporary capital during the Civil War, across Port Meadow and the Thames. T.

E. Lawrence used this route from his home as a child in Polstead Road on his way to Port Meadow to dig in the mounds there. Port Meadow Halt railway station was located just north of Aristotle Lane on the Varsity Line; the London and North Western Railway opened the halt called Summertown after the north Oxford district, on 20 August 1906. It was renamed to Port Meadow Halt in January 1907; the station temporarily closed during World War I between 1 January 1917 and 5 May 1919. On 30 October 1926, London and Scottish Railway permanently closed the station; the land south of Aristotle Lane was acquired from Lucy's by Berkeley Homes and developed during 1996–1999 into the Waterside estate