Ossian is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760. Macpherson claimed to have collected word-of-mouth material in Scottish Gaelic, said to be from ancient sources, that the work was his translation of that material. Ossian is based on Oisín, son of Finn or Fionn mac Cumhaill, anglicised to Finn McCool, a legendary bard, a character in Irish mythology. Contemporary critics were divided in their view of the work's authenticity, but the consensus since is that Macpherson framed the poems himself, based on old folk tales he had collected; the work was internationally popular, translated into all the literary languages of Europe and was influential both in the development of the Romantic movement and the Gaelic revival. "The contest over the authenticity of Macpherson's pseudo-Gaelic productions," Curley asserts, "became a seismograph of the fragile unity within restive diversity of imperial Great Britain in the age of Johnson."
Macpherson's fame was crowned by his burial among the literary giants in Westminster Abbey. W. P. Ker, in the Cambridge History of English Literature, observes that "all Macpherson's craft as a philological impostor would have been nothing without his literary skill." In 1760 Macpherson published the English-language text Fragments of ancient poetry, collected in the Highlands of Scotland, translated from the Gaelic or Erse language. That year, he claimed to have obtained further manuscripts and in 1761 he claimed to have found an epic on the subject of the hero Fingal, written by Ossian. According to Macpherson's prefatory material, his publisher, claiming that there was no market for these works except in English, required that they be translated. Macpherson published these translations during the next few years, culminating in a collected edition, The Works of Ossian, in 1765; the most famous of these Ossianic poems was Fingal, written in 1762. The supposed original poems are translated with short and simple sentences.
The mood is epic. The main characters are Ossian himself, relating the stories when old and blind, his father Fingal, his dead son Oscar, Oscar's lover Malvina, who looks after Ossian in his old age. Though the stories "are of endless battles and unhappy loves", the enemies and causes of strife are given little explanation and context. Characters are given to killing loved ones by mistake, dying of grief, or of joy. There is little information given on the religion, culture or society of the characters, buildings are hardly mentioned; the landscape "is more real than the people. Drowned in eternal mist, illuminated by a decrepit sun or by ephemeral meteors, it is a world of greyness." Fingal is king of a region of south-west Scotland similar to the historical kingdom of Dál Riata and the poems appear to be set around the 3rd century, with the "king of the world" mentioned being the Roman Emperor. The poems achieved international success. Napoleon and Diderot were prominent admirers and Voltaire was known to have written parodies of them.
Thomas Jefferson thought Ossian "the greatest poet that has existed", planned to learn Gaelic so as to read his poems in the original. They were proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical writers such as Homer. Many writers were influenced by the works, including Walter Scott, painters and composers chose Ossianic subjects. One poem was translated into French in 1762, by 1777 the whole corpus. In the German-speaking states Michael Denis made the first full translation in 1768–69, inspiring the proto-nationalist poets Klopstock and Goethe, whose own German translation of a portion of Macpherson's work figures prominently in a climactic scene of The Sorrows of Young Werther. Goethe's associate Johann Gottfried Herder wrote an essay titled Extract from a correspondence about Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples in the early days of the Sturm und Drang movement. Complete Danish translations were made in 1790, Swedish ones in 1794–1800. In Scandinavia and Germany the Celtic nature of the setting was ignored or not understood, Ossian was regarded as a Nordic or Germanic figure who became a symbol for nationalist aspirations.
The French general Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, made King Charles XIV John of Sweden and King of Norway, had named his only son after a character from Ossian, at the suggestion of Napoleon, the child's godfather and an admirer of Ossian. Born in 1799, Bernadotte's son became King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway, who was, in turn, succeeded by his sons Charles XV of Sweden and Oscar II. "Oscar" being a Royal Swedish name led to its becoming a common male first name in Scandinavia but in other European countries. Melchiore Cesarotti was an Italian clergyman whose translation into Italian is said by many to improve on the original, was a tireless promoter of the poems, in Vienna and Warsaw as well as Italy, it was his translation that Napoleon admired, among others it influenced Ugo Foscolo, Cesarotti's pupil in the University of Padua. By 1800 Ossian was translated into Spanish and Russian, with Dutch following in 1805, Polish and Hungarian in 1827–33; the poems were as much admired in Hungary as in Germany.
A self-portrait is a representation of an artist, drawn, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. Although self-portraits have been made since the earliest times, it is not until the Early Renaissance in the mid-15th century that artists can be identified depicting themselves as either the main subject, or as important characters in their work. With better and cheaper mirrors, the advent of the panel portrait, many painters and printmakers tried some form of self-portraiture. Portrait of a Man in a Turban by Jan van Eyck of 1433 may well be the earliest known panel self-portrait, he painted a separate portrait of his wife, he belonged to the social group that had begun to commission portraits more common among wealthy Netherlanders than south of the Alps. The genre is venerable, but not until the Renaissance, with increased wealth and interest in the individual as a subject, did it become popular. A self-portrait may be a portrait of the artist, or a portrait included in a larger work, including a group portrait.
Many painters are said to have included depictions of specific individuals, including themselves, in painting figures in religious or other types of composition. Such paintings were not intended publicly to depict the actual persons as themselves, but the facts would have been known at the time to artist and patron, creating a talking point as well as a public test of the artist's skill. In the earliest surviving examples of medieval and Renaissance self-portraiture, historical or mythical scenes were depicted using a number of actual persons as models including the artist, giving the work a multiple function as portraiture, self-portraiture and history/myth painting. In these works, the artist appears as a face in the crowd or group towards the edges or corner of the work and behind the main participants. Rubens's The Four Philosophers is a good example; this culminated in the 17th century with the work of Jan de Bray. Many artistic media have been used. In the famous Arnolfini Portrait, Jan van Eyck is one of two figures glimpsed in a mirror – a modern conceit.
The Van Eyck painting may have inspired Diego Velázquez to depict himself in full view as the painter creating Las Meninas, as the Van Eyck hung in the palace in Madrid where he worked. This was another modern flourish, given that he appears as the painter and standing close to the King's family group who were the supposed main subjects of the painting. In what may be one of the earliest childhood self-portraits now surviving, Albrecht Dürer depicts himself as in naturalistic style as a 13-year-old boy in 1484. In years he appears variously as a merchant in the background of Biblical scenes and as Christ. Leonardo da Vinci may have drawn a picture of himself at the age of 60, in around 1512; the picture is straightforwardly reproduced as Da Vinci's appearance, although this is not certain. In the 17th century, Rembrandt painted a range of self-portraits. In The Prodigal Son in the Tavern, one of the earliest self-portraits with family, the painting includes Saskia, Rembrandt's wife, one of the earliest depictions of a family member by a famous artist.
Family and professional group paintings, including the artist's depiction, became common from the 17th century on. From the 20th century on, video plays an increasing part in self-portraiture, adds the dimension of audio as well, allowing the person to speak to us in their own voice. Women artists are notable producers of self-portraits. Vigée-Lebrun painted a total of 37 self-portraits, many of which were copies of earlier ones, painted for sale; until the 20th century women were unable to train in drawing the nude, which made it difficult for them to paint large figure compositions, leading many artists to specialize in portrait work. Women artists have embodied a number of roles within their self-portraiture. Most common is the artist at work, showing themselves in the act of painting, or at least holding a brush and palette; the viewer wonders if the clothes worn were those they painted in, as the elaborate nature of many ensembles was an artistic choice to show her skill at fine detail. Images of artists at work are encountered in Ancient Egyptian painting, sculpture and on Ancient Greek vases.
One of the first self-portraits was made by the Pharaoh Akhenaten's chief sculptor Bak in 1365 BC. Plutarch mentions that the Ancient Greek sculptor Phidias had included a likeness of himself in a number of characters in the "Battle of the Amazons" on the Parthenon, there are classical references to painted self-portraits, none of which have survived. Portraits and self-portraits have a longer continuous history in Asian art than in Europe. Many in the scholar gentleman tradition are quite small, depicting the artist in a large landscape, illustrating a poem in calligraphy on his experience of the scene. Another tradition, associated with Zen Buddhism, produced lively semi-caricatured self-portraits, whilst others remain closer to the conventions of the formal portrait. Illuminated manuscripts contain a number of apparent self-portraits, notably those of Saint Dunstan and Matthew Paris. Most of these either show the artist at work, or presenting the finished book to either a donor or a sacred figure, or venerating such a figure.
Orcagna is belie
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Earl Cathcart is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The title was created in 1814 for diplomat William Cathcart, 1st Viscount Cathcart; the Cathcart family descends from Sir Alan Cathcart, who sometime between 1447 and 1460 was raised to the Peerage of Scotland as Lord Cathcart. He served as Warden of the West Marches and Master of the Artillery, his great-great-grandson, the third Lord, was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547. He was succeeded by the fourth Lord, he fought at the Battle of Langside in 1568 and was Master of the Household to King James VI. His great-great-great-grandson, the eighth Lord, was a soldier, he was a major-general in the army and sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1734 to 1740. In 1740 Lord Cathcart was appointed commander-in-chief of the British Forces in America. However, he was buried on Dominica, he was succeeded by the ninth Lord. He was a lieutenant-general in the army and served as British Ambassador to Russia. Between 1752 and 1776 Lord Cathcart sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer.
His son, the tenth Lord, was diplomat. He was a general like his father served as British Ambassador to Russia. From 1788 to 1843 Lord Cathcart was a Scottish Representative Peer in the House of Lords. In 1807 he was created Baron Greenock, of Greenock in the County of Renfrew, Viscount Cathcart, of Cathcart in the County of Renfrew, in 1814 he was made Earl Cathcart; these titles were in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. He was succeeded by the second Earl. Like his father he was a general in the army and served as Governor General of Canada from 1846 to 1847. On his death the titles passed to the third Earl, he was a Deputy Lieutenant of the North Riding of Yorkshire and President of the Royal Agricultural Society. His eldest son, the fourth Earl, was a Deputy Lieutenant of the North Riding of Yorkshire, he never was succeeded by his younger brother, the fifth Earl. His son, the sixth Earl, was a major-general in the army and served as a Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords from 1976 to 1989; the titles are held by the latter's only son, the seventh Earl, who succeeded in 1999.
He is one of the ninety elected hereditary peers that remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, sits on the Conservative benches. Lord Cathcart lost his seat in 1999 but was able to return in 2007 in a by-election caused by the death of Lord Mowbray, he is chief of Clan Cathcart. Several other members of the family may be mentioned; the Hon. Sir George Cathcart, fourth son of the first Earl, was a general in the army; the Hon. Charles Cathcart, younger son of the ninth Lord, was a colonel in the British Army and represented Clackmannanshire in the House of Commons; the Hon. Louisa Cathcart, daughter of the ninth Lord, married David Murray, 7th Viscount of Stormont. In 1793, on the death of her and Lord Stormont's uncle William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield, Louisa inherited the earldom of Mansfield created in 1776, became the second Countess of Mansfield, while her husband inherited the earldom of Mansfield created in 1792, became the second Earl of Mansfield.
The family seat is Gateley Hall, near Norfolk. Alan Cathcart, 1st Lord Cathcart Alan Cathcart, Master of Cathcart John Cathcart, 2nd Lord Cathcart Alan Cathcart, Master of Cathcart Alan Cathcart, 3rd Lord Cathcart Alan Cathcart, 4th Lord Cathcart Alan Cathcart, Master of Cathcart Alan Cathcart, 5th Lord Cathcart Alan Cathcart, 6th Lord Cathcart Alan Cathcart, 7th Lord Cathcart Allan Cathcart Charles Cathcart, 8th Lord Cathcart George Alan Cathcart John Cathcart Charles Schaw Cathcart, 9th Lord Cathcart William Schaw Cathcart, 10th Lord Cathcart William Schaw Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart William Cathcart, Master of Cathcart Charles Murray Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart Hon. Charles Cathcart Alan Frederick Cathcart, 3rd Earl Cathcart Alan Cathcart, 4th Earl Cathcart George Cathcart, 5th Earl Cathcart Alan Cathcart, 6th Earl Cathcart Charles Alan Andrew Cathcart, 7th Earl Cathcart The heir apparent is the present holder's son Alan George Cathcart, Lord Greenock Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage.
New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Alan Frederick Cathcart, 3rd Earl Cathcart Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Alan Cathcart, 4th Earl Cathcart Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by George Cathcart, 5th Earl Cathcart
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique, a variant of etching that only produces areas of tone rather than lines. For this reason it has been used in conjunction with etching, to give outlines, it has been used to achieve prints in colour, both by printing with multiple plates in different colours, by making monochrome prints that were hand-coloured with watercolour. It has been in regular use since the 18th century, was most used between about 1770 and 1830, when it was used both for artistic prints and decorative ones. After about 1830 it lost ground to lithography and other techniques. There have been periodic revivals among artists subsequently; the aquatint plate wears out quickly, is less reworked than other intaglio plates. Among the most famous prints using the aquatint technique are the major series by Goya, many of The Birds of America by John James Audubon, prints by Mary Cassatt printed in colour using several plates. In intaglio printmaking techniques such as engraving and etching, the artist makes marks into the surface of the plate that are capable of holding ink.
The plate is inked all over wiped clean to leave ink only in the marks. The plate is passed through a printing press together with a sheet of paper, strong pressure applied pushing the paper into the marks, so that a transfer of the ink to the paper occurs; this is repeated many times. Like etching, aquatint uses the application of a mordant to etch into the metal plate. Where etching uses a needle to scratch through an acid-proof resist and make lines, aquatint uses powdered rosin to create a tonal effect; the rosin is acid resistant and adhered to the plate by controlled heating. The tonal variation is controlled by the level of mordant exposure over large areas, thus the image is shaped by large sections at a time; the rosin is washed off the plate before printing. Another tonal technique, begins with a plate surface, evenly indented and roughened so that it will print as an and dark tone of ink; the mezzotint plate is smoothed and polished to make areas carry less ink and thus print a lighter shade.
Alternatively, beginning with a smooth plate, areas are roughened to make them darker. The two techniques of aquatint and mezzotint are combined. A variety of early experiments aimed to add tonal effects to etching included the first use of a resin dust ground by the painter and printmaker Jan van de Velde IV in Amsterdam, around 1650; however none of these developed a technique. Experimentation by several artists with somewhat different techniques reached a peak after about 1750, as they were very secretive, the history of the emergence of the standard technique remains unclear. Various claimants include the Swede Per Floding working with the Frenchman François-Philippe Charpentier in 1761, J. B. Delafosse in 1766, working with the amateur Jean-Claude Richard in 1766, Jean-Baptiste Le Prince in 1768-69. Le Prince was more effective than the others in publicizing his technique, publishing Découverte du procédé de graver au lavis in 1780, though he failed to sell his secret in his lifetime, it was bought posthumously by the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1782, who released it on an open basis.
Though England was to become one of the countries using the technique most, the earliest English aquatints were not exhibited until 1772, by the cartographer Peter Perez Burdett. It was taken up by the watercolourist Paul Sandby, who seems to have introduced technical refinements as well as inventing the name "aquatint". In England artists such as Sandby and Thomas Gainsborough were attracted by the suitability of etched outlines with aquatint for reproducing the popular English landscape watercolours, which at this period also had been given an initial outline drawing in ink. Publishers of prints and illustrations for expensive books, both important British markets at the time adopted the technique. In all these areas, a print with etching and aquatint gave satisfactory results when watercolour was added by low-skilled painters copying a model, with a flat wash of colour on top of the varied tones of the aquatint. After the French Revolution, one of the most successful publishers in London, the German Rudolf Ackermann, had numbers of French refugees working on the floor above his shop in The Strand in London, each brushing a single colour and passing the sheet down a long table.
Over the same period in France there was sustained interest in techniques for true colour printing using multiple plates, which used multiple printmaking techniques which included aquatint for tone. Artists included Jean-François Janinet and Philibert-Louis Debucourt, whose La Promenade Publique is thought the masterpiece of the style. Another branch of this French movement used mezzotint for tone and came to specialize in illustrating medical textbooks; this was at first led by Jacob Christoph Le Blon, who nearly anticipated modern CMYK colour separation and carried on by his pupil Jacques Fabien Gautier d'Agoty and members of the d'Agoty family until around 1800. Goya, maker of incontestably the greatest prints using aquatint learned of the technique though Giovanni David from Genoa, the first significant Italian to use it. Goya used it with etching and burnishing and ot
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion