Rudy is a 1993 American biographical sports film directed by David Anspaugh. It is an account of the life of Daniel "Rudy" Ruettiger, who harbored dreams of playing football at the University of Notre Dame despite significant obstacles, it was the first film that the Notre Dame administration allowed to be shot on campus since Knute Rockne, All American in 1940. In 2005, Rudy was named one of the best 25 sports movies of the previous 25 years in two polls by ESPN, it was ranked the 54th-most inspiring film of all time in the "AFI 100 Years" series. The film was released on October 1993, by TriStar Pictures, it stars Sean Astin as the title character, along with Ned Beatty, Jason Miller and Charles S. Dutton; the script was written by Angelo Pizzo, who created Hoosiers, directed by Anspaugh. The film was shot in Indiana. In the late 1960s, Daniel Eugene "Rudy" Ruettiger grows up in Joliet, dreaming of playing college football at Notre Dame. Though he achieves some success with his high school team at Joliet Catholic, he lacks the grades and money necessary to attend Notre Dame, as well as the talent and physical stature to play football for a major intercollegiate program.
After high school, Rudy takes a job at a local steel mill like his father, Daniel Sr. a Notre Dame fan, his two older brothers and John. When his best friend Pete, who supports his dream of playing football for Notre Dame, is killed in an explosion at the mill, Rudy decides to follow his dream of attending Notre Dame and playing for the Fighting Irish. In 1972, Rudy is not academically eligible for Notre Dame. With the help and sponsorship of a Notre Dame priest, Father Cavanaugh, Rudy enrolls at Holy Cross College, a nearby junior college, hoping to get good enough grades to qualify for a transfer, he approaches a Notre Dame stadium head groundskeeper named Fortune and volunteers to work on the field for free. Fortune offers a job at minimum wage. Homeless, Rudy sneaks in and out of Fortune's office at night through a window and sleeps on a cot. At first, Fortune is indifferent towards Rudy but provides him with blankets for the cot and a key of his own to the office, although Fortune denies it.
Rudy learns that Fortune has never seen a Notre Dame football game, despite having worked at the stadium for years. Rudy befriends D-Bob, a graduate student at Notre Dame and a teaching assistant at Rudy's junior college. D-Bob offers to tutor Rudy in exchange for help in meeting girls around the Holy Cross campus. After some time, suspecting an underlying cause to Rudy's previous academic problems, D-Bob has him tested, Rudy finds out that he has dyslexia. Rudy becomes a better student. During Christmas vacation, Rudy returns home to his family's appreciation of his college attendance and report card but is still mocked for his attempts at playing college football and loses his fiancée to his older brother John. After two years at Holy Cross and three rejections from Notre Dame, Rudy is admitted during his final semester of transfer eligibility, he goes home to tell his family, with his father announcing the news to his steel mill workers over the loudspeaker. Rudy decides to return to Notre Dame and attempt to make the football team as a walk-on.
Rudy soon persuades Fortune to promise to come see his first game if Rudy is permitted to suit up for one game. After "walking on" as a non-scholarship player for the football team and competing well, a strong-willed Rudy convinces head coach Ara Parseghian to give him a spot on the daily practice squad. Assistant coach Yonto warns the walk on players that thirty-five scholarship players will not make the "dress roster" of players who take the field during the games but at practices notices that Rudy exhibits more drive than many of the scholarship athletes. At season's end, Coach Parseghian agrees to Rudy's request to suit up for one home game in his senior year so his family and friends can see him as a member of the Notre Dame team. However, Parseghian retires as coach following the 1974 season and is replaced by a former NFL coach, Dan Devine. Coach Devine refuses to place him on the game day roster; when Rudy sees that he is not on the dress list for the team's next-to-last home game, he becomes distraught and quits the team.
Fortune chastises him for quitting the team. As they talk, Rudy learns that Fortune has seen his share of Notre Dame games, but not from the stands - he was on the team. Years earlier, Fortune had angrily left the team because he felt that he was not playing in games due to his skin color. Fortune reminds Rudy that he has nothing to prove to anyone but himself, that not a day will go by when he will not regret quitting. With that advice, Rudy returns to the team. In an attempt to get Devine to list Rudy on the game-day roster, led by team captain and All-American Roland Steele, the other Notre Dame seniors rise to Rudy's defense and lay their jerseys on Devine's desk, each requesting that Rudy should be allowed to dress in his place for the season's final game. In response, a reluctant Devine lets Rudy suit up for the next game against Georgia Tech. On game day, with Rudy's family and D-Bob in attendance, Steele invites Rudy to lead the team out of the tunnel onto the playing field. Fortune is there to see the Notre Dame -- Georgia Tech game.
As the game nears its end with Notre Dame winning 17–3, Devine sends all the seniors into the game but not Rudy, despite urging from Steele and the assistant coaches. That week at Notre Dame there had been a story about Rudy and his walk-on football career in the stude
Swing Vote (1999 film)
Swing Vote is a 1999 American television film, directed by David Anspaugh. It features an alternative reality where the Supreme Court of the United States has overturned the Roe v. Wade decision, the State of Alabama subsequently charged a woman with first degree murder for having an abortion. Joseph Kirkland has been appointed to the United States Supreme Court and is faced with an emotional issue. Virginia Mapes elected to have an abortion in Alabama, just before the law was enacted and is being charged with first degree murder; the Justices who want to overturn the law are in a minority, thus making Justice Kirkland a powerful swing vote. Justice Kirkland faces competing pro-life and pro-choice arguments from other justices, his secretary and his wife, his final decision seeks to strike some sort of middle ground between the two political positions. Andy García... Joseph Michael Kirkland Harry Belafonte... Justice Will Dunn Robert Prosky... Chief Justice of the United States Ray Walston... Justice Clore Cawley James Whitmore...
Justice Daniel Morissey Kate Nelligan... Justice Sara Marie Brandwynne Milo O'Shea... retired Justice Harlan Greene Albert Hall... Justice Hank Banks Bob Balaban... Justice Eli MacCorckle John Aylward... Justice Benjamin "Rip" Ripley Lisa Gay Hamilton... Virginia Mapes Margaret Colin... Linda Kirkland Tracey Ellis... Marley Terrell Hedy Burress... Calley McFearsonMichael Jackson Swing Vote on IMDb
Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university. Indiana University is a "Public Ivy" university and ranks in the top 100 national universities in the U. S. and among the top 50 public universities. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs, including the Jacobs School of Music, the School of Informatics and Engineering, the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Optometry, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Media School, the Hamilton Lugar School of Global and International Studies; as of Fall 2017, 43,710 students attend Indiana University. While 55.1% of the student body was from Indiana, students from all 50 states, Washington, D. C. Puerto Rico and 165 countries were enrolled.
As of 2018, the average ACT score is a 28 and an SAT score of 1276. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with more than 750 student organizations on campus and with around 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams are known as the Indiana Hoosiers; the university is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Indiana's faculty and alumni include nine Nobel laureates, 17 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholars, five MacArthur Fellows. In addition and alumni have won six Academy Awards, 49 Grammy Awards, 32 Emmy Awards, 20 Pulitzer Prizes, four Tony Awards, 104 Olympic medals. Notable Indiana alumni include James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Indiana's state government in Corydon established Indiana University on January 20, 1820, as the "State Seminary." Construction began in 1822 at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue. The first professor was Baynard Rush Hall, a Presbyterian minister who taught all of the classes in 1825–27.
In the first year, he taught twelve students and was paid $250. Hall was a classicist who focused on Greek and Latin and believed that the study of classical philosophy and languages formed the basis of the best education; the first class graduated in 1830. From 1820 to 1889 a legal-political battle was fought between IU and Vincennes University as to, the legitimate state university. In 1829, Andrew Wylie became the first president, serving until his death in 1851; the school's name was changed to "Indiana College" in 1829, to "Indiana University" in 1839. Wylie and David Maxwell, president of the board of trustees, were devout Presbyterians, they spoke of the nonsectarian status of the school but hired fellow Presbyterians. Presidents and professors were expected to set a moral example for their charges. After six ministers in a row, the first non-clergyman to become president was the young biology professor David Starr Jordan, in 1885. Jordan followed Baptist theologian Lemuel Moss, who resigned after a scandal broke regarding his involvement with a female professor.
Jordan improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system along the lines of his alma mater, Cornell University. Jordan became president of Stanford University in June 1891. Growth of the college was slow. In 1851, IU had seven professors. IU admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison, in 1867, making IU the fourth public university to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873. Mathematician Joseph Swain was IU's first Hoosier-born president, 1893 to 1902, he established Kirkwood Hall in 1894. He began construction for Science Hall in 1901. During his presidency, student enrollment increased from 524 to 1,285. In 1883, IU awarded its first Ph. D. and played its first intercollegiate sport, prefiguring the school's future status as a major research institution and a power in collegiate athletics. But another incident that year was of more immediate concern: the original campus in Seminary Square burned to the ground.
The college was rebuilt between 1884 and 1908 at the far eastern edge of Bloomington. One challenge was that Bloomington's limited water supply was inadequate for its population of 12,000 and could not handle university expansion; the University commissioned a study. In 1902, IU enrolled 1203 undergraduates. There were 82 graduate students including ten from out-of-state; the curriculum emphasized the classics, as befitted a gentleman, stood in contrast to the service-oriented curriculum at Purdue, which presented itself as of direct benefit to farmers and businessmen. The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what becam
Indiana Historical Society
The Indiana Historical Society is one of the United States' oldest and largest historical societies and describes itself as "Indiana's Storyteller". Housed within the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Indiana History Center, it is located at 450 West Ohio Street in Indianapolis, Indiana, in The Canal and White River State Park Cultural District, with neighbors such as the Indiana State Museum and the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indian and Western Art; the Indiana Historical Society is the oldest state historical society west of the Allegheny Mountains. A private, nonprofit membership organization founded in 1830, the IHS maintains the nation's premier research library and archives on the history of Indiana and the Old Northwest; the IHS provides support and assistance to local museums and historical groups, publishes books and periodicals. It is responsible for appointing and training the state's 92 county historians; the Indiana Historical Society opened a new 165,000-square-foot headquarters in downtown Indianapolis in July 1999, built on the site of the prior Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church of Indianapolis.
The Indiana Historical Society was started on December 11, 1830, the fourteenth anniversary of the statehood of Indiana. A collection of Indianapolis-area movers and shakers chose to start the society, sought to obtain many objects relating to Indiana's history, it was to hold a "collection of all materials calculated to shed light on the natural and political history of Indiana, the promotion of useful knowledge and the friendly and profitable intercourse of such citizens of the state as are disposed to promote the aforesaid objects". The headquarters of the Indiana Historical Society has remained within Indianapolis. In 1831, the IHS was granted a charter by the Indiana General Assembly. In the years following, two of the IHS's prevalent backers died, between its founding in 1830 and 1886, only twelve annual meetings were held to promote the organization, its collections were located in old Indiana State Capitol. The IHS of those days was described by a historian as "a small private club for publishing local history."In 1886 the IHS was reorganized under the direction of Jacob Piatt Dunn.
With trusted associates, Dunn started the policy of annual meetings of the society that continue to this day. Dunn was able to enthuse Hoosiers of several occupations to gather resources for the society, focusing on editors, professional historians, lawyers and writers. However, Jacob Dunn's attempt to allow women to join the Society failed in 1888. Thanks to Dunn, the Indiana Historical Society had an office at the state capitol building from 1888 to 1914; the Indiana Historical Society continued to affect and be affected by the happenings of the Indiana Historical Bureau, the Indiana State Museum, the Indiana State Library. The IHS's executive secretaries acted as directors of the Historical Bureau for over fifty years, from 1924 to 1976; this connection allowed the Indiana History Bulletin, controlled by the Historical Bureau, to be distributed to the members of the society. The bequest of philanthropist Delavan Smith in 1922 of a vast sum of money, a sizable collection of books allowed the IHS to start its William Henry Smith Memorial Library.
During the 1940s Howard Henry Peckham was the director of the IHS and established many professional standards in the field of public history. Beginning in the 1950s, the Indiana Historical Society started publishing works related to the history of Indiana; the most important of these works was the 1966 multi-volume set on the history of Indiana, in celebration of the sesquicentennial anniversary of Indiana's statehood. Other notable works included the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Old Northwest in 1950. In 2009, the IHS celebrated the 20th anniversary of its award-winning popular history magazine, Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, it publishes the family history magazine, The Hoosier Genealogist: Connections, a membership magazine, IN Perspective. By 1970 the membership of the Indiana Historical Society reached 5,000 members; the most noted of these was Eli Lilly, a longtime trustee, whose donations funded additional building additions in 1976. Lilly's bequest allowed the IHS to achieve its own identity with its offices and library occupying a floor in the addition.
At this time, the IHS/Indiana Historical Bureau leadership was separated with the creation of the title of Executive Secretary being retained for the IHS leadership. Lilly's bequest helps the general financial welfare of the society to this day. By 1993 the membership rose to 10,000, with forty percent of the Society's members living in the Indianapolis metropolitan area. For years, the headquarters was in the Indiana State Library and Historical Building, but in 1999 it moved to its current headquarters; the 165,000-square-foot building includes the 300-seat Frank and Katrina Basile Theater, the William Henry Smith Memorial Library, a vault to house the IHS's collections, the Stardust Terrace Cafe and preservation imaging facilities, the Basile History Market, the Cole Porter Room, Eli Lilly Hall and various exhibition spaces. In December 2007, the IHS launched its Campaign for the Indiana Experience and renamed the building the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Indiana History Center in honor of the Glicks' gift to the
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i