Redwood City, California
Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area 27 miles south of San Francisco, 24 miles northwest of San Jose. Redwood City's history spans its earliest inhabitation by the Ohlone people to being a port for lumber and other goods; the county seat of San Mateo County in the heart of Silicon Valley, Redwood City is home to several global technology companies including Oracle, Electronic Arts, Evernote and Informatica. The city had an estimated population of 86,685 in 2017; the Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port on San Francisco Bay south of San Francisco. Redwood City is the location of the San Mateo County Jail, for both men; the Hetch Hetchy water pipeline runs through Redwood City and supplies a vast majority of the surrounding area with low grain rated water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 34.7 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 15.2 square miles is water. A major watercourse draining much of Redwood City is Redwood Creek, to which several significant river deltas connect, the largest of, Westpoint Slough.
Redwood City stretches from the San Francisco Bay towards the Santa Cruz Mountains between San Carlos to the northwest and Atherton to the southeast with Woodside to the southwest. It is divided by Highway 101 and further inland El Camino Real on the northwest/southeast axis and Woodside Road on the north-northeast/south-southwest axis. Locally, the former two are regarded as north/south and the latter east/west, as 101 and El Camino connects Redwood City to San Francisco and San Jose and Woodside Road runs from San Francisco Bay to the Santa Cruz Mountains. Neighborhoods include Bair Island to the northeast of Highway 101; the northern neighborhood of Redwood Shores to the northeast of Highway 101 is part of Redwood City, although it is not possible to travel by road from one to the other without passing through the neighboring city of San Carlos, or through Belmont via unincorporated San Mateo County. Stretching along Highway 101 to the southeast of Woodside Road is Friendly Acres, further inland and still to the southeast of Woodside Road are Redwood Village and Redwood Oaks.
Most neighborhoods are to the northwest of Woodside Ride and southwest of Highway 101. Centennial and Stambaugh Heller are adjacent to 101. Next inland are Edgewood, Mt. Carmel and Palm Canyon, Eagle Hill and Woodside Plaza. Furthest inland is Farm Hills. Neighborhoods associated with Redwood City but not part of the incorporated city include Emerald Lake Hills and Kensington Square inland and to the north and North Fair Oaks to the southeast. Palomar Park, just north of Emerald Hills and east of San Carlos' Crestview area, is another Redwood City neighborhood, formally part of unincorporated San Mateo County. Although Redwood City has a large middle class, the south eastern section of Redwood City resembles working class North Fair Oaks in demographic make-up and income level. Redwood City, along with most of the Bay Area, enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cool wet winters; the National Weather Service, which maintains both a forecast center and a cooperative office in Redwood City, reports that December is the coolest month and July is the warmest month.
The record highest temperature of 110 °F was recorded on both July 14 and 15, 1972. The record lowest temperature of 16 °F was recorded on January 11, 1949. Annually, there are an average of 21.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 2.8 days with highs of 100 °F or higher. The normal annual precipitation is 20.56 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.42 inches in February 1998. The record 24-hour rainfall of 4.88 inches was on October 13, 1962. There are an average of 62.1 days with measurable precipitation. Snow flurries have been observed on rare occasions. Redwood City incorporated in 1867, the first city to do so in San Mateo County, it has been the county seat since the county was formed in 1856; the land had been part of the Rancho de las Pulgas granted to the Arguello family in 1835 by the Mexican government. Their control was challenged after the Mexican–American War when California became part of the United States; the family lawyer, Simon M. Mezes, in 1854 defended the claim somewhat and was allowed to buy the part of the estate, now Redwood City.
Mezes sold some of the land to people squatting on it along the banks of Redwood Creek and named the settlement, Mezesville. Though the city did not keep that name, Mezes Park still exists on land Mezes had given for open space. In 1907 Eikichi and Sadakusi Enomoto, Japanese immigrant brothers, grew the first chrysanthemums commercially in the United States in Redwood City. In 1926 the chamber of commerce proclaimed the city the "Chrysanthemum Center of the World" though the internment of Japanese Americans in 1941 and other factors removed flower growing as a major industry in the city; the 2010 United States Census reported that Redwood City had a population of 76,815. The population density was 3,955.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Redwood City was 46,255 White, 1,881 African American, 511 Native American, 8,216 Asian, 795 Pacific Islander, 14,967 from other races, 4,190 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29,810 persons. Non-Hispanic Whites n
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
David Pakman is an American television and radio host, political commentator, college instructor, YouTube personality. He is the host of the internationally syndicated political television and talk radio program The David Pakman Show, he is the managing director of Vivid Edge Media Group, which produces The David Pakman Show. A naturalized U. S. citizen, Pakman was born in Buenos Aires and was raised from age 5 in the United States. Pakman is a self-described liberal/progressive. In addition to hosting The David Pakman Show, Pakman has appeared on numerous national, regional and international media outlets providing political commentary. Pakman works as a new media consultant working with independent programs and broadcast platforms. Pakman's first appearance on cable news was on Fox News on April 4, 2014, when he discussed the resignation of Mozilla CEO Brendan Eich. Pakman has appeared on CNN, HLN's Nancy Grace program, HLN's Dr Drew on Call, was featured in Mother Jones, the Boston Herald, The New York Times, Wired.
Pakman was born in Buenos Aires and immigrated to the United States with his family in 1989, when he was 5 years old. He grew up in Northampton and graduated from Northampton High School. Pakman says that he received "a secular Jewish upbringing, but I've always been involved with my Jewish background and culturally. It's just how I identify." Pakman attended the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, where he majored in economics and communications. He earned an MBA degree from Bentley University in Massachusetts. Pakman worked several jobs as a high school and university student, he has described his employment at now-defunct electronics retailer Circuit City. With the move of The David Pakman Show to New York City, Pakman moved there in August 2013. In November 2015, the show relocated to Boston. Pakman hosts The David Pakman Show, a television and internet political program. Begun in 2005 on a local radio station as a "hobby," according to Pakman, by 2011 the show aired on 100 stations, on more than 160 television and radio outlets in 2014, including DirecTV and DISH Network through Free Speech TV, on YouTube, via podcasts.
The program first aired in August 2005 on WXOJ-LP, located in Northampton, Massachusetts, as Midweek Politics with David Pakman, has since been nationally syndicated. Pakman has never been married. While his sexuality has been a topic of The David Pakman Show, Pakman has said he is heterosexual and that he considers himself a straight ally of the LGBT rights movement. In the fall of 2017, Pakman started teaching as an adjunct professor at Boston College in Boston, Massachusetts. Official website David Pakman's channel on YouTube
Dollar Shave Club
Dollar Shave Club is an American company based in Venice, that delivers razors and other personal grooming products to customers by mail. It delivers razor blades on a monthly basis and offers additional grooming products for home delivery. Dollar Shave Club was founded by Michael Dubin; the pair spoke of their frustrations with the cost of razor blades. With their own money and investments from start-up incubator Science Inc. they began operations in January 2011 and launched their website in April 2011. Dollar Shave Club was backed by a variety of venture capitalists. In March 2012, seed investors provided $1 million in funding from groups that included Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, Andreessen Horowitz, Shasta Ventures, others; the same group, joined by Venrock, provided $9.8 million in series A funding in October 2012. A year a $12 million series B round was raised led by Venrock, Comcast Ventures, New World Investors and Battery Ventures. Amidst the fundraising announcement, Dollar Shave Club announced it would be expanding its product line to include a dozen other men’s products in 2014.
In June 2015, the company secured $75 million in series D funding. On July 19, 2016, Dollar Shave Club was acquired by Unilever for a reported $1 billion in cash. Dollar Shave Club offers three membership plans, which can be downgraded at any time; the membership service first launched March 2012, via a YouTube video that went viral. The YouTube video attracted an unanticipated amount of traffic, that crashed the company’s server in the first hour. Once Dubin got the server working, he enlisted a team of friends and contractors to help fulfill the 12,000 orders that arrived in the first 48 hours of launching the video; the orders were packed by hand in a warehouse in Gardena, before the company moved their warehouse and fulfillment to a third-party logistics center in Kentucky. Since the membership launch, the company has acquired 3.2 million subscribers. Although the company markets its products to men 20% of its customers are women. Dollar Shave Club offers three plans: "The Humble Twin", "The 4X" and "The Executive".
Each subscription comes with a compatible handle. Most of the razor handles and blades are not made by Dollar Shave Club, but rather are re-sold Dorco products; the company sells related accessories, such as shave butter, wet wipes, moisturizer. In late 2012, the company launched its program in Australia. In 2015, the company expanded its product line to include hair care products, called "Boogie's"; the line includes hair cream, hair paste, hair clay and hair fiber. In May 2015, the company began hiring writers and editors for a new website, Mel Magazine, which went online in late 2015; the website contains editorial content described by the company as "men's lifestyle topics". In December 2015, Gillette filed a patent infringement lawsuit that claimed Dollar Shave Club used its patented formulas to manufacture copycat blades. In February 2018, the company launched in the United Kingdom. On March 6, 2012, the company uploaded a YouTube video entitled "Our Blades Are F***ing Great" featuring CEO Michael Dubin, delivering his speech in a nonchalant and sarcastic manner.
The video prompted 12,000 orders in a two-day span after it was released, has received over 24 million views as of February 2017. The video won "Best Out-of-Nowhere Video Campaign" at the 2012 AdAge Viral Video Awards. Dollar Shave Club was awarded a 2013 Webby Award in the Fashion & Beauty category and earned the People's Choice Webby Award in the Consumer Packaged Goods category. On June 4, 2013, Dollar Shave Club released a second video on YouTube called "Let's Talk About #2", which again starred its CEO and promoted One Wipe Charlies; the video won the Shorty Award in 2014 for best use of Social Media. In 2014, Dollar Shave Club and its One Wipe Charlies teamed up with the Colon Cancer Alliance in an effort to help "wipe out" colon cancer; the company reports that during National Colorectal Cancer Awareness month it reached 23 million people in spreading the message about the importance of getting screened. The company donated $10,000 to the Colon Cancer Alliance, contributing a percentage of One Wipe Charlies' sales and putting a dollar value on social shares.
As part of the campaign, Michael Dubin had his own colonoscopy. Official website
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
Jazz at Lincoln Center
Jazz at Lincoln Center is part of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City. The organization was founded in 1987 and opened in October 2004. Wynton Marsalis is the leader of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra; the Center hosts performances by visiting musicians. Many concerts are streamed live on the Center's YouTube channel; the Center presents educational programs in its home buildings, in schools throughout the country. In 1987, trumpeter Wynton Marsalis was involved in starting the Classical Jazz concert series, the first series of jazz concerts at Lincoln Center. In 1996, the Jazz at Lincoln Center organization became a constituent of Lincoln Center next to organizations such as the New York Philharmonic and the Metropolitan Opera; the budget for Jazz at Lincoln Center was $4 million in 1996, compared to $150 million for the Metropolitan Opera. In 2016, its budget was over $50 million. Wynton Marsalis has been artistic director since 1987. George Scholl became executive director in 2012.
In 2015 it acquired the URL jazz.org. Dwayne Ashley served Vice President of Development from 2011-2016, under his leadership, the organization raised more than $150MM comprehensively including its endowment campaign for $75MM. Marsalis leads the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra, which performs in the Appel Room and the Rose Theater. Concerts are broadcast live online. Educational programs are broadcast on the Center's YouTube channel. Since 2015, the Orchestra's albums have been issued on Blue Engine Records; the Center distributes jazz curriculums to high schools through its Essentially Ellington program. Professional musicians visit schools through the Let Freedom Swing program; the Center runs a Middle School Jazz Academy, a High School Jazz Academy, a Summer Academy, all in New York City, all of them with free tuition. Every year the Orchestra tours and visits schools throughout the U. S; the Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition and Festival has supported high school jazz bands nationwide.
The performing arts complex, Frederick P. Rose Hall, was designed by Rafael Viñoly and constructed by Turner-Santa Fe in a joint venture between Turner Construction and Santa Fe Construction. Rose Hall consists of three venues: Rose Theater, The Apple Room, Dizzy's Club, named after trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie; the Hall contains the Irene Diamond Education Center with rehearsal and recording rooms. The Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame is named for co-founder of Atlantic Records. A 60-person international voting panel, which includes musicians and educators from 17 countries, is charged to nominate and select "the most definitive artists in the history of jazz for induction into the Hall of Fame". Inductees have included: Media related to Jazz at Lincoln Center at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Computer science is the study of processes that interact with data and that can be represented as data in the form of programs. It enables the use of algorithms to manipulate and communicate digital information. A computer scientist studies the theory of computation and the practice of designing software systems, its fields can be divided into practical disciplines. Computational complexity theory is abstract, while computer graphics emphasizes real-world applications. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while computer programming itself involves the use of programming languages and complex systems. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful and accessible; the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.
Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity before the development of sophisticated computing equipment. Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623. In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner, he may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry when he released his simplified arithmometer, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine, he started developing this machine in 1834, "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer".
"A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom" making it infinitely programmable. In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, considered to be the first computer program. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, making all kinds of punched card equipment and was in the calculator business to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit; when the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors.
As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. In 1945, IBM founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City; the renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world; the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946. Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s; the world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962.
Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights. Although many believed it was impossible that computers themselves could be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it became accepted among the greater academic population, it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM released the IBM 704 and the IBM 709 computers, which were used during the exploration period of such devices. "Still, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, you would have to start the whole process over again". During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was much in its developmental stages, such issues were commonplace. Time has seen significant improvements in the effectiveness of computing technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base.
Computers were quite costly, some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage. Despite its short history as a formal academic discipline, computer science has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society—in fact, along with electronics, it is