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Communications Workers of America

Communications Workers of America is the largest communications and media labor union in the United States, representing about 700,000 members in both the private and public sectors. The union has 27 locals in Canada via CWA-SCA Canada representing about 8,000 members. CWA has several affiliated subsidiary labor unions bringing total membership to over 700,000. CWA is headquartered in Washington, DC, affiliated with the AFL-CIO, the Change to Win Federation, the Canadian Labour Congress, UNI Global Union; the current president is Chris Shelton. In 1918 telephone operators organized under the Telephone Operators Department of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. While successful at organizing, the union was damaged by a 1923 strike and subsequent AT&T lockout. After AT&T installed company-controlled Employees' Committees, the Telephone Operators Department disbanded; the CWA's roots lie in the 1938 reorganization of telephone workers into the National Federation of Telephone Workers after the Wagner Act outlawed such employees' committees or company unions.

NFTW was a federation of sovereign local independent unions that lacked authority over the affiliated local unions leaving it at a serious organizational disadvantage. After losing a strike with AT&T in 1947, the federation led by Joseph A. Beirne, reorganized as CWA, a national union, which affiliated with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1949. CWA has continued to expand into areas beyond traditional telephone service. In 1994 the National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians merged with the CWA and became The Broadcasting and Cable Television Workers Sector of the CWA, NABET-CWA. Since 1997, it includes The Newspaper Guild. In 2004, the Association of Flight Attendants merged with CWA, became formally known as the Association of Flight Attendants-CWA, or AFA-CWA. Following is a partial list of contracts and strikes that the Communications Workers of America were involved in: According to CWA's Department of Labor records since 2006, when membership classifications were first reported, the total reported membership has varied and unpredictably due to the addition and removal of reported membership categories.

As of 2014, around 27%, or a fourth, of the union's total membership are classified as "non-dues-paying retirees", not eligible to vote in the union. The other, voting eligible, classifications are "active" and "dues-paying retired". CWA contracts cover some non-members, known as agency fee payers, which number comparatively about 7% of the size of the union's membership; this accounts for 166,491 "non-dues-paying retirees" and 52,240 "dues-paying retirees", plus about 43,353 non-members paying agency fees, compared to 404,289 "active" members. Association of Flight Attendants represents over 55,000 flight attendants at 22 airlines. Established in 1945, it affiliated with the CWA in 2004. International Union of Electronic, Salaried and Furniture Workers represents over 45,000 manufacturing and industrial workers; the NewsGuild represents over 34,000 journalists and media workers at wire services, newspapers and broadcast news. Established in 1933, it affiliated with the CWA in 1995. National Association of Broadcast Employees and Technicians represents over 10,000 workers employed in the broadcasting, telecasting, cable, sound recording and related industries.

Established in 1934, it affiliated with the CWA in 1994. National Coalition of Public Safety Officers represents over 16,000 municipal police, correctional officers, emergency medical services workers, communications dispatchers, probation officers, firefighters. CWA Public and Education Workers represents more than 140,000 workers including social workers and health care providers, including state workers across New Jersey. Printing and Media Workers Sector represents over 8,000 workers in a diverse range of occupations in daily newspapers, commercial printing and mailing operations, graphic design. In February 2012, The Transport Workers Union of America and CWA executive boards voted to work together in a new affiliation; the two unions represent 120,000 airline workers and are joined forces to support bargaining and organizing campaigns at airlines. Bahr, Morton. From the Telegraph to the Internet: A 60 Year History of the CWA. Washington, D. C.: Welcome Rain Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-56649-949-6 Palladino, Grace.

Dreams of Dignity, Workers of Vision: A History of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Washington, D. C.: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, 1991. Schacht, John N; the Making of Telephone Unionism, 1920–1947. New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8135-1136-4 Official website Communications Workers of America-Syndicat des communications d’Amérique CWA Timeline Communications Workers of America-Syndicat des communications d’Amérique – Web Archive created by the University of Toronto Libraries IUE-CWA


Alexandroupoli or Alexandroupolis is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace. It has 57,812 inhabitants and is the largest city of Thrace and the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, it is an important port and commercial center of northeastern Greece. Alexandroupoli is one of the newest cities in Greece, as it was only a fishing village until the late 19th century; the modern city is near the site of a colony of Samothrace. Alexandroupoli benefits from its position at the centre of land and sea routes connecting Greece with Turkey. Landmarks in Alexandroupoli include the city's lighthouse in the port, the archaeological sites of the Mesimvria Zone, the city's waterfront, the Ethnological Museum of Thrace, the cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus and the nearby Evros delta; the municipality of Alexandroupolis was created in 2011 by the merger of the three former municipalities: Alexandroupolis Feres TraianoupoliThe municipality has an area of 1,216.954 km2, the municipal unit 642.245 km2.

The municipal unit Alexandroupoli is subdivided into the following communities: Alexandroupoli Aisymi Avas Kirki Makri Sykorrachi The province of Alexandroupoli was one of the provinces of the Evros Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Alexandroupoli, except the villages Peplos and Trifylli, it was abolished in 2006. The modern city of Alexandroupoli was founded as a small fishing village in the early 19th century, under the Ottoman Empire, by fishermen from Ainos and the villages of Makri and Maroneia, it became known as Dedeağaç. The name comes from an old Turkish wise man who spent much of his time under the shade of a tree and was buried beside it. In 1920, King Alexander I of Greece visited the city, the local authorities renamed the city Alexandroupoli in his honor, with the approval of the central government. Alexandroupoli is about 14.5 km west of the delta of the Evros, 40 km from the border with Turkey, 346 km from Thessaloniki on the newly constructed Egnatia highway, 750 km from Athens.

Around the city are small fishing villages like Makri and Dikella to the west, suburban Maistros, Antheia, Nipsa, Loutra to the east, while north of the city are the Palagia, Avantas and Kirki. At the 2001 census, the main city had a population of 48,885 and the municipal unit had a population of 52,720; the current metropolitan population is estimated at around 70,000 inhabitants, its area covers the southern portion of the regional unit, running from the Rhodope regional unit to the Evros Delta. Besides Alexandroupolis, its other largest settlements are the villages of Mákri, Ávas, Sykorráchi, Aisými, Díkella. Human settlements appear since the Neolithic Period at the southeast end of Western Thrace. In the Bronze Age there is no strong evidence of active city participation. During the Early Iron Age the various Thracian tribes appeared and settled in mountainous and, more in lowland areas. In the Byzantine Period, Alexandroupolis played a leading role, because the city bordered with Constantinople and for this reason was guarded by powerful military installations.

In the following years, however, up to the 19th century, the city seems to be deserted and covered by forests and wild trees. The city was first settled under the Ottoman Empire. Long used as a landing ground for fishermen from the coast of Samothrace opposite, a hamlet developed in the area during the construction of a railway line connecting Constantinople to the major cities of Macedonia from Kuleliburgaz; the work was part of an effort to modernise the Empire, was assigned to engineers from Austria-Hungary. The settlement soon grew into a fishing village, Dedeağaç. In 1873, it was made the chief town of a kaza, to which it gave its name, a kaymakam was appointed to it. In 1884, it was promoted to a sanjak, the governor became a mutasarrıf. In 1889, the Greek archbishopric of Aenus was transferred to Dedeağaç. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Dedeağaç was part of the Adrianople Vilayet. Dedeağaç was captured by the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War, Russian forces settled in the village.

The officers in charge saw that reconstruction incorporated wide streets running parallel to each other, allowing the quick advance of troops, avoided cul-de-sacs. This was unlike the narrow alleys, cobbled streets, dead-ends that were characteristic of Ottoman cities at the time; the city returned to Ottoman control by the end of the war, but the brief Russian presence had a lasting effect on the design of Alexandroupoli's streets. The building of a railway station in Dedeağaç led to the development of the village into a town, a minor trade centre by the end of the century; the town became the seat of a pasha as the capital of a sanjak. Ottoman control of the town lasted until the Balkan Wars. On 8 November 1912, Dedeağaç and its station was captured by Bulgarian forces with the assistance of the Hellenic Navy. Bulgaria and Greece were opponents in the Second Balkan War. Dedeağaç was captured by Greek forces on 11 July 1913; the Treaty of Bucharest (10 A

Charles Wilson (composer)

Charles Mills Wilson is a Canadian composer, choral conductor, music educator. Wilson was born in Ontario, he began studying piano at age six with Wilfred Powell and studied organ with Charles Peaker. He studied composition with Godfrey Ridout at the University of Toronto, earning a Bachelor of Music in 1952 and a Doctor of Music degree in Composition in 1956. While at the University of Toronto, Wilson studied at the Berkshire Music Center, at Tanglewood, during the summers with Lukas Foss, Aaron Copland and Carlos Chávez, he spent much of his time studying choral conducting. In 1953, Wilson taught music theory and conducted the University Chorale at the University of Saskatchewan while finishing his doctoral thesis/composition, Symphony in A. From 1954-1964 Wilson served as the organist and choirmaster at Chalmer United Church in Guelph, Ontario. While there he founded the Guelph Light Opera and Oratorio Company in 1955, conducting their performances until 1974. During these years he conducted choirs and bands and taught high school in the Guelph area and was for a time music supervisor of Guelph Township public schools.

Wilson conducted the Bach-Elgar Choir of Hamilton from 1962–1974. In 1971 he received, he was the choirmaster of the Canadian Opera Company from 1973–1981. In 1979 he was appointed to the faculty of music at the University of Guelph where he became composer-in-residence and the director of the electronic music studio, he retired in 1994. As a composer, Wilson is known for employing a range of musical idioms while maintaining a strong emotional lyricism and sense of tonality, his early compositions were instrumental chamber music while his latter output has been more focused on vocal music including operas, choral works, art songs. He has written The Angels of the Earth and numerous operas, his opera Héloise and Abelard was commissioned by the Canadian Opera Company to mark its 25th anniversary and his opera Psycho Red was commissioned by the Guelph Spring Festival. His other operas include The Selfish Giant, The Summoning of Everyman, Kamouraska. Wilson has composed works for the Canadian Children's Opera Chorus, the Festival Singers of Canada, the Canadian Brass, Dalhousie University.

He is an associate of the Canadian Music Centre. Elaine Keillor; the New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie, ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5 The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, by John Warrack and Ewan West, ISBN 0-19-869164-5

Soft ontology

The term "soft ontology", coined by Eli Hirsch in 1993, refers to the embracing or reconciling of apparent ontological differences, by means of relevant distinctions and contextual analyses. Hirsch used the term to broaden and expand on what William James discussed in his landmark 1907 work in epistemology, Pragmatism. James gave a now famous example of dispute over a squirrel: The corpus of the dispute was a squirrel--a live squirrel supposed to be clinging to one side of a tree-trunk; this human witness tries to get sight of the squirrel by moving round the tree, but no matter how fast he goes, the squirrel moves as fast in the opposite direction, always keeps the tree between himself and the man, so that never a glimpse of him is caught. The resultant metaphysical problem now is this: DOES THE MAN GO ROUND THE SQUIRREL OR NOT? James' solution was that by clarifying "pragmatically" whether "around" meant traversing north/east/south/west of something versus traversing left/right/before/behind something, the dispute was solvable.

Hirsch calls James' example a "verbal" dispute and explains, at some length, the connection between verbal and soft ontological disagreements. Soft ontological dilemmas are contrasted with hard ones—those which would not admit of translation, reconciliation, or overlap, would instead require a systematic or paradigmatic shift of one's ontology. One can choose to construct a hard or soft ontology, depending on the flexibility one intends to obtain. Other related terms in philosophy and in cognitive science include "ontological relativity" and "cognitive relativism". Soft ontology, as proposed in computer science circles by Aviles et al. is a definition of a domain in terms of a flexible set of ontological dimensions. It can be regarded as a subclass of ontologies as they are conceived of in computer science, in Gruber's terms as definitions of conceptualization. Unlike standard ontologies, the approach allows the number of its constitutive concepts to increase or decrease dynamically, any subsets of the ontology to be taken into account at a time, or the order their mutual weight or priority to vary in a graded manner so as to allow different ontological perspectives.

Where conventional ontologies describe or interpret the conceptualization of a domain from a prioritized perspective, the soft ontology approach transfers the task of interpretation to the observer, user or learner, depending on the context. The approach is applicable for expert practices that intend to present raw content or data without presenting any authoritative taxonomy or categorization, it serves to support neutrality for domains such as ethics, aesthetics or philosophy, in which there may not exist a single authorized conceptualization or truth, or it may be instrumental to present a range of perspectives to the domain. Soft ontologies result inherently from user-defined ontology practices, such as folksonomies or tagging practices, characteristic of many contemporary user-driven media genres. Aviles Collao, J.. Soft Ontologies and Similarity Cluster Tools to facilitate Exploration and Discovery of Cultural Heritage Resources. IEEE Computer Society Digital Library. Proc. DEXA 2003. September 1.-5.2003, Prague Czech Republic.

P. 75 Gruber, T. R.. A translation approach to portable ontologies. Knowledge Acquisition, 5:199-220, 1993. Hirsch, E.. Dividing Reality. Oxford University Press. New York and Oxford. James, William. Pragmatism. Longmans, Green and Co. New York. Meiliand, J.. Relativism: Cognitive and Moral. University of Notre Dame Press. Quine, W. V. O.. Ontological Relativity and Other Essays. Columbia University Press


Noreuil is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France. Noreuil is situated 13 miles southeast on the D5 road. In 1917 it was the location of fighting during World War I. In early 1917, General John Gellibrand, acting commander of the 2nd Division, advanced as he suspected that the Germans were withdrawing. Gellibrand's advance began well but ended with a disastrous, ill-planned and ill-executed "unauthorised" attack on Noreuil. On the morning of 2 April 1917, the village was attacked by the 50th and 51st Battalions, with the 49th and 52nd in support. Danish-born Australian Private Jørgen Christian Jensen of the 50th Battalion was awarded the Victoria Cross for the part he played. A Distinguished Service Order was awarded to then-Major Noel Medway LOUTIT, an original ANZAC, who'relieved the pressure' during these operations by working his way around the enemy flank and inflicting significant effective opposition, he continued in assisting and re-organising the front line under considerable hostile machine gun fire.

On 15 April 1917 the Germans launched a major counter-attack against the Australians at Lagnicourt-Marcel. Robert Smith, at his headquarters in a ruined house in Noreuil, about 1500 metres from Lagnicourt, directed the defeat of the German counter-attack. For his efforts in that engagement Smith was awarded a bar to his Distinguished Service Order. Noreuil is close to the southern end of the battlefront for the Battle of Arras. Noreuil Park in Albury, New South Wales, Australia, is named in dedication to the men of the 13th battery, 5th field artillery brigade; the twentieth century church of St. Brice, rebuilt after World War I The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Australian cemetery. Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file The Australian CWGC cemetery Noreuil on the Quid website