Rowayton is a coastal village in the city of Norwalk, Connecticut 40 miles from New York City. According to Forbes magazine, the 2017 median home sale price was $1,535,442, ranking Rowayton one of the most expensive communities in the United States; the per-capita income of Rowayton is $101,004 and the average household income is $259,857. The community is governed by the Sixth Taxing District of Norwalk and has a number of active local associations, including the Civic Association, the Historical Society, the Rowayton Library, a Gardeners Club, a Parents Exchange. Rowayton annually plays host to a Shakespearean production at Pinkney Park, produced by Shakespeare on the Sound, has an active community of artists, many of whom are associated with the Rowayton Arts Center; the Rowayton station on the New Haven line of the Metro-North Railroad is located within the community, as is an elementary school, a public beach and the Rowayton Public Library. The Rowayton coastline has been a source of inspiration for centuries.
John Frederick Kensett, a famous nineteenth-century landscape painter of the Hudson School painted this seascape in his life. This tradition has been carried on in an active local arts scene. Rowayton is home to a host of beaches, three of which—Roton Point, Bayley Beach, a coastal enclave of Wee Burn Country Club—share a common history. In the early 20th century, the properties of all three made up the Roton Point Amusement Park. A boat landing attached to Sunset Rock, just to the West of Belle Island, allowed steam boats to bring day-trippers from New York City to the park. A trolley ran from both Darien and Norwalk, arriving at the Park via Highland Avenue and over present-day Langdon Preserve, located across from Farm Creek. At the Amusement Park, amenities included a bath house, a picnic grove, rides ranging from the classic carousel to roller coasters with stunning views of the beach; the former Rock Ledge estate at 33 and 40-42 Highland Avenue was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.
In 1910, James A. Farrell president of the United States Steel Corporation, built a Tudor revival mansion, which burned down in 1913 and was rebuilt in granite; the estate was bought by the Remington Rand Corporation, developers of the UNIVAC computer, which merged with Sperry Corporation to form Sperry Rand. Since 1966, the Farrell family stables have been converted to the Rowayton Community Center and the Rowayton Library. In 1964, part of the estate was purchased by the Thomas School for girls, a day and boarding school founded by Mabel Thomas in 1922; the school merged with other private schools in the area becoming King Low Heywood Thomas in 1988. The school is now located in Stamford, Connecticut; the mansion and attached office building were owned by Hewitt Associates. The main house of the estate is home to Graham Capital. Jerome Beatty, author for the Saturday Review, Esquire, etc. David Bergamini, author of Japan's Imperial Conspiracy and Time-Life Books Richard Bissell, author of popular Broadway musicals Kay Boyle and short story author, taught at Thomas School on Bluff Avenue Philip Caputo, author whose best-known work is A Rumor of War Ward Chamberlin, PBS executive Leslie Charleson, TV actress Helen Oakley Dance and record producer Stanley Dance and record producer, biographer of Duke Ellington Jimmy Ernst and teacher Ian Falconer, children's book author and set/costume designer Jim Flora, commercial illustrator Meg Foster, actress with blue eyes and many credits Crockett Johnson and creator of children's books John Frederick Kensett, nineteenth-century artist Ruth Krauss, author of children's books Emily Levine, humorist Albert Markov and composer Horace McMahon and little league umpire Betsy Palmer, actress and 1950s TV personality Hal Prince, Broadway producer of shows Andy Rooney, humorist, television commentator Emily Rooney, TV producer and host Billy Rose, Ziegfeld impresario and theatrical showman, married to Fanny Brice Stefan Schnabel, movie actor and Doctor Jackson on Guiding Light Treat Williams, movie actor, Prince of the City etc.
Gabor Peterdi, artist Civic Association Historical Society Rowayton Library Rowayton Arts Center Shakespeare on the Sound Rowayton School Rowayton Kids of the 1940s, 50s, 60s Sale of 40 Highland Avenue a.k.a. "Rock Ledge Estate"
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
New England Conservatory of Music
The New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts, is the oldest independent school of music in the United States, it is recognized as one of the country's most distinguished music schools. NEC is known for its strings, piano and brass departments, its prestigious chamber music program; the conservatory, located on Huntington Avenue of the Arts near Boston Symphony Hall, is home each year to 750 students pursuing undergraduate and graduate studies along with 1400 more in its Preparatory School as well as the School of Continuing Education. At the collegiate level, NEC offers the Bachelor of Music, Master of Music, Doctor of Musical Arts, as well as the Undergraduate Diploma, Graduate Diploma, Artist Diploma. Offered are five-year joint double-degree programs with Harvard University and Tufts University. NEC is the only music school in the United States designated as a National Historic Landmark and it is a pending Boston Landmark, its primary concert hall, Jordan Hall, hosts 1,000 concerts each year.
In June 1853, Eben Tourjée, at the time a nineteen-year-old music teacher from Providence, Rhode Island, made his first attempt to found a music conservatory in Boston, Massachusetts. He met with a group of Boston's most influential musical leaders to discuss a school based on the conservatories of Europe; the group included John Sullivan Dwight, an influential music critic, Dr. J. Baxter Upham, president of the Harvard Musical Association, Oliver Ditson, a prominent music publisher; the group rejected Tourjée's plans, arguing that it was a poor idea to open a conservatory amidst the nation's political and economic uncertainty that would lead up to the American Civil War. Tourjée made his next attempt in December 1866, when he again met with a group of Boston's top musicians and music patrons. Among Upham and Dwight at this meeting were Carl Zerrahn, a popular Boston conductor, Charles Perkins, a prominent arts patron. In the thirteen-year interim, Tourjée had founded three music schools in Rhode Island, this time was able to win over his audience.
The men agreed to help Tourjée, The New England Conservatory opened on February 18, 1867. It consisted of seven rooms rented above Music Hall off Tremont Street in downtown Boston. In 1870 it moved to the former St. James Hotel in Franklin Square in the South End; the NEC campus consists of three buildings on both sides of Gainsborough Street, between St. Botolph Street and Huntington Avenue, one block from Symphony Hall; the Jordan Hall Building, whose main entrance is at 30 Gainsborough Street, is NEC's main building, home to Jordan Hall, Williams Hall, Brown Hall, the Keller Room, the Isabelle Firestone Audio Library, the Performance Library, professor studios/offices, practice rooms. The second building, at 33 Gainsborough, is the Residence Hall, a coed dormitory which houses the Harriet M. Spaulding Library and the "Bistro 33" dining center; the St. Botolph Building, at 241 St. Botolph street, contains Pierce Hall, a computer laboratory, the electronic music studio, the majority of the school's classrooms and administrative offices.
Jordan Hall is NEC's central performing space. Opened in 1904, Jordan Hall was the gift of New England Conservatory trustee Eben D. Jordan the 2nd, a member of the family that founded the Jordan Marsh retail stores and himself an amateur musician. In 1901, Jordan donated land for NEC's main building, while offering to fund a concert hall with a gift of $120,000; the dedication concert of Jordan Hall, performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, took place on October 20, 1903. Newspaper accounts deemed the hall "unequaled the world over," and The Boston Globe reported that it was "a place of entertainment that European musicians who were present that evening say excels in beauty anything of the kind they saw."A major renovation project was completed in 1995. The renovated hall won the 1996 Massachusetts Historical Commission Preservation Award, the Victorian Society in America's Preservation Commendation, the 1996 Boston Preservation Alliance Award, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Award of Merit, the Illuminating Engineering Society 1996 Lumen Award.
Admission to NEC is based on a competitive live audition. The conservatory offers degrees in orchestral instruments, piano, jazz studies, contemporary improvisation and voice, music history, music theory; the conservatory has served as a training ground for orchestral players to fill the ranks of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, much as the Curtis Institute serves as a training ground for the Philadelphia Orchestra, although composers and singers are offered courses of study as well. New England Conservatory's Preparatory School is an open-enrollment institution for pre-college students; the preparatory school offers music classes and private instruction for young musicians, fosters over 35 small and large ensembles. Students enrolled in the Preparatory School may participate in the Certificate Program, allowing students to achieve their optimum performance skills, competence in music theory, a knowledge of the literature that includes choral and chamber music, as well as solo repertoire. NEC Prep is home to one of the world's leading youth orchestras, the selective Youth Philharmonic Orchestra as well as the NEC Youth Chorale who have performed for prominent world figures including the Pope at the Vatican in the past years.
The Youth Philharmonic Orchestra headed by David Loebel is arguably the most selective group at the school. The Preparatory School houses the Massachusetts Youth Wind Ensemble, a selective touring wind ensemble open to advanced high school wo
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Alfred Denis Cortot was a Franco-Swiss pianist and teacher, one of the most renowned classical musicians of the 20th century. He was valued for his poetic insight into Romantic piano works those of Chopin, Saint-Saëns and Schumann. Cortot was born in Nyon, Vaud, in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, to a French father and a Swiss mother, his first cousin was the composer Edgard Varèse. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Émile Decombes, with Louis Diémer, taking a premier prix in 1896, he made his debut at the Concerts Colonne in 1897, playing Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 3. Between 1898 and 1901 he was a choral coach and subsequently an assistant conductor at the Bayreuth Festival. In 1902 he conducted the Paris premiere of Wagner's Götterdämmerung, he formed a concert society to perform Wagner's Parsifal, Beethoven's Missa solemnis, Brahms' German Requiem, new works by French composers. In 1905, Cortot formed a trio with Jacques Thibaud and Pablo Casals, which established itself as the leading piano trio of its era.
In 1907, he was appointed Professor by Gabriel Fauré at the Conservatoire de Paris, replacing Raoul Pugno. He continued to teach at the Paris Conservatoire until 1923, where his pupils included Yvonne Lefébure, Vlado Perlemuter, Simone Plé-Caussade and Marguerite Monnot. In 1919 Cortot founded the École Normale de Musique de Paris, his courses in musical interpretation were legendary. For his many notable students, see here; as a leading musical figure, Cortot traveled for many international music events. The French government sponsored two promotional tours to the United States, one to the new Soviet Russia in 1920, he conducted several orchestras and was called upon to provide piano accompaniment for touring artists when in Paris. Involved in music until his health failed, like Franz Liszt in his advanced years he taught master classes in piano. On 21 March 1925, working with Victor Records, made the world's first electrical recording of classical music: Chopin's Impromptus and Schubert's Litanei.
During World War II Cortot supported the German occupation of France. He accepted the position of Haut-Commissaire for arts in the Vichy government and served twice as a member of the Vichy's Conseil national, he participated in official concerts in Paris during the occupation as well as in Germany in 1942. After the war's conclusion, Cortot was found guilty by a French government panel of collaboration with the enemy and was suspended from performing for a year. Once the suspension expired he returned to performing more than 100 concerts a season. Cortot died on 15 June 1962, aged 84, of uremia from kidney failure in Switzerland. Cortot, Alfred, La musique française de piano, 1930–48 —, Cours d’interprétation, 1934 —, Aspects de Chopin, 1949 Gavoty, Alfred Cortot, 1977 Manshardt, Aspects of Cortot, 1994 Guide to Alfred Cortot Collection, 1491-1853 housed at the University of Kentucky Libraries Special Collections Research CenterRecordingsPiano Rolls Recording list Recordings and discography
University of Bridgeport
The University of Bridgeport referred to as UB, is a private, non-sectarian, coeducational university located in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The university is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges; the students of the University of Bridgeport are from 46 states. In 2010, the percentage of students graduating that had participated in an English as a foreign or second language program was one of the nation's highest at 5%; the stately old Victorian homes on campus date from the late 1800s to the early 1900s – some owned by leading area industrialists and some by family and friends of showman P. T. Barnum; the University has restored two of the homes, done substantial work on a third. These homes, as well as a newer 1937 home in International style, form the Marina Park Historic District, on the National Register of Historic Places; the University began in 1927 as the first junior college in Connecticut. Founders E. Everett Cortwright, Alfred Fones, Sumner Simpson saw a need in Bridgeport one of only 6 American cities of more than 100,000 residents lacking a college or university.
So, they began the Junior College of Connecticut. The school expanded adding dormitories, acquiring New Haven's Arnold College, adding a School of Business; the school purchased the former P. T. Barnum estate and neighboring property adjacent to Seaside Park, became a four-year institution in 1947, when it was renamed the University of Bridgeport; the university continued to grow from 1947-1969, due to the increased number of people seeking to attend a U. S. college resulting from the baby boom, Vietnam War veterans eligible for a higher education under the G. I. Bill, international students who wanted to attend college in the United States. Enrollment peaked at 9100 students in 1969, an Ed. D. program in Educational Leadership was added in 1979. Enrollment declined throughout the 1970s and 1980s after the waves of baby boom and Vietnam era veterans eligible for the G. I. Bill declined. By 1990, the university had cut tuition and board fees to $18,000 per year, but enrollment continued to decline, due to the decreased birth rate, increased competition, the then-high crime rate in the neighborhood.
In 1990, more than a third of the 50 campus buildings were empty. To cut costs, the university decided to terminate 50 tenured faculty, asked the other faculty to accept a 30% wage cut. In addition, the university decided alienating many students; this led to the longest faculty strike in the history of American higher education. Dr. Greenwood, the president at the time, quit abruptly, around 1,000 students left the school, contributing to the cash crisis. In 1990, discussion began about affiliating or merging the university with either the University of New Haven or Sacred Heart University; the university was approached by the Professors World Peace Academy, an affiliate of the Unification Church, but its offer to bail out the university was spurned by the trustees who said the school was "not going to have anything to do with the offer" and were concerned that such an affiliation would damage the university's reputation. Problems continued to plague the university. Debt rose to over $22 million in 1991–92.
Serious plans to merge the university with Sacred Heart fell through in 1992. There were other universities willing to take over the school, but were unwilling to take on its debt; the university's charter required the trustees to enter into "serious negotiations", they accepted the offer, giving the PWPA sixteen spots as trustees, constituting a majority. The PWPA invested $50.5 million in the university on May 30, 1992, enabling the university to keep its accreditation. A two-year faculty strike, started in the midst of the university's financial troubles, intensified when the trustees gave control to the PWPA. Sixty-six professors and librarians agreed to a "divorce" with the university in return for compensation of up to a year's salary. In a similar move, the Law School decided separating from it. In order for the law school to remain open it had to merge with a financially sound university; the law school faculty and students voted to merge with Quinnipiac University and the name was changed to the Quinnipiac University School of Law.
Once PWPA-appointed trustees constituted a majority on the Board of Trustees, the trustees retained the president at the time, Dr. Edwin G. Eigel, Jr.. Eigel served as president until 1995, he was succeeded by distinguished Holocaust scholar, professor emeritus at Florida State, former PWPA president Dr. Richard L. Rubenstein, who served from 1995 to 1999. Neil Albert Salonen, a member of the Unification Church, was the Chairman of the university's board of trustees when he was chosen to serve as ninth University president in 1999, he had earlier managed several Unification Church related organizations, had served as President of the Unification Church of the United States from 1973 to 1980, as Chairman of the International Cultural Foundation, prior to becoming the chief executive of the university. Salonen retired in 2018. Since 2003 the university has been financially independent from PWPA after having received funding from the PWPA from 1992 until 2002, it has remained non-sectarian throughout.
Tuurnover on the Board of Trustees has led to a different composition, when compared to the 1991 board. Enrollment has grown from 1,383 total students in 1992 to 5,323 students in fall 2008, a tre
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the