Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
TV4 is a Swedish television network owned and operated by the TV4 AB, a subsidiary of the Bonnier Broadcasting Group. It started broadcasting by satellite in 1990 and, since 1992, on the terrestrial network. In 1994, TV4 remained so for a number of years; the two channels of Sveriges Television lost more viewers for a couple of years. After making schedule changes in 2001, SVT1 had the same numbers of viewers as TV4. Since 2004 the TV4 Group has been a active member of the European Broadcasting Union. TV4 was launched on 15 September 1990; the channel invested in Swedish drama series. The premiere suffered from technical faults and the drama series weren't popular with critics. In 1991, two of the channels oldest entertainment programmes premiered: the Swedish version of Jeopardy! and the Saturday night bingo show Bingolotto. Bingolotto in particular became popular; this year saw TV4 awarded a license to broadcast terrestrially. Terrestrial broadcasts started on 2 March 1992. During this year, Nyhetsmorgon started and marked the introduction of weekday breakfast television in Sweden.
During the 1990s TV4 would broadcast several popular Friday night entertainment shows such as Fångarna på fortet, Kär och galen, Tur i kärlek, På rymmen, Sikta mot stjärnorna, Småstjärnorna. They have broadcast several home-grown sitcoms such as Rena Rama Rolf and En fyra för tre as well as the soap opera Tre kronor. In the early 1990s, the TV4 Group decided to move their 7pm evening news to 7:30pm in order to compete with the most popular news programme, which, at that time, was broadcast on SVT2; this failed and the news was subsequently moved to 6:30pm. In 2004, the evening news was moved to 7pm, the status quo reinstated. In 2004, TV4 began transitioning to become a digital-only service, starting by shutting down its analogue satellite signal. On 19 September 2005, TV4 began shutting down analogue terrestrial transmissions, starting at the island of Gotland; the analogue shutoff was completed by October 2007. Since 2004, TV4 has been broadcasting a Swedish version of the internationally popular Pop Idol format.
In July 2018, it was announced that Bonnier Broadcasting is to be acquired by Telia Company for 9.2 billion SEK, thus making Telia the new owner of TV4. The acquisition is expected to be completed in the second half pending approval. TV4 offers a mix of news, drama series, entertainment, current affairs programmes, feature films and phone-in shows. News is an important part of TV4, it broadcasts 10 pm and Nyhetsmorgon in the mornings. On weekend mornings there is children's programming in Swedish. After 11 pm until Nyhetsmorgon, it shows some Swedish and English television series. After the Nyhetsmorgon ends on weekdays the Efter tio starts followed by English spoken TV series up until the news at 7pm. In the daytime on weekends there are reruns and sports programs. Main Swedish and English TV programs are broadcast up to the 10pm news. Friday nights have included family entertainment at 8pm since the early 1990s. Bingolotto occupied Saturday evenings from 1991 to 2004. TV4 moved Bingolotto to Sundays and started broadcasting feature films instead.
With the start of Deal or No Deal in 2006, family entertainment returned to Saturday nights. There are other entertainment shows on Saturday evenings. On Sunday evenings, Swedish-produced television programs are shown until 9pm when they show a movie on Saturday nights, they show a movie after the entertainment show. After about 11pm until Nyhetsmorgon starts they show reruns and some Swedish and English television series; the foreign programs are from the UK and U. S.. All foreign programmes, as well as segments of local programmes with foreign language content, are subtitled into Swedish. TV4 offers investigative journalism programmes, most notably Kalla fakta; as a part of its public service obligations, TV4 owns and operates a number of regional and local opt-out stations. When the local stations were set up, they were owned by both local investors and the TV4 Group themselves. Since the start of TV4 Uppland in 1996, the number of stations has been sixteen. Although some stations have closed and others have been set up, the total number of stations has stayed unchanged.
The TV4 Group brought out many of the local stations and became the sole owner of fifteen stations in 2001. The only independent station, TV4 Fyrstad, went bankrupt in 2003 and was replaced by TV4 Väst, owned and operated by the TV4 Group; the TV4 Group merged the stations into five regional companies and in 2004, a single company: TV4 Sverige AB. As of 2008, these are the local TV4 stations: TV4 Värmland TV4 Väst TV4 Göteborg TV4 Halland TV4 Öresund TV4 Sydost TV4 Jönköping TV4 Skaraborg TV4 Öst TV4 Stockholm TV4 Mälardalen TV4 Uppland TV4 Gävle Dalarna TV4 Mitt TV4 Västerbotten TV4 Norrbotten After the closedown of the analogue transmitters and the termination of TV4's public service obligations, the pattern of the local stations is due to a major overhaul which will see the number of local stations increase. TV4 Play is the brand used for the video on demand service offered by the TV4 Group, more to the streaming services offered on the TV4 Play website, www.tv4play.se. Content on TV4 Pl
Anna Kinberg Batra
Anna Maria Kinberg Batra is a Swedish Moderate Party politician who served as Leader of the Opposition and Leader of the Moderate Party from January 2015 to October 2017. She was Member of the Riksdag for Stockholm County from September 2006 to September 2018, she served as Leader of the Moderate Party in the Riksdag from 2010 to 2015. On 25 August 2017, Kinberg Batra announced her resignation as party leader. In September 2017, she said. Anna Kinberg was born in Skärholmen. In 1974, Kinberg and her family moved to Rotterdam, Netherlands, as her father worked for Merrill Lynch's Amsterdam office. Kinberg Batra speaks fluent Dutch after her years in the country, they moved back to Sweden in 1980, settling in Djursholm where Kinberg Batra spent the rest of her upbringing. Kinberg Batra is a member of the Kinberg family from Västra Götaland County, her parents are chemistry engineer Sarah Kinberg. Her grandfather was director Hilding Kinberg and her great-great-grandfather was professor Hjalmar Kinberg.
Kinberg Batra went to high school at Danderyds gymnasium. After high school, she studied foreign languages and political science at Stockholm University between 1989 and 1991, she graduated from Stockholm School of Economics in 2000, having studied part-time there from 1991. Kinberg Batra joined the Moderate Youth League in 1983. During the internal fights within the youth league in the beginning of the 1990s, she belonged to the liberal phalanx and supported Ulf Kristersson as chairman. In 1993, she worked as political advisor to Prime Minister Carl Bildt at the Government offices, she has worked as editor at Svenska Dagbladet in 1994 and 1996. From 1995 to 1996, she was political secretary at the office of the Moderate Party in the European Parliament, from 1998 to 2000 she served as project leader. From 2000 to 2005, she was communication consult at Prime PR. Concurrently, she ran her own consulting business. From 2005 to 2006, she was head of information at the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce.
She was active in student politics as chairman of the Stockholm University Student Union in 1994, as member of the board of the Moderate Youth League from 1995 to 1998 and as the first female chairman of the Moderate Youth League in Stockholm County from 1996 to 1998. From 2004 to 2011, she was a member of the board of activity center Fryshuset. Since 2011, she has been a member of the executive board of the Moderate Party, she has been an elected member of the Stockholm County Council and the municipal council in Nacka Municipality. Prior to the 2006 general election she worked at the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, prior to that she worked in different companies as a public relations consultant, she has authored the book Indien – från stackare till stormakt. Kinberg became known to the general public when she stated that "people from Stockholm are more intelligent than people from rural areas" in her 1998 election campaign. In 2014, she apologized for this statement and said that "it is still the stupidest thing I've said publicly".
In the Riksdag from 2006, she was chairman of the Committee on European Union Affairs from 2007 to 2010 and chairman of the Committee on Finance from 2010 to 2014. Following the defeat of the Moderate Party in the general election in September 2014, Kinberg Batra was de jure took leadership of the party. On 9 December 2014, the Moderate Party's nomination committee nominated Anna Kinberg Batra to succeed Fredrik Reinfeldt as party leader, she was elected to the position at the party congress on 10 January 2015, becoming the party's first female leader. She faced criticism from voters and from within the Moderate Party after the December agreement, which made it possible for Prime Minister Stefan Löfven's centre-left minority government coalition to continue in office. On 9 October 2015, following the Christian Democrats' departure from the agreement, Kinberg Batra announced that the agreement was now dissolved. On 25 August 2017, she announced that she would resign the leadership of the Moderate Party, owing to heavy criticism from within the party.
She was succeeded by Ulf Kristersson on 1 October 2017. She has been married to comedian David Batra since 2002, they live in Nacka, Stockholm. Media related to Anna Kinberg Batra at Wikimedia Commons Riksdagen: Anna Kinberg Batra
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden. The town had 91,086 inhabitants in 2017, out of a municipal total of 121,510 in 2018, it is the seat of Skåne County. Lund is believed to have been founded around 990. From 1103 it was the see of the Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, the towering Lund Cathedral, built circa 1090–1145, still stands at the centre of the town; the city was ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, its status as part of Sweden was formalised in 1720. Lund University, established in 1666, is today one of Scandinavia's oldest and largest institutions for education and research; the university and its buildings dominate much of the centre of the city, have led to Lund becoming a centre for high-tech industry in the south of Sweden. Lund is sometimes mentioned as the oldest town or city in present-day Sweden, although it has only been a formal Swedish city for 300 years of its at least thousand year long history. It's so old that its origins are unclear, but was existing by the end of the Viking Age.
Until the 1980s, the town was thought to have been founded around 1020 by either Sweyn I Forkbeard or his son Canute the Great of Denmark. The area was part of the kingdom of Denmark. But, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first settlement dated to circa 990 the relocation of settlers at Uppåkra; the Uppåkra settlement dates back to the first century B. C. and its remains are at the present site of the village of Uppåkra. King Sweyn I Forkbeard moved Lund to a distance of some five kilometres; the new location of Lund, on a hill and across a ford, gave the new site considerable defensive advantages in comparison with Uppåkra, situated on the highest point of a large plain. The city was made a see in 1048 and united with Dalby in 1060, in 1103 became the see of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, whose ecclesiastical province comprised Scandinavia and Garðar on Greenland; the diocese of nearby Dalby was absorbed in 1066. Lund Cathedral was founded in or shortly after 1103. In 1152, the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros was founded as a separate province of the church, independent of Lund.
In 1164 Sweden acquired an archbishop of its own, although he was nominally subordinate to the archbishop of Lund. It is still, as the diocese of Lund, a diocese in the Church of Sweden. Lund Cathedral School was founded in 1085 by the Danish king Canute the Saint; this is one of the oldest in Northern Europe. Many prominent people were educated there, among them the actor Max von Sydow and several high-ranking politicians. Lund was ceded to Sweden in 1658 as part of the terms of the Treaty of Roskilde, it was recaptured by Denmark in 1676 during the early phases of the Scanian War. The exceptionally bloody Battle of Lund was fought just north of the city in 1679, ended in a decisive Swedish victory. Sweden's control over Scania, hence Lund, was formalised by treaty in 1720. Scandinavia's first University, the Academy of Lund was founded in 1425, it was suppressed during the Danish Reformation in 1536. The present Lund University was established in 1666. In 1943, during the Second World War, Lund was accidentally bombed by a British aircraft.
No deaths were reported. Over the second half of the 20th century the population of Lund more than doubled, driven in large part by the growth of the university and high-tech industries. For example, Tetra-Pak, the food packaging and processing company, was founded in Lund in 1952. Suburbs were added to the outer edges of the city: Klostergården, Norra fäladen and Linero in the 1960s, Norra Nöbbelöv in the 1970s, Gunnesbo in the 1980s and Värpinge in the 1990s. Lund is located in Sweden's largest agricultural district, in the south-west of Scania, less than ten kilometres from the sandy shore of the Öresund Strait, its location on the south-facing slope of the Romeleåsen horst leads to the city rising from the low-lying Höje River in the south to 86 metres above mean sea level in the north. From the top of the Sankt Hans Hill it is possible to see the capital of Denmark; the nearest large Swedish city, Malmö, is about 15 kilometres to the south-west. Other Swedish cities are more distant: Gothenburg is 250 kilometres away, the capital Stockholm is 600 kilometres distant, Umeå lies 1,200 kilometres to the north.
The central region of Lund retains its medieval street layout. A few buildings from the Middle Ages remain, including Lund Cathedral, Liberiet, St. Peter's Priory, the restaurant Stäket and Krognoshuset. Many of the buildings in the centre today were constructed in the late 1800s, including Katedralskolan, the Grand Hotel and the main building and library of Lund University. Lund city contains a number of squares; the main city square, Stortorget contains numerous shops. Mårtenstorget, located south-east of the main square, hosts a market during the daytime and is otherwise used for parking. In earlier times the square was known as Oxtorget. Alongside the railway and associated station are Bantorget, Knut den Stores Torg and Clementstorg; the latter hosts a small market and is planned to be the central terminus of the tramway under construction. Lund's most central park is Lundagård, together with the adjoining University square forms the centre of the University; the park is dominated by historic buildings including Lu