Harper's Magazine is a monthly magazine of literature, culture and the arts. Launched in June 1850, it is the second-oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the U. S.. Harper's Magazine has won 22 National Magazine Awards. Harper's Magazine began as Harper's New Monthly Magazine in June 1850, by the New York City publisher Harper & Brothers; the company founded the magazines Harper's Weekly and Harper's Bazaar, grew to become HarperCollins Publishing. The first press run of Harper's Magazine—7,500 copies—sold out immediately. Circulation was some 50,000 issues six months later; the early issues reprinted material pirated from English authors such as Charles Dickens, William Makepeace Thackeray, the Brontë sisters. The magazine soon was publishing the work of American artists and writers, in time commentary by the likes of Winston Churchill and Woodrow Wilson. Portions of Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick were first published in the October 1851 issue of Harper's under the title, "The Town-Ho's Story".
In 1962, Harper & Brothers merged with Peterson & Company, becoming Harper & Row. In 1965, the magazine was separately incorporated, became a division of the Minneapolis Star and Tribune Company, owned by the Cowles Media Company. In the 1970s, Harper's Magazine published Seymour Hersh's reporting of the My Lai Massacre by United States forces in Vietnam. In 1971 editor Willie Morris resigned under pressure from owner John Cowles, Jr. prompting resignations from many of the magazine's star contributors and staffers, including Norman Mailer, David Halberstam, Robert Kotlowitz, Marshall Frady and Larry L. King: Morris's departure jolted the literary world. Mailer, William Styron, Gay Talese, Bill Moyers, Tom Wicker declared that they would boycott Harper's as long as the Cowles family owned it, the four staff writers hired by Morris—Frady among them—resigned in solidarity with him. Robert Shnayerson, a senior editor at Time magazine, was hired to replace Morris as Harper's ninth editor, serving in that position from 1971 until 1976.
Lewis H. Lapham served as managing editor from 1976 until 1981. On June 17, 1980, the Star Tribune announced it would cease publishing Harper's Magazine after the August 1980 issue. But, on July 9, 1980, John R. MacArthur and his father, obtained pledges from the directorial boards of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Atlantic Richfield Company, CEO Robert Orville Anderson to amass the $1.5 million needed to establish the Harper's Magazine Foundation. It now publishes the magazine. In 1984, Lapham and MacArthur—now publisher and president of the foundation—along with new executive editor Michael Pollan, redesigned Harper's and introduced the "Harper's Index", "Readings", the "Annotation" departments to complement its fiction, essays and reviews; as of the March 2011 issue, contributing editor Zadie Smith, a noted British author, writes the print edition's New Books column. Under the Lapham-MacArthur leadership, Harper's Magazine continued publishing literary fiction by John Updike, George Saunders, others.
Politically, Harper's was an vocal critic of U. S. domestic and foreign policies. Editor Lapham's monthly "Notebook" columns have lambasted the Clinton and the George W. Bush administrations. Since 2003, the magazine has concentrated on reportage about U. S. war in Iraq, with long articles about the battle for Fallujah, the cronyism of the American reconstruction of Iraq. Other reporting has covered abortion issues and global warming. In 2007, Harper's added the No Comment blog, by attorney Scott Horton, about legal controversies, Central Asian politics, German studies. In April 2006, Harper's began publishing the Washington Babylon blog on its website, written by Washington Editor Ken Silverstein about American politics. Since that time these two blogs have ceased publication. Another website feature, composed by a rotating set of authors, is the Weekly Review, single-sentence summaries of political and bizarre news. Editor Lewis H. Lapham was criticized for his reportage of the 2004 Republican National Convention, which had yet to occur, in his essay "Tentacles of Rage: The Republican Propaganda Mill, a Brief History," published in the September 2004 issue which implied that he had attended the convention.
He apologized in a note. Lapham left two years after 28 years as Harper's editor in chief, launched Lapham's Quarterly; the August 2004 issue contained a photo essay by noted photojournalist Peter Turnley, hired to do a series of photo essays for the magazine. The eight-page spread in August 2004 showed images of death and funerals from both sides of the U. S. war in Afghanistan. On the U. S. side, Turnley visited the funeral of an Oklahoma National Guard member, Spc. Kyle Brinlee, 21, killed when his vehicle ran over an improvised explosive device in Afghanistan. During his funeral, Turnley shot the open casket as it lay in the back of the high school auditorium where the funeral was held to accommodate 1,200 mourners, this photo was used in the photo essay. Subsequently, the family sued the magazine in federal court; the case ended in 2007 when the U. S. Supreme Court, although saying the unauthorized publication wa
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in British Columbia on 12 February 1912. The paper is published by the Pacific Newspaper Group, a division of Postmedia Network, it is published Monday to Saturday. Now combined with The Province newspaper, the Sun still has the largest newsroom of any newspaper in western Canada; the Sun is a broadsheet newspaper and was not related to the Sun Media chain and its tabloid Sun papers in Toronto, Winnipeg and Edmonton. However, Sun Media was acquired by Postmedia in 2015, making the Vancouver Sun and the tabloid Sun papers part of the same company; when the Sun began operation, it was published at 125 West Pender Street, just around the corner from The Province, its rival at the time. From 1917 until his death in 1936, its publisher was Robert James Cromie. In 1924, the Sun bought the Vancouver World newspaper, in financial difficulty for some time. In March 1937, a fire destroyed the Sun's editorial offices; the only casualty was the janitor, who smoke inhalation.
The Sun promptly moved across the street into the World Building, where the World had been published. The building was accordingly renamed the Sun Tower. In 1958, the Sun and the Province joined to create the Pacific Press in response to the rising costs of producing newspapers. First the papers merged their mechanical and financial departments they both moved into the Pacific Press Building on December 27, 1965; the newspaper's photography department became the first in the world to switch over to digital photography following the 1994 release of the Kodak DCS 400 series, which used a Nikon F90 body. In 1997 the paper moved to Granville Square. In 1997, Kennedy Heights, the printing press for the Vancouver Sun and The Province, was opened in Surrey. In May 2009, the newspaper laid off long-time editorial cartoonist Roy Peterson, drawing for the paper since 1962. In December 2011, after much research on the demographics of the greater Vancouver area, the newspaper launched a Chinese-language version Taiyangbao with original Chinese language content.
According to an article broadcast on China Now on China Radio International, the key to success was not to "translate" its English-language version into Chinese. In January 2015, the Kennedy Heights printing press operation was shut down, resulting in 220 workers losing their jobs. Printing of the Vancouver Sun and The Province were outsourced, each to different printing press operations. In 2017, the Vancouver Sun and Province moved to the Broadway Tech Centre; the Vancouver Sun has seen, like most Canadian daily newspapers a decline in circulation. Its total circulation dropped by 22 percent to 136,787 copies daily from 2009 to 2015. Daily average Bolan, Kim Vancouver Sun Run The Vancouver Sun Classic Children's Book Collection List of newspapers in Canada Official website Official mobile site Vancouver Sun RSS feed History of Metropolitan Vancouver
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
The Tyee is an independent online Canadian news magazine that covers British Columbia. It was founded in November 2003 by its editor-in-chief, David Beers, an award-winning writer and former features editor at The Vancouver Sun. Since its launch it has recruited a number of other writers, including Andrew Nikiforuk, Andrew MacLeod, Katie Hyslop, Crawford Kilian, Colleen Kimmett, Geoff Dembicki, Charles Campbell, Christopher Cheung, Tom Barrett, Sarah Berman, Chris Wood, Ian Gill, Chris Pollon, Steve Burgess, Murray Dobbin, Michael Geist, Terry Glavin, Mark Leiren-Young, Rafe Mair, Will McMartin, Shannon Rupp, Vanessa Richmond and Dorothy Woodend; the name "Tyee" is based on the current local definition of Tyee salmon—a Chinook or Spring salmon of 30 lbs or more. The word is derived from the Nuu-chah-nulth language, meaning a king, or champion, it embodies the magazine's dedication to publishing lively, informative news and views, to "roam free, go where we wish" as the tyee salmon do. Tyee articles focus on politics and life.
It has expanded its activities to a blog: The Hook. Within two years of its launch, over 1,000 articles had been published by more than 1,500 registered commenters, reaching 89,458 unique visitors. In 2009, according to BCBusiness magazine, The Tyee had a growing British Columbia readership, up 77 percent since 2007 to 175,000 unique visitors a month. By 2017, The Tyee was receiving between 800,000 to 1,000,000 page views a month. In 2007, The Tyee was recognized nationally with an Honourable Mention in the category of Excellence in Journalism for Small, Medium, or Local Media; the category includes all Canadian online journalism with fewer than 500,000 unique visitors a month. In 2009, the magazine BCBusiness placed The Tyee as ninth of their list of the province's ten most innovative companies; the Tyee was awarded the Edward R. Murrow Award by the Radio and Television News Directors Association in 2009 and 2011, it was the only Canadian news organization to be honoured for the national category in 2011.
The Tyee has won the Canadian Journalism Foundation Excellence in Journalism Award twice, in 2009 and 2011. In 2015, The New Yorker magazine called The Tyee "a fascinating case study" of how local journalism is funded. In 2001, David Beers was fired from the features editor position at The Vancouver Sun as part of Canwest Global's famous purge of top-level journalists. Beers says, "When I was fired it was kind of a wake-up call, I was writing some forthright things after 9/11—they weren't radical, I didn't think, but they challenged the jingoistic tone of many commentators and politicians in Canada as well as the US." Beers has expressed his opinion that CanWest had abused its position and failed to provide fair and balanced coverage. Afterwards, Beers contemplated exploring online journalism, was encouraged by an anonymous philanthropist who had a similar goal, finances to support the plan; the U. S. website Salon.com became the model. The Tyee began in November 2003, its original premise was "investigative reporting no one else is doing, fresh viewpoints from all over B.
C."In 2015 David Beers moved to editor-at-large, founding business director Michelle Hoar moved to an advisory role in 2016. Editor-in-chief Robyn Smith and her maternity leave replacement Barry Link now guide the site, with business director Jeanette Ageson. According to the Radio and Television News Directors Association, which awards the Edward R. Murrow award, The Tyee is admirable for its independence and its creative commitment to covering its city and region while extending its reach to Canada and beyond. In this style, The Tyee is a Canadian rarity; the Tyee picks key areas for in-depth investigative or solutions-focused reporting. Being an online magazine, there are fewer chances to introduce the production crew, such as having an editor's letter in every issue; the Tyee has set a goal to "open up" in order for their readers to gain a better understanding of who they are, what they are about. The intent is to give the community more opportunities to contribute to The Tyee's daily content.
The Tyee has had held several public events in order be less virtual, more present in the physical world. David Beers explains that, "after eight years, it's time we came out from behind our screens and started shaking hands with the thousands of people who visit The Tyee and make us a vibrant community." In 2008, The Tyee launched. According to investigative editor and overseer, Monte Paulsen, The Hook was a "superblog," because The Hook publishes quick, timely reports and analysis by experienced Tyee journalists and a wide network of contributors, unlike most blogs that offer works of one or two journalists. Posts were 200-300 words in length, allowing coverage of a greater number and variety of topics that have not been touched upon before; as a business initiative, the blog offered more space for advertising, since online "retail space" is a challenge for online publishers, unlike print magazines that can add advertising-only pages. The blog enabled marketers additional opportunities; the Hook was retired in 2013.
Unlike many online magazines, The Tyee has minimal interactive and multi-media content, is based on written story. According to Beers, it is not that The Tyee does not wish to have such features, but are rather limited in people and in-house resources. In terms of visual content, The Tyee runs a lot of photography, have had immensely positive results with "crowd sourced photography." The Tyee flickr pool draws thousands of images, a new one is featured every day on the site. These images are run in the stories, on photo essays by the rea
San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M