Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology and social media. It corresponds to the geographical Santa Clara Valley. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third largest in California, the tenth largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Santa Clara, Mountain View, Sunnyvale; the San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The word "silicon" in the name referred to the large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers in the region, but the area is now home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of 39 businesses in the Fortune 1000, thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development.
It was in the Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, the microcomputer, among other technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers; as more high-tech companies were established across San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley, north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco and Oakland, the "Silicon Valley" has come to have two definitions: a geographic one, referring to Santa Clara County, a metonymical one, referring to all high-tech businesses in the Bay Area. The term is now used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector; the name became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, thus inspired similar named locations, as well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world. The popularization of the name is credited to Don Hoefler, who first used it in the article "Silicon Valley USA", appearing in the January 11, 1971 issue of the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News.
The term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. Silicon Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capital, steady U. S. Department of Defense spending. Stanford University leadership was important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its success. On August 23, 1899, the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gate, signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish–American War; the ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose that "California first heard the click of a telegraph key on September 11, 1853.
It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants' Exchange members named George Sweeney and Theodore E. Baugh…" He says, "In 1849, the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community." Arbuckle points to the historic significance the Merchants Exchange Building and Telegraph Hill, San Francisco when he goes on to say "The first station gave the name Telegraph to the hill on which it was located. It was known as the Inner Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire." According to Arbuckle Sweeney and Baugh's line was an intra-city, San Francisco-based service. E. Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose and Sacramento."
Delays to construction occurred until September 1853. The line was completed when Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24." The Bay Area had long been a major site of United States Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with scheduled programming in San Jose; that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U. S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation in Palo Alto. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, signed a contract with the Navy in 1912. In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, was commissioned by the United States Government for use as a Naval Air Station to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One; the station was renamed NAS Moffett Field, between 1933 and 1947, U. S. Navy blimps were based there. A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett Field to serve the Navy.
When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its west coast
Robert Melancton Metcalfe is an engineer-entrepreneur from the United States who helped pioneer the Internet starting in 1970, co-invented Ethernet, co-founded 3Com and formulated Metcalfe's law. Starting in January 2011, he is Professor of Innovation and Entrepreneurship at The University of Texas at Austin, he is the Murchison Fellow of Free Enterprise. Metcalfe has received various awards, including the IEEE Medal of Honor and National Medal of Technology and Innovation for his work developing Ethernet technology. In addition to his accomplishments, Metcalfe is known for incorrectly predicting the demise of the Internet, wireless networks, open-source software during the 1990s. Robert Metcalfe was born in 1946 in New York, his father was a gyroscope test technician. His mother was a homemaker but became the secretary at Bay Shore High School. In 1964, Metcalfe graduated from Bay Shore High School to join the MIT Class of 1968, he graduated from MIT in 1969 with two S. B. degrees, one in electrical engineering and the other in industrial management from the MIT Sloan School of Management.
He went to Harvard for graduate school, earning his M. S. in applied mathematics in 1970 and his PhD in computer science in 1973. While pursuing a doctorate in computer science, Metcalfe took a job with MIT's Project MAC after Harvard refused to let him be responsible for connecting the school to the brand-new ARPAnet. At MAC, Metcalfe was responsible for building some of the hardware that would link MIT's minicomputers with the ARPAnet. Metcalfe was so enamored with ARPAnet, he made it the topic of his doctoral dissertation; the first version wasn't accepted. His inspiration for a new dissertation came while working at Xerox PARC, where he read a paper about the ALOHA network at the University of Hawaii, he identified and fixed some of the bugs in the AlohaNet model and made his analysis part of a revised thesis, which earned him his Harvard PhD in 1973. Metcalfe was working at PARC in 1973 when he and David Boggs invented Ethernet a standard for connecting computers over short distances. Metcalfe identifies the day Ethernet was born as May 22, 1973, the day he circulated a memo titled "Alto Ethernet" which contained a rough schematic of how it would work.
"That is the first time Ethernet appears as a word, as does the idea of using coax as ether, where the participating stations, like in AlohaNet or ARPAnet, would inject their packets of data, they'd travel around at megabits per second, there would be collisions, retransmissions, back-off," Metcalfe explained. Boggs identifies another date as the birth of Ethernet: November 11, 1973, the first day the system functioned. In 1979, Metcalfe departed PARC and co-founded 3Com, a manufacturer of computer networking equipment. In 1980 he received the ACM Grace Hopper Award for his contributions to the development of local networks Ethernet. In 1990, the board of directors chose Eric Benhamou to succeed Bill Krause as CEO of the networking company Metcalfe had founded in his Palo Alto apartment in 1979. Metcalfe left 3Com and began a 10-year stint as a publisher and pundit, writing an Internet column for InfoWorld, he is now a general partner at Polaris Venture Partners. In 1997, he cofounded Pop! Tech, an executive technology conference.
In November 2010 Metcalfe was selected to lead innovation initiatives at The University of Texas at Austin's Cockrell School of Engineering. He began his appointment in January 2011. Metcalfe was a keynote speaker at the 2016 Congress of Technology Leaders. Metcalfe was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1996 for "exemplary and sustained leadership in the development and commercialization of Ethernet." He received the 2003 Marconi Award for "For inventing the Ethernet and promulgating his Law of network utility based on the square of the nodes" Metcalfe received the National Medal of Technology from President Bush in a White House ceremony on March 14, 2003, "for leadership in the invention and commercialization of Ethernet", having been selected for the honor in 2003. In May 2007, along with 17 others, was inducted to the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, for his work with Ethernet technology. In October 2008, Metcalfe received the Fellow Award from the Computer History Museum "for fundamental contributions to the invention and commercialization of Ethernet."
Outside of his technical achievements, Metcalfe is best known for his 1995 prediction that the Internet would suffer a "catastrophic collapse" the following year. During his keynote speech at the sixth International World Wide Web Conference in 1997, he took a printed copy of his column that predicted the collapse, put it in a blender with some liquid and consumed the pulpy mass; this was after he tried to eat his words printed on a large cake, but the audience would not accept this form of "eating his words." During an event where he talked about predictions at the eighth International World Wide Web Conference in 1999, a participant asked: what is the bet?. He stated. Metcalfe is known for his harsh criticism of open source software, Linux in particular, predicting that the latter would be obliterated after Microsoft released Windows 2000: The Open Source Movement's ideology is utopian balderdash reminds me of communism. Linux organic software grown in utopia by spiritualists When they bring organic fruit to market, you pay extra for small apples with open sores – the Open Sores Movement.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies used in local area networks, metropolitan area networks and wide area networks. It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, has since retained a good deal of backward compatibility and been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET; the original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches. Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second to the latest 400 gigabits per second. The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames; each frame contains source and destination addresses, error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded.
As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up including the data link layer. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols including Wi-Fi wireless networking technology. Ethernet is used in home and industry; the Internet Protocol is carried over Ethernet and so it is considered one of the key technologies that make up the Internet. Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974, it was inspired by ALOHAnet. The idea was first documented in a memo that Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the luminiferous aether once postulated to exist as an "omnipresent, completely-passive medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves." In 1975, Xerox filed a patent application listing Metcalfe, David Boggs, Chuck Thacker, Butler Lampson as inventors. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper; that same year, Ron Crane, Bob Garner, Roy Ogus facilitated the upgrade from the original 2.94 Mbit/s protocol to the 10 Mbit/s protocol, released to the market in 1980.
Metcalfe left Xerox in June 1979 to form 3Com. He convinced Digital Equipment Corporation and Xerox to work together to promote Ethernet as a standard; as part of that process Xerox agreed to relinquish their'Ethernet' trademark. The first standard was published on September 1980 as "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network. Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications"; this so-called DIX standard specified 10 Mbit/s Ethernet, with 48-bit destination and source addresses and a global 16-bit Ethertype-type field. Version 2 was published in November, 1982 and defines what has become known as Ethernet II. Formal standardization efforts proceeded at the same time and resulted in the publication of IEEE 802.3 on June 23, 1983. Ethernet competed with Token Ring and other proprietary protocols. Ethernet was able to adapt to market realities and shift to inexpensive thin coaxial cable and ubiquitous twisted pair wiring. By the end of the 1980s, Ethernet was the dominant network technology. In the process, 3Com became a major company.
3Com shipped its first 10 Mbit/s Ethernet 3C100 NIC in March 1981, that year started selling adapters for PDP-11s and VAXes, as well as Multibus-based Intel and Sun Microsystems computers. This was followed by DEC's Unibus to Ethernet adapter, which DEC sold and used internally to build its own corporate network, which reached over 10,000 nodes by 1986, making it one of the largest computer networks in the world at that time. An Ethernet adapter card for the IBM PC was released in 1982, and, by 1985, 3Com had sold 100,000. Parallel port based Ethernet adapters were produced with drivers for DOS and Windows. By the early 1990s, Ethernet became so prevalent that it was a must-have feature for modern computers, Ethernet ports began to appear on some PCs and most workstations; this process was sped up with the introduction of 10BASE-T and its small modular connector, at which point Ethernet ports appeared on low-end motherboards. Since Ethernet technology has evolved to meet new bandwidth and market requirements.
In addition to computers, Ethernet is now used to interconnect appliances and other personal devices. As Industrial Ethernet it is used in industrial applications and is replacing legacy data transmission systems in the world's telecommunications networks. By 2010, the market for Ethernet equipment amounted to over $16 billion per year. In February 1980, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers started project 802 to standardize local area networks; the "DIX-group" with Gary Robinson, Phil Arst, Bob Printis submitted the so-called "Blue Book" CSMA/CD specification as a candidate for the LAN specification. In addition to CSMA/CD, Token Ring and Token Bus were considered as candidates for a LAN standard. Competing proposals and broad interest in the initiative led to strong disagreement over which technology to standardize. In December 1980, the group was split into three subgroups, standardization proceeded separately for each proposal. Delays in the standards process put at risk the market introduction of the Xerox Star workstation and 3Com's Ethernet LAN products.
With such business implications in mind, David Liddle an
Butler W. Lampson, ForMemRS, is an American computer scientist best known for his contributions to the development and implementation of distributed personal computing. After graduating from the Lawrenceville School, Lampson received an A. B. in physics from Harvard University in 1964 and a Ph. D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California, Berkeley in 1967. During the 1960s, Lampson and others were part of Project GENIE at UC Berkeley. In 1965, several Project GENIE members Lampson and Peter Deutsch, developed the Berkeley Timesharing System for Scientific Data Systems' SDS 940 computer. After completing his doctorate, Lampson stayed on at UC Berkeley as an assistant professor and associate professor of computer science. For a period of time, he concurrently served as director of system development for the Berkeley Computer Corporation. In 1971, Lampson became one of the founding members of Xerox PARC, where he worked in the Computer Science Laboratory as a principal scientist and senior research fellow.
His now-famous vision of a personal computer was captured in the 1972 memo entitled "Why Alto?". In 1973, the Xerox Alto, with its three-button mouse and full-page-sized monitor, was born, it is now considered to be the first actual personal computer in terms of what has become the "canonical" GUI mode of operation. All the subsequent computers built at Xerox PARC except for the "Dolphin" and the "Dorado" followed a general blueprint called "Wildflower", written by Lampson, this included the D-Series Machines: the "Dandelion", "Dandetiger", "Daybreak", "Dicentra". At PARC, Lampson helped work on many other revolutionary technologies, such as laser printer design, he designed several influential programming languages such as Euclid. Following the acrimonious resignation of Xerox PARC CSL manager Bob Taylor in 1983, Lampson and Chuck Thacker followed their longtime colleague to Digital Equipment Corporation's Systems Research Center. There, he was a senior consulting engineer, corporate consulting engineer and senior corporate consulting engineer.
Shortly before Taylor's retirement, Lampson left to work for Microsoft Research as an architect, distinguished engineer and technical fellow. Since 1987, Lampson has been an adjunct professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1984, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. In 1984, he won the ACM Software System Award for the Alto, along with Robert W. Taylor, Charles P. Thacker. In 1986, he received an honorary Sc. D. from the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich. In 1992, he won the prestigious ACM Turing Award for his contributions to personal computing and computer science. In 1993, he became a fellow of the American Academy of Sciences. In 1994, he was inducted as a Fellow of the ACM. In 1996, he received the IEEE Computer Pioneer Award. In 1996, he received an honorary Sc. D. from the University of Bologna. In 2001, he received the IEEE John von Neumann Medal. In 2004, he won the Charles Stark Draper Prize along with Alan C.
Kay, Robert W. Taylor, Charles P. Thacker for their work on Alto. In 2005, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2006, he was inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for fundamental contributions to computer science, including networked personal workstations, operating systems, computer security and document publishing." Computer History Museum Fellow In 2006, he received the IFIP TC11 Kristian Beckman Award for information security. In 2016, he was inducted into the National Cybersecurity Hall of Fame. In 2018, he was elected as a Foreign Member of the Royal Society. Lampson is quoted as saying, "Any problem in computer science can be solved with another level of indirection," but in his Turing Award Lecture in 1993, Lampson himself attributes this saying to David Wheeler. Lampson's website The milliLampson unit Butler Lampson. Oral history interview, 11 December 2014, Massachusetts. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota
Joint Computer Conference
The Joint Computer Conferences were a series of computer conferences in the USA held under various names between 1951 and 1987. The conferences were the venue for presentations and papers representing "cumulative work in the field."Originally a semi-annual pair, the Western Joint Computer Conference was held annually in the western United States, a counterpart, the Eastern Joint Computer Conference, was held annually in the eastern US. Both conferences were sponsored by an organization known as the National Joint Computer Committee, composed of the Association for Computing Machinery, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers Committee on Computing Devices, the Institute of Radio Engineers Professional Group on Electronic Computers. In 1962 the American Federation of Information Processing Societies took over sponsorship and renamed them Fall Joint Computer Conference and Spring Joint Computer Conference. In 1973 AFIPS merged the two conferences into a single annual National Computer Conference which ran until discontinued in 1987.
The 1967 FJCC in Anaheim, California attracted 15,000 attendees. In 1968 in San Francisco, California Douglas Engelbart presented "The Mother of All Demos" presenting such then-new technologies as the computer mouse, video conferencing and hypertext. American Federation of Information Processing Societies COMDEX AFIPS conference bibliography, 1951-1987
National Museum of American History
The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, cultural and military history. Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner; the museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, D. C; the museum opened in 1964 as the Museum of Technology. It was one of the last structures designed by the renowned architectural firm McKim White. In 1980, the museum was renamed the National Museum of American History to represent its mission of the collection, care and interpretation of objects that reflect the experience of the American people. In May 2012, John Gray became the new director, he retired from the post in May 2018 and was succeeded by Anthea M. Hartig, chief executive of the California Historical Society; the museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5, 2006 to November 21, 2008, during which time it was closed.
Skidmore and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation, led by Gary Haney. Major changes made during the renovation include: A new, five-story sky-lit atrium, surrounded by displays of artifacts that showcase the breadth of the museum's collection. A new, grand staircase that links the museum's second floors. A new welcome center, the addition of six landmark objects to orient visitors. New galleries, such as the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Hall of Invention. An environmentally controlled chamber to protect the original Star-Spangled Banner flag. In 2012, the museum began a $37 million renovation of the west wing to add new exhibition spaces, public plazas and an education center; the renovation will include panoramic windows overlooking the National Mall on all three floors and new interactive features to the exhibits. The first floor of the west wing reopened on July 1, 2015 with the second and third floors of the west wing reopening in 2016 and 2017, respectively.
Each wing of the museum's three exhibition floors is anchored by a landmark object to highlight the theme of that wing. These include the John Bull locomotive, the Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, a one of a kind draft wheel. Landmarks from pre-existing exhibits include the 1865 Vassar Telescope, a George Washington Statue, a Red Cross ambulance, a car from Disneyland's Dumbo Flying Elephant ride. Artifact walls, 275 feet of glass-fronted cases, line the second floor center core; the artifact walls are organized around themes including arts. The lower level of the museum displays Taking America to Lunch, which celebrates the history of American lunch boxes; the museum's food court, the Stars and Stripes Café, ride simulators are located here. The first floor's East Wing has exhibits that feature technology; the John Bull locomotive is the signature artifact. The exhibits in the West Wing address innovation, they include Science in American Life featuring Robots on the Road and Bon Appétit!
Julia Child's Kitchen. Spark! Lab is a hands-on exhibit of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Innovation; the Vassar Telescope is the signature artifact. A café and the main museum store are located on the first floor; the first floor contains the Constitution Avenue lobby, as well as a space for a temporary exhibit. The exhibitions in 2 East, the east wing of the second floor, consider American ideals and include the Albert Small Documents Gallery featuring rotating exhibitions. From November 21, 2008 through January 4, 2009 an original copy of the Gettysburg Address, on loan from the White House, was on display; the Greensboro lunch counter is the signature artifact for this section of the museum. Located in the center of the second floor is the original Star Spangled Banner Flag which inspired Francis Scott Key's poem; the newly conserved flag, the centerpiece of the renovated museum, is displayed in a climate-controlled room at the heart of the museum. An interactive display by Potion Design, just across the room from the flag, features a full-size, digital reproduction of the flag that allows patrons to learn more about it by touching different areas on the flag.
The George Washington statue, created in 1840 for the centennial of Washington's birthday, is the signature artifact for 2 West, the west wing of the second floor of the museum. The second floor houses the museum's new welcome center and a store; the second floor lobby leads out to the National Mall. Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, are focused on the United States at war; the Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance is the signature artifact. The center of the third floor, 3 Center, presents The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden, which explores the personal and public lives of the men who have held that office, it features the popular permanent exhibit of First Ladies of America, which features their contributions, changing roles, displays dresses as a mark of changing times. The third-floor west wing, 3 West, has exhibits that feature entertainment and music; these include Thanks for the Memories: Music and Entertainment History, the Hall of Musical Instruments, The Dolls' House.
A car from Disneyland's Dumbo the Flying Elephant ride is t
Association for Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing Machinery is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, is the world's largest scientific and educational computing society; the ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, with nearly 100,000 members as of 2019. Its headquarters are in New York City; the ACM is an umbrella organization for scholarly interests in computer science. Its motto is "Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession"; the ACM was founded in 1947 under the name Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, changed the following year to the Association for Computing Machinery. ACM is organized into over 171 local chapters and 37 Special Interest Groups, through which it conducts most of its activities. Additionally, there are over 500 university chapters; the first student chapter was founded in 1961 at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Many of the SIGs, such as SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences, which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting innovations in certain fields.
The groups publish a large number of specialized journals and newsletters. ACM sponsors other computer science related events such as the worldwide ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, has sponsored some other events such as the chess match between Garry Kasparov and the IBM Deep Blue computer. ACM publishes over 50 journals including the prestigious Journal of the ACM, two general magazines for computer professionals, Communications of the ACM and Queue. Other publications of the ACM include: ACM XRDS "Crossroads", was redesigned in 2010 and is the most popular student computing magazine in the US. ACM Interactions, an interdisciplinary HCI publication focused on the connections between experiences and technology, the third largest ACM publication. ACM Computing Surveys ACM Computers in Entertainment ACM Special Interest Group: Computers and Society A number of journals, specific to subfields of computer science, titled ACM Transactions; some of the more notable transactions include: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics ACM Transactions on Computational Logic ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction ACM Transactions on Database Systems ACM Transactions on Graphics ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing and Applications IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems Although Communications no longer publishes primary research, is not considered a prestigious venue, many of the great debates and results in computing history have been published in its pages.
ACM has made all of its publications available to paid subscribers online at its Digital Library and has a Guide to Computing Literature. Individual members additionally have access to Safari Books Online and Books24x7. ACM offers insurance, online courses, other services to its members. In 1997, ACM Press published Wizards and Their Wonders: Portraits in Computing, written by Christopher Morgan, with new photographs by Louis Fabian Bachrach; the book is a collection of historic and current portrait photographs of figures from the computer industry. The ACM Portal is an online service of the ACM, its core are two main sections: the ACM Guide to Computing Literature. The ACM Digital Library is the full-text collection of all articles published by the ACM in its articles and conference proceedings; the Guide is a bibliography in computing with over one million entries. The ACM Digital Library contains a comprehensive archive starting in the 1950s of the organization's journals, magazines and conference proceedings.
Online services include a forum called Tech News digest. There is an extensive underlying bibliographic database containing key works of all genres from all major publishers of computing literature; this secondary database is a rich discovery service known as The ACM Guide to Computing Literature. ACM adopted a hybrid Open Access publishing model in 2013. Authors who do not choose to pay the OA fee must grant ACM publishing rights by either a copyright transfer agreement or a publishing license agreement. ACM was a "green" publisher. Authors may post documents on their own websites and in their institutional repositories with a link back to the ACM Digital Library's permanently maintained Version of Record. All metadata in the Digital Library is open to the world, including abstracts, linked references and citing works and usage statistics, as well as all functionality and services. Other than the free articles, the full-texts are accessed by subscription. There is a mounting challenge to the ACM's publication practices coming from the open access movement.
Some authors see a centralized peer–review process as less relevant and publish on their home pages or on unreviewed sites like arXiv. Other organizations have sprung up which do their peer review free and online, such as Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Journal of Machine Learning Research and the Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology. In addition to student and regular members, ACM has several advanced membership grades to recognize those with multiple years of membership and "demonstrated performance that sets them apart from their peers"; the number of Fellows, Distinguished Members, Senior Members cannot exceed 1%, 10%, 25% of the total number of professional members, respect