Captain America: The First Avenger
Captain America: The First Avenger is a 2011 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Captain America, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures. It is the fifth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the film was directed by Joe Johnston, written by the writing team of Christopher Markus and Stephen McFeely, stars Chris Evans as Steve Rogers / Captain America, alongside Tommy Lee Jones, Hugo Weaving, Hayley Atwell, Sebastian Stan, Dominic Cooper, Neal McDonough, Derek Luke, Stanley Tucci. Set predominantly during World War II, the film tells the story of Steve Rogers, a sickly man from Brooklyn, transformed into the super-soldier Captain America and must stop the Red Skull, who intends to use an artifact called the "Tesseract" as an energy-source for world domination; the film was scheduled for distribution by Artisan Entertainment. However, a lawsuit not settled until September 2003 disrupted the project. In 2005, Marvel Studios received a loan from Merrill Lynch, planned to finance and release it through Paramount Pictures.
Directors Jon Favreau and Louis Leterrier were interested in directing the project before Johnston was approached in 2008. The principal characters were cast between March and June 2010. Production began in June 2010, filming took place in London, Caerwent and Los Angeles. Captain America: The First Avenger premiered at the El Capitan Theatre on July 19, 2011, was released in the United States on July 22, 2011; the film was commercially successful. Critics praised Evans' performance, the film's depiction of its 1940s time period, Johnston's direction. A sequel titled Captain America: The Winter Soldier was released on April 4, 2014, a third film titled Captain America: Civil War was released on May 6, 2016. In the present day, scientists in the Arctic uncover an frozen aircraft. In March 1942, Nazi officer Johann Schmidt and his men steal a mysterious relic called the Tesseract, which possesses untold powers, from the town of Tønsberg in German-occupied Norway. In New York City, Steve Rogers is rejected for World War II military recruitment because of various health and physical problems.
While attending an exhibition of future technologies with his friend, Sgt. James "Bucky" Barnes, Rogers again attempts to enlist. Overhearing Rogers' conversation with Barnes about wanting to help in the war, Dr. Abraham Erskine allows Rogers to enlist, he is recruited into the Strategic Scientific Reserve as part of a "super-soldier" experiment under Erskine, Col. Chester Phillips, British agent Peggy Carter. Phillips is unconvinced by Erskine's claims that Rogers is the right person for the procedure but relents after seeing Rogers commit an act of self-sacrificing bravery; the night before the treatment, Erskine reveals to Rogers that Schmidt underwent an imperfect version of the procedure and suffered permanent side-effects. Schmidt and Dr. Arnim Zola harness the energies of the Tesseract, intending to use the power to fuel Zola's inventions, mounting an offensive that will change the world. Schmidt dispatches assassin Heinz Kruger to kill him. Erskine subjects Rogers to the super-soldier treatment, injecting him with a special serum and dosing him with "vita-rays".
After Rogers emerges from the experiment taller and more muscular, an undercover Kruger kills Erskine and flees. Rogers pursues and captures Kruger, but the assassin avoids interrogation by committing suicide with a cyanide capsule. With Erskine dead and his super-soldier formula lost, U. S. Senator Brandt has Rogers tour the nation in a colorful costume as "Captain America" to promote war bonds while scientists study him and attempt to reverse-engineer the formula. In 1943, while on tour in Italy performing for active servicemen, Rogers learns that Barnes' unit was MIA in a battle against Schmidt's forces. Refusing to believe that Barnes is dead, Rogers has Carter and engineer Howard Stark fly him behind enemy lines to mount a solo rescue attempt. Rogers infiltrates the fortress of Schmidt's Nazi division Hydra, freeing Barnes and the other prisoners. Rogers confronts Schmidt, who removes a mask to reveal a red, skull-like visage that earned him the sobriquet "the Red Skull". Schmidt escapes and Rogers returns to base with the freed soldiers.
Rogers recruits Barnes, Dum Dum Dugan, Gabe Jones, Jim Morita, James Montgomery Falsworth, Jacques Dernier to attack other known Hydra bases. Stark outfits Rogers with advanced equipment, most notably a circular shield made of vibranium, a rare, nearly indestructible metal. Rogers and his team sabotage various Hydra operations. In 1945 the team assaults a train carrying Zola. Rogers and Jones succeed in capturing Zola. Using information extracted from Zola, the final Hydra stronghold is located, Rogers leads an attack to stop Schmidt from using weapons of mass destruction on major American cities. Rogers climbs aboard Schmidt's aircraft. During the subsequent fight, the Tesseract's container is damaged. Schmidt physically handles the Tesseract; the Tesseract is lost in the ocean. Seeing no way to land the plane without the risk of detonating its weapons, Rogers crashes it in the Arctic. Stark recovers the Tesseract from the ocean floor but is unable to locate Rogers or the aircraft, presuming him dead.
Rogers awakens in a 1940s-style hospital room. Deducing from an anachronistic radio broadcast that something is wrong, he flees outside and finds himself in present-day Times Square, where S. H. I. E. L. D. Director Nick Fury informs him. In a po
Royal Shakespeare Company
The Royal Shakespeare Company is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. The company produces around 20 productions a year; the RSC plays in London, Newcastle upon Tyne and on tour across the UK and internationally. The company's home is in Stratford-upon-Avon, where it has redeveloped its Royal Shakespeare and Swan theatres as part of a £112.8-million "Transformation" project. The theatres re-opened in November 2010, having closed in 2007; the new buildings attracted 18,000 visitors within the first week and received a positive media response both upon opening, following the first full Shakespeare performances. Performances in Stratford-upon-Avon continued throughout the Transformation project at the temporary Courtyard Theatre; as well as the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, the RSC produces new work from living artists and develops creative links with theatre-makers from around the world, as well as working with teachers to inspire a lifelong love of William Shakespeare in young people and running events for everyone to explore and participate in its work.
The RSC celebrated its fiftieth birthday season from April–December 2011, with two companies of actors presenting the first productions designed for the new Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatre stages. The 2011-season began with performances of Macbeth and a re-imagined lost play The History of Cardenio; the fiftieth birthday season featured The Merchant of Venice with Sir Patrick Stewart and revivals of some of the RSC's greatest plays, including a new staging of Marat/Sade. For the London 2012 Festival as part of the Cultural Olympiad, the RSC produced the World Shakespeare Festival, featuring artists from across the world performing in venues around the UK. In 2013, the company began live screenings of its Shakespeare productions – called Live from Stratford-upon-Avon – which are screened around the world. In 2016, the company collaborated with Intel and The Imaginarium Studios to stage The Tempest, bringing performance capture to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre for the first time. There have been theatrical performances in Stratford-upon-Avon since at least Shakespeare's day, though the first recorded performance of a play written by Shakespeare himself was in 1746 when Parson Joseph Greene, master of Stratford Grammar School, organised a charitable production to fund the restoration of Shakespeare's funerary monument.
John Ward's Birmingham-based company, the Warwickshire Company of Comedians, agreed to perform it. A surviving copy of the playbill records; the first building erected to commemorate Shakespeare was David Garrick's Jubilee Pavilion in 1769, there have been at least 17 buildings used to perform Shakespeare's plays since. The first permanent commemorative building to Shakespeare's works in the town was a theatre built in 1827, in the gardens of New Place, but has long since been demolished; the RSC's history began with the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, the brainchild of a local brewer, Charles Edward Flower. He donated a two-acre site by the River Avon and in 1875 launched an international campaign to build a theatre in the town of Shakespeare's birth; the theatre, a Victorian-Gothic building seating just over 700 people, opened on 23 April 1879, with a performance of Much Ado About Nothing, a title which gave ammunition to several critics. The Memorial, a red brick Gothic cathedral, designed by Dodgshun and Unsworth of Westminster, was unkindly described by Bernard Shaw as "an admirable building, adaptable to every purpose except that of a theatre."
From 1919, under the direction of William Bridges-Adams and after a slow start, its resident New Shakespeare Company became one of the most prestigious in Britain. The theatre received a Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1925. On the afternoon of 6 March 1926, when a new season was about to commence rehearsals, smoke was seen. Fire broke out, the mass of half-timbering chosen to ornament the interior provided dry tinder. By the following morning the theatre was a blackened shell; the company transferred its Shakespeare festivals to a converted local cinema. Fund-raising began for the rebuilding of the theatre, with generous donations arriving from philanthropists in America. In January 1928, following an open competition, 29-year-old Elisabeth Scott was unanimously appointed architect for the new theatre which became the first important work erected in the United Kingdom from the designs of a woman architect. George Bernard Shaw commented, her modernist plans for an art deco structure came under fire from many directions but the new building was opened triumphantly on William Shakespeare's birthday, 23 April 1932.
It came under the direction of Sir Barry Jackson in 1945, Anthony Quayle from 1948 to 1956 and Glen Byam Shaw 1957–1959, with an impressive roll-call of actors. Scott's building, with some minor adjustments to the stage, remained in constant use until 2007 when it was closed for a major refit of the interior. Timeline: 1932 – new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opens, abutting the remains of the old. 1961 – chartered name of the corporation and the Stratford theatre becomes ‘Royal Shakespeare.’ 1974 – The Other Place opened, created from a prefabricated former store/rehearsal room in Stratford. 1986 – the Swan Theatre opened, created from the shell of the 1879 Memorial Theatre. 1991 – Purpose-built new Other Place, designed by Michael Reardon, opens. September 2004 – The vision for the renewal of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre transformation is announced. July 2006 – The Courtyard Theatre opens with a staging of Michael Boyd’s Histories. November 2010 – The Royal Shakespeare and Swan T
David Yates is an English filmmaker who has directed feature films, short films, television productions. Yates rose to mainstream prominence by directing the final four films in the Harry Potter series, his work on the series brought him major critical and commercial success along with accolades, such as the British Academy Britannia Award for Excellence in Directing. Yates's subsequent projects include The Legend of Tarzan and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, the sequel to Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald. Early in his career, Yates became a prolific television director, his credits include the six-part political thriller State of Play, for which he won the Directors Guild of Great Britain Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement, the adult two-part documentary drama Sex Traffic and the Emmy Award-winning television film The Girl in the Café. Yates is a founding member of Directors UK, he has had a close partnership with Warner Bros. as a producer.
David Yates was born in 1963 in England. His parents died. Raised in the village of Rainhill, Yates was inspired to pursue a career in filmmaking after watching Steven Spielberg's 1975 movie Jaws. Before her death, Yates's mother bought him a Super 8mm camera, he used this to shoot various films in which family featured. One such film, The Ghost Ship, was shot on board the vessel, he attended St Helens College where he completed the courses of sociology and literature before moving on to the University of Essex. Yates said that he "used to skive off college all the time" and never expected to join university before being surprised by his A-Level exam results. While at the University of Essex, Yates formed Video Production Society, he graduated with a BA Government in 1987. In 1988, Yates made his first film; the film entered the festival circuit where it was named Best Short Film at the San Francisco International Film Festival, in addition to obtaining other awards. It contributed towards Yates's acceptance into the National Film and Television School in 1989 and led to the BBC hiring him to direct Oranges and Lemons, a short drama film in 1991.
Before completing film school, he began to direct and write the screenplay to the dramatic short The Weaver's Wife. He made his fourth short film Good Looks, presented at the Chicago International Film Festival. After graduating in 1992, Yates directed an episode of the film studies programme Moving Pictures. From 1994 to 1995, Yates directed several episodes of the ITV police procedural The Bill before directing and producing three episodes of the television documentary Tale of Three Seaside Towns alongside producer Alistair Clarke; the programme followed media personalities Russell Grant, Honor Blackman and Pam Ayres visiting and exploring the South Coast towns of Brighton and Weymouth. Yates directed his fifth short film Punch before making his feature film debut in 1998 with the release of the independent historical-drama film The Tichborne Claimant; the film, shown at the Edinburgh International Film Festival, was written by Joe Fisher and based on the true events of the Tichborne Case.
It starred Stephen Fry and Robert Hardy and was shot on location in Merseyside and on the Isle of Man. Yates returned to television in 2000 to direct the episodes of Greed and Lust for the BBC miniseries The Sins, starring Pete Postlethwaite, as well as The Way We Live Now, the acclaimed four-part television adaptation of the novel of the same name by Anthony Trollope. Among the actors he directed were David Suchet, Cillian Murphy and Miranda Otto in their roles as Augustus Melmotte, Paul Montague and Mrs. Hurtle respectively. Yates shared the British Academy Television Award for Best Drama Serial with screenwriter Andrew Davies and producer Nigel Stafford-Clark at the 2002 BAFTA Awards. One year Yates attended the 56th BAFTA Awards with a British Academy Film Award nomination for Best Short Film for the fourteen-minute production, which expressed the social elements of racism and adolescence through the story of a street gang that cross Glasgow to witness the arrival of a group of Somali refugees.
Yates said that though The Way We Live Now was "a big production" and "enormous fun to do", Rank was an opportunity to "shake all that off" and "get back to roots." Of the casting, Yates said that he "wanted to use non-actors to tell the story, to create a reality... the kids we cast in Glasgow had never done a film before." The film was noted for its gritty style and cinematography, with a review from Eye For Film stating that "such intelligent use of camera and cast lifts Yates out of the pool of promising young directors into the front line of genuine hopefuls. This work demands respect."The 2003 six-part thriller State of Play was Yates's next achievement. He directed a mix of acclaimed actors such as David Morrissey, John Simm and James McAvoy in the main roles of the BBC serial, created by Paul Abbott, it was a major turning point for Yates's career. The serial was recognised by various award ceremonies, notably receiving the Peabody Award for Broadcasting Excellence and being presented with two British Academy Television Craft Awards.
The quality of the serial sparked Hollywood film bosses to consider adapting it into a film, with producer Andrew Hauptman declaring that "it's a blistering political thriller and we want to make an blis
Our Friends in the North
Our Friends in the North is a British television drama serial produced by the BBC. It was broadcast in nine episodes on BBC Two in early 1996. Written by Peter Flannery, it tells the story of four friends from the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in North East England over a period of 31 years, from 1964 to 1995; the story makes reference to certain political and social events which occurred during the era portrayed, some specific to Newcastle and others which affected Britain as a whole. These include general elections and local government corruption, the UK miners' strike and the Great Storm of 1987; the serial is regarded as one of the most successful BBC television dramas of the 1990s, described by The Daily Telegraph as "a production where all... worked to serve a writer's vision. We are not to look upon its like again", it has been named by the British Film Institute as one of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes of the 20th century, by The Guardian newspaper as the third greatest television drama of all time and by the Radio Times magazine as one of the 40 greatest television programmes.
It was awarded three British Academy Television Awards, two Royal Television Society Awards, four Broadcasting Press Guild Awards and a Certificate of Merit from the San Francisco International Film Festival. Our Friends in the North helped to establish the careers of its four lead actors, Daniel Craig, Christopher Eccleston, Gina McKee and Mark Strong. Daniel Craig's part in particular has been referred to as his breakthrough role, it was a controversial production, as its stories were based on real people and events. Several years passed before it was adapted from a play, performed by the Royal Shakespeare Company, to a television drama, due in part to the BBC's fear of legal action; each of the nine episodes of the serial takes place in the year. The episodes follow the four main characters and their changing lives and relationships against the backdrop of the political and social events in Britain; the four friends are Dominic'Nicky' Hutchinson, Mary Soulsby, George'Geordie' Peacock and Terry'Tosker' Cox.
The series begins with 1964. Nicky returns from working with the civil rights movement in the southern United States to resume his studies at the University of Manchester, he is reunited with his girlfriend and best friend, hoping to form a pop group with his mate Tosker. Nicky is persuaded to drop out of university and work for corrupt local politician Austin Donohue, swayed by Donohue's apparent idealism and desire to change Newcastle for the better; this is much to the annoyance of Nicky's trade unionist father Felix, who does not want his son to waste opportunities that he never had. Nicky's relationship with Mary ends when she becomes pregnant by Tosker and marries him, which means she drops out of university. On the run from a pregnant girlfriend himself and his abusive alcoholic father, Geordie leaves for London, where he falls in with seedy underworld baron Benny Barrett. Geordie is successful while employed by Barrett in his Soho nightclubs and sex shops, he helps Tosker and Mary by introducing Tosker to Barrett, who lends him the money to start his own fruit and vegetable business.
Tosker's former dreams of musical stardom fade away. Meanwhile, Nicky realises the extent of Donohue's corrupt dealings with building contractor John Edwards, he resigns in disgust becoming involved with anarchists in London. By the early 1970s, the police have cracked down on Barrett's business and their own corruption but not before Barrett has set Geordie up, sending him to prison in retaliation for an affair that Geordie had with Barrett's lover. Nicky's anarchist cell is raided, he returns to Newcastle. Geordie returns as well. By 1979, Nicky has returned to more mainstream politics and stands for the Labour Party in the general election, but is defeated by the Conservative Party candidate after a smear campaign. Geordie leaves shortly before the election, not to be seen in the series again until 1987. By 1984, Nicky is working as a photographer and Mary has divorced Tosker, who has remarried and is becoming a rich businessman. Nicky and Mary renew their relationship during the turbulent events of the miners' strike and marry.
By 1987, their marriage is falling apart. He meets Geordie, now a homeless, drunken vagrant, by chance in London but his old friend disappears before he has a chance to help him. Geordie is sentenced to life in prison as a danger to the public, after setting fire to a mattress in a hostel. Despite her failing marriage to Nicky, Mary's life is becoming an increasing success and she is now a councillor. Tosker, loses his fortune in the stock market crash; the final episode, 1995, sees Nicky, who has emigrated to Italy, returning to Newcastle to oversee the funeral of his mother. Tosker has managed to rebuild his business and is about to hold the opening night of his new floating nightclub, based on a boat moored on the River Tyne. Mary, now a Labour Member of Parliament sympathetic to New Labour, is invited to the opening and Tosker is surprised to find Geordie back in the city as well. Neither Mary nor Geordie make it to the opening night party but the four friends are reunited the following day at Nicky's house after his mother's funeral.
San Diego Comic-Con
San Diego Comic-Con International is a multi-genre entertainment and comic convention held annually in San Diego, United States. The name, as given on its website, is Comic-Con International: San Diego, it was founded as the Golden State Comic Book Convention in 1970 by a group of San Diegans that included Shel Dorf, Richard Alf, Ken Krueger, Mike Towry. It is a four-day event held during the summer at the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego. On the Wednesday evening prior to the official opening, professionals and pre-registered guests for all four days can attend a pre-event "Preview Night" to give attendees the opportunity to walk the exhibit hall and see what will be available during the convention. Comic-Con International produces two other conventions, WonderCon, held in Anaheim, the Alternative Press Expo, held in San Francisco. Since 1974, Comic-Con has bestowed its annual Inkpot Award on guests and persons of interest in the popular arts industries, as well as on members of Comic-Con's board of directors and the Convention committee.
It is the home of the Will Eisner Awards. Showcasing comic books and science fiction/fantasy related film and similar popular arts, the convention has since included a larger range of pop culture and entertainment elements across all genres, including horror, Western animation, manga, collectible card games, video games and fantasy novels. In 2010 and each year subsequently, it filled the San Diego Convention Center to capacity with more than 130,000 attendees. In addition to drawing huge crowds, the event holds several Guinness World Records including the largest annual comic and pop culture festival in the world; the convention was founded in 1970 by Shel Dorf, Richard Alf, Ken Krueger, Mike Towry, Barry Alfonso, Bob Sourk, Greg Bear. Detroit, Michigan-born, comics fan Shel Dorf, had, in the mid-1960s, mounted the Detroit Triple-Fan Fairs, one of the first commercial comics-fan conventions; when he moved to San Diego, California, in 1970, he organized a one-day convention on March 21, 1970, "as a kind of'dry run' for the larger convention he hoped to stage."
Dorf went on to be associated with the convention as president or manager, for years until becoming estranged from the organization. Alf co-chaired the first convention with Krueger and became chairman in 1971. Following the initial gathering, Dorf's first three-day San Diego comics convention, the Golden State Comic-Con, drew 300 people and was held at the U. S. Grant Hotel from August 1–3, 1970. Other locations in the convention's early years included the El Cortez Hotel, the University of California, San Diego, Golden Hall, before being moved to the San Diego Convention Center in 1991. Richard Alf, chairman in 1971, has noted an early factor in the Con's growth was an effort "to expand the Comic-Con committee base by networking with other fandoms such as the Society for Creative Anachronism and the Mythopoeic Society, among others.." In a Rolling Stone article about the origins of Comic-Con, it noted the work of Krueger, who handled early business matters, worked to get the event to be organized by a non-profit organization.
By the late 1970s, the show had grown to such an extent that Bob Schreck recalled visiting with his then-boss Gary Berman of Creation Conventions and reflecting, "While kept repeating'This show's not any bigger than ours!' I was walking the floor stunned and in awe of just how much bigger it was. I was blown away."According to Forbes, the convention is the "largest convention of its kind in the world. The convention has an estimated annual regional economic impact of more than $140 million. Yet, in 2009, the estimated economic impact was criticized for negatively impacting seasonal businesses outside of Comic-Con, low individual spending estimates of attendees, that a large number of attendees live in San Diego, that the impact of the convention was more cultural than financial. In 2011, the estimated economic impact of that year's convention was $180 million. In 2014, the estimated impact of that year's convention was $177.8 million. In 2016, the estimated impact of that year's convention was down to $150 million.
By 2018, San Diego Comic-Con saw increasing competition from other comic conventions in places such as New York City, Washington, D. C. which caused it to compete for attendees and companies time and budget. The convention is organized by a panel of 13 board members, 16 to 20 full-time and part-time workers, 80 volunteers who assist via committees. Comic-Con International is a non-profit organization, proceeds of the event go to funding it, as well as the Alternative Press Expo and WonderCon; the convention logo was designed by Richard Bruning and Josh Beatman in 1995. In 2015, working with Lionsgate, a video channel was created to host Comic-Con related content. In 2015, through a limited liability company, Comic-Con International purchased three buildings in Barrio Logan. In 2018 Comic-Con International purchased a 29,000-square-foot office in San Diego's Little Italy neighborhood. In 2017, the organization acquired a lease to the Federal Building in Balboa Park built for the California Pacific Internati
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Dinosaurs on a Spaceship
"Dinosaurs on a Spaceship" is the second episode of the seventh series of the British science fiction television programme Doctor Who. It first aired on BBC One in the UK on 8 September 2012 and on BBC America on the same date in the United States, it was directed by Saul Metzstein. The episode features alien time traveller the Doctor and his companions Amy Pond and Rory Williams accompanied by Rory's father, Queen Nefertiti, John Riddell, a British big-game hunter; the group lands on a large spaceship that contains dinosaurs and discover that it is a Silurian ark, though the Silurians have been murdered by Solomon, a black market trader, intent on finding something of value. "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship" was conceived to be a fun episode, based on a suggestion from the special effects teams about incorporating dinosaurs into Doctor Who. The storyline and characters were developed between Chibnall and head writer and executive producer Steven Moffat. Due to budget limitations, a wider plot had to be developed because the dinosaurs could not be the centerpiece.
The dinosaurs were a mix of computer-generated imagery. Along with the third episode, "A Town Called Mercy", "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship" was in the first production block of the seventh series, with production commencing in early 2012 in the studio and on Southerndown beach in the Vale of Glamorgan; the episode was watched by 7.57 million viewers in the UK and received positive reviews from critics. The Doctor receives a call from the Indian Space Agency about a vast spaceship which will crash into Earth in six hours; the ISA plans to destroy it with missiles. He takes Queen Nefertiti of Egypt, Edwardian game hunter John Riddell, companions Amy and Rory, inadvertently, Rory's father Brian. Amy discovers the ship is a Silurian ark designed to carry the reptilian humanoids to a new planet along with flora and fauna from their time period to escape a destructive impact; the ship, registers no Silurian life forms left on board. After escaping from a group of pterosaurs in the engine room, the Doctor and Brian are escorted by two robots to a brutal man called Solomon, injured in a raptor attack and requires medical help.
Solomon reveals himself to be a lawless exotic black market trader who has raided the spaceship in order to steal the dinosaurs. Having had the robots murder all of the Silurians, Solomon was unable to take control of the ship himself and the computer defaulted to its point of origin, causing it to return to Earth. Discovering Queen Nefertiti's identity and value, he decides to kidnap her and leave in his own ship. Though the Doctor refuses, Nefertiti agrees to go with him to save the others. Meanwhile, the ISA proceeds to fire their missiles against the Doctor's wishes. While Amy and Riddell shoot hostile dinosaurs with "anaesthetic" guns, the Doctor disables Solomon's robots and rescues Nefertiti tricks the ISA missiles into targeting Solomon's ship rather than the ark: it is destroyed, taking him with it. Rory and Brian pilot the ark away from the Earth, as the ship can only be piloted by two people of the same gene chain; the Doctor takes Amy and Brian back home. Nefertiti, flirting and clashing with Riddell, opts to go with him rather than return to her own time.
Showrunner Steven Moffat said that putting dinosaurs on a spaceship was "the secret of success". The idea to use dinosaurs in Doctor Who came from the special effects teams The Mill and Millennium FX; as "Asylum of the Daleks" was a darker opening episode, "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship" is more about fun. In Moffat's pitch to writer Chris Chibnall, he proposed, "Maybe it's a ship heading towards Earth, Earth is on alert". Chibnall had written the Doctor Who episodes "42", "The Hungry Earth"/"Cold Blood", as well as work for the spinoff series Torchwood; the Doctor had encountered dinosaurs in the 1974 serial Invasion of the Dinosaurs. Moffat suggested the spaceship was Silurian, Chibnall, who had written the return of the Silurians in "The Hungry Earth"/"Cold Blood", felt that it was "a nice reveal and shows you more about them in a story that isn’t about them". Chibnall suggested including a "bonkers" gang of characters picked from around space, he felt that Doctor Who could have "collisions of characters that no other show in the world can do", that it was about finding a "disparate" group of characters who would "bounce" off each other.
Nefertiti's decision not to return to her own time fits in with the historical record, as the date and cause of her death are unknown. Chibnall asked to introduce Rory's father, as Amy and Rory would be leaving in four episodes and Rory's family life had not been explored yet. Mark Williams who played Rory's father appeared in the Fifth Doctor audio adventure The Eternal Summer. Rupert Graves, who played an Edwardian hunter in this episode worked with Moffat on the BBC series Sherlock. David Bradley's character, was modelled on a "well-known nightclub owner with long hair". Chibnall described him as "half businessman, half Somali pirate". Bradley and Williams had worked together on the Harry Potter film franchise. Bradley was cast as the First Doctor William Hartnell for the 50th anniversary documentary drama An Adventure in Space and Time. Comedy duo Mitchell and Webb provided the voices of Solomon's two robots. Richard Hope, who played the Silurian Bleytal appeared as Malohkeh in the episodes "The Hungry Earth", "Cold Blood" and "The Wedding of Riv