Walter Leopold Arthur Hayes was an English journalist, public relations executive for Ford. Hayes was key in developing Ford's Formula One program, by signing Jackie Stewart and funding the building of the Cosworth DFV V8 Formula One racing engine. Walter Leopold Arthur Hayes was born in Harrow, the son of a printer. Hayes won a scholarship to Hampton School, served in the Royal Air Force, where he was a cadet pilot. After World War II, as the son of a printer Hayes found entry to Fleet Street easy through the network of printing chapels, which controlled newspaper production in the United Kingdom at the time. Working his way up through the defined path of local and national journalistic work. Looking for something different to revive the motoring column, he was introduced to Lotus Cars owner Colin Chapman, who became an occasional contributor and commentator. Married with a son and resident at the time in Surrey, Hayes was seeking a secure future for his family when Ford asked him whether he would become head of Ford UK's public relations department.
Although it meant crossing the tracks and never returning to journalism due to the prejudices at the time, Hayes accepted the job as head in January 1962. Ford had a series of dour but reliable products, including the Ford Ford Zodiac. Hayes concluded that a push into racing and competition was key to developing the image, in his first weeks in his job he gave the go-ahead for his first motor sport activity with support for the successful private attack on six International class G records at Montlhery with the 105E Anglia. Under the project and campaign brand of "Total Performance" the thrust of Ford worldwide. was so successful, Hayes elevated Ford's public perception from that of vaguely sinister giant of car manufacturing to purveyor of cars which, while resolutely egalitarian, oozed speed, power and sex appeal. One of the first crises Hayes had to deal with was the fallout of Ferrari's rejection of the proposed Ford takeover. Hayes became part of the team that supported Henry Ford II's thoughts that Ford should take on Ferrari directly in their own home market of racing.
Hayes initiated discussion with Cooper. As well as reviving the rallying program, one of Hayes first accomplishments was to sign unknown Scottish racing driver Jackie Stewart. Stewart was attending the 1964 British International Motor Show at Earl's Court, when Hayes approached him and offered Stewart £500 to promote Ford products in 1965, along with the white Ford Zodiac, the centrepiece of Ford's exhibit to drive that year. Stewart commented: “I didn’t know who Walter Hayes was, but I did know that to have a contract with Ford Motor Company was a big deal with great opportunities for the future though I wasn’t yet aware that Ford would enter Formula One.” The relationship was to last forty years, be so successful it was the model for other Formula One stars and motor manufacturers. Hayes next project came about as an approach from Colin Chapman. Chapman's cars had until that point relied on power from fast revving Coventry Climax engines, but with the change in Formula One regulations to three litre capacity from 1966, Coventry Climax decided for business reasons not to develop a large capacity engine.
Chapman had approach the fledgling Cosworth group, with Keith Duckworth commenting that he could produce a competitive three litre engine, given a development budget of £100,000. Chapman approach Ford and David Brown of Aston Martin, each without initial success. Hayes arranged diner for Chapman with Harley Copp, an American engineer who had backed and engineered Ford's successful entry into NASCAR in the 1950s. Hayes and Copp developed a business plan, backed by Ford UK's new chairman Stanley Gillen, approved by Ford's Detroit head office as a two part plan – stage one would produce a four-cylinder twin-cam engine for Formula Two. In return, Chapman agreed to engineer "specials" for Ford, the first of, 1963's Lotus Cortina. Revealed by Hayes in a PR launch in Detroit at the end of 1965, the Ford Cosworth DFV won its first race – the Dutch Grand Prix on 4 June 1967, in a Lotus 49 driven by Jim Clark. Graham Hill was in the team was at the specific request of Ford and Hayes, who wanted to be sure that a strong driving cadre would be seated ahead of their engines.
The agreement between Ford and Lotus was binding on all parties, Ford as the funder had no plans to sell or hire the DFV to any other teams. However, it occurred to Hayes that there was no competition – the Ferrari was underpowered. Hayes concluded that Ford's name could become tarnished, that they should agree to use the unit in other teams, hence dominate Formula One. Chapman, on the back of the pairs long friendship agreed, Hayes could release the DFV to rival French team Matra, headed by Ken Tyrrell with Jackie Stewart as a driver. Still the most successful Grand Prix engine sixteen years it was still
King James's School, Almondbury
King James's School is a coeducational secondary school located in Almondbury in the English county of West Yorkshire. King James's Grammar School was founded as chantry school in 1547 and received its name and a royal charter in 1608 thanks to the efforts of three men who travelled on horseback to London to get a royal charter from the king, they rode from Farnley Tyas, the nearby village, having been sent to London to get the charter by the local wealthy men from Almondbury who wanted a local school for their offspring to visit. Extensions were made to the school by William Swinden Barber between 1880 and 1883; the grammar school era ended in 1976. The school was designated a specialist Science College in 2004. In September 2012 the school converted to academy status; the current principal is Ian Rimmer. King James's School is a comprehensive secondary school with a catchment area that includes Almondbury, Grange Moor and Lepton; the school offers GCSEs, BTECs and Cambridge Nationals as programmes of study for pupils.
It has been labelled Britain’s strictest school after a new rule book containing 40 new rules. Ones including not looking out of the window and asking why when they have been told off; the school is the subject of two histories: A History of King James's Grammar School in Almondbury and King James's School in Almondbury: An Illustrated History. A book Morning Assembly gives a detailed account of the life of former headmaster Harry Taylor together with a compilation in facsimile form of some 100 prayers collected by Harry Taylor for use each day at morning assembly. Felix Aylmer, actor Sir John George Beharrell, former managing director of the Dunlop Rubber Company and a director of Imperial Airways David Brown, Managing Director David Brown & Sons and owner of Aston Martin Ltd. Peter Carter QC, Chair of the Bar Human Rights Committee from 2003–05 Maj-Gen Henry Evans CB, Director of Army Education from 1969–72 Prof Ian Graham Gass, Professor of Earth Sciences at the Open University from 1969–82 Philip Goldsmith, President of the Royal Meteorological Society from 1982-5 Michael Hardcastle prolific author of Children's literature Sir Harold Percival Himsworth, former Honorary Physician to the Queen Derek Ibbotson, athlete Michael Jackson and beer connoisseur Gorden Kaye, actor Prof Henry Laycock, Professor of Philosophy at Queen's University, Canada Herbert Morley CBE, Director General and Manager of Steel and Tozer from 1965-8 David Morphet, author Ryan Sidebottom, England cricketer Prof Keith Vickerman, Regius Professor of Zoology from 1984-98 at the University of Glasgow Prof James Pounder Whitney, Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of Cambridge from 1919–39 Robert Stephenson, Metropolitan Police detective Professor Alan Prout, University of Leeds Prof Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics, University of Sheffield Reverend Professor Benjamin Franklin Cocker, University of Michigan in Ann Arbor Professor Alex Danchev, military and art historian and biographer A History of King James's Grammar School in Almondbury, Gerald Hinchliffe, The Old Almondburians' Society, 384pp, ASIN B0000CLZS5 An Illustrated History of King James's School in Almondbury, Gerald Hinchliffe, Edward Royle, Richard Taylor, et al.
The Old Almondburians' Society, 112pp, full colour King James's School official website The Old Almondburians' Society
W. O. Bentley
Walter Owen Bentley, MBE was an English engineer who designed engines for cars and aircraft, raced cars and motorcycles, founded Bentley Motors Limited in Cricklewood near London. He was known as "W. O." without any need to add the word Bentley. Bentley, born in Hampstead, was the youngest of his Adelaide-born parents’ nine children, his father was retired businessman Alfred Bentley, mother was Emily, née Waterhouse. As the son of a prosperous family he was educated at Clifton College in Bristol from 1902 until 1905, when at the age of 16 he left to start work as an apprentice engineer with the Great Northern Railway at Doncaster in Yorkshire; the premium five-year apprenticeship with Great Northern, which cost his father £75, taught W. O. to design complex railway machinery and gave him practical experience in the technical procedures to cast and build it. He recalled: "The sight of one of Patrick Stirling's eight-foot singles could move me profoundly." While with Great Northern, he came close to realizing his childhood ambition to drive one of their Atlantic express locomotives, when at the end of his apprenticeship he acquired footplate experience as a second fireman on main-line expresses.
"My longest day,” he said, “was London to Leeds and back, on the return journey doing Wakefield to King's Cross non-stop for 175 miles. This was a total day's run of 400 miles, entailing a consumption of about seven tons of coal, every pound of it to be shovelled. Not a bad day's exercise." He completed his apprenticeship in the summer of 1910 but decided that the railways did not offer him enough scope for a satisfying career. In 1909 and 1910 Bentley raced Quadrant and Indian motorcycles, he competed in two Isle of Man Tourist Trophy races, on a Rex in 1909 and as a member of Indian's factory team in 1910. He did not finish in either event, he was fascinated by the cabbies' ingenuity at fiddling the meters. In 1912 he joined his brother, H. M. Bentley, in a company called "Bentley and Bentley" that sold French DFP cars. Dissatisfied with the performance of the DFPs, yet convinced that success in competition was the best marketing for them, W. O. was inspired by a paperweight to have pistons made for the engine in aluminium alloy.
Fitted with the alloy pistons and a modified camshaft, a DFP took several records at Brooklands in 1913 and 1914. At the outbreak of war Bentley knew that using aluminium alloy pistons in military applications would benefit the national interest: they improved power output and ran cooler, allowing higher compression ratios and higher engine speeds; as security considerations prevented his broadcasting the information to engine manufacturers, he contacted the official liaison between the manufacturers and the Navy. That man, Commander Wilfred Briggs, would be his senior officer throughout the war. Commissioned in the Royal Naval Air Service, Bentley was sent to share with the manufacturers the knowledge and experience he had gained from the modifications to the engines of the DFP cars he sold in Britain. Following his first consultation, with the future Lord Hives at Rolls-Royce, the company’s first aero engine, named the Eagle, was designed with pistons of aluminium instead of cast-iron or steel.
Bentley next visited Louis Coatalen at Sunbeam, with the result that the same innovation was used in all their aero engines. Bentley visited Gwynnes, whose Chiswick factory made French Clerget engines under licence, he liaised between the squadrons in France and the Chiswick factory's engineering staff; when the Clerget licensees proved unwilling to implement Bentley’s more important suggestions the Navy gave him a team to design his own aero engine at the Humber factory in Coventry. Designated the BR1, Bentley Rotary 1, the engine was fundamentally different from the Clerget except in the design of the cam mechanism, retained to facilitate production. A prototype was running in the early summer of 1916; the bigger BR2 followed in early 1918. In recognition, Bentley was awarded the MBE. After he was invited In 1920 to make a claim, which the Clerget licensees contested unsuccessfully, the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors awarded him £8,000. After the war, in early 1919, W. O. and his brother founded Bentley Motors Limited.
They formed a group at small premises in Cricklewood to turn his aero engines business into one of car production. In a group that included Frank Burgess and Harry Varley, they set about designing a high quality sporting tourer for production under the name Bentley Motors. Clive Gallop joined the team as an engine designer to help develop their 3,000 cubic centimetres straight-4 engine; the 3-litre engine ran for the first time in Baker Street, London. A plaque marks the building in what is now Chagford Street NW1. W. O.’s first complete Bentley 3 Litre car began road tests in January 1920 and the first production version, made in Cricklewood, was delivered in September 1921. Its durability earned widespread acclaim. W. O.’s motto was "To build a good car, a fast car, the best in class." His cars raced in hill climbs and at Brooklands, the lone 3 Litre entered by the company in the 1922 Indianapolis 500 mile race and driven by Douglas Hawkes finished thirteenth at an average speed of 74.95 mph. Bentley entered a team of his new 3-litre modified and race-prepared cars in the 1922 Tourist Trophy driving himself in Bentley III.
Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger, their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982, it has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Headquarters and main production site are in Gaydon, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Avro Vulcan bomber. Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, is branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles and real estate development submarines and aircraft on a licensing basis.
Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure, not the case." Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, the pair decided to make their own vehicles; the first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini. They acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps.
After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914 developed as the Green Pea. 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company; that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business. They renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis.
The only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives. The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump start the production of a new car. Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars", they included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model". Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico, with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers and saloons produced. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers; the "LM" team cars were successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans. Financial problems reappeared in 1932.
Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war. In 1947, old-established owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour, he acquired without its factory Lagonda's business for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines and workshops. Aston Martin began to build the classic "DB" series of cars. In April 1950, they announced planned production of their Le Mans prototype to be called the DB2, followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 MkII in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958. While these models helped Aston Martin establish a good racing pedigree, the DB4 stood out and yielded the famous DB5 in 1963.
Aston stayed true to its grand touring style with the DB6, DBS (1967–1
Aston Martin DB6
The Aston Martin DB6 is a grand tourer made by British car manufacturer Aston Martin. Produced from September 1965 to January 1971, the DB6 had the longest production run up to that date of any Aston Martin model; the DB6 succeeded the Aston Martin DB5 and featured improved aerodynamics and specification over its predecessor. After Aston Martin rejected proposals for a replacement for its DB5 from Touring of Milan, the decision was made to focus on their own development car, registered 4 YMC. Wind tunnel testing, begun in February 1965, showed development was necessary to counteract a tendency toward aerodynamic lift causing reduced rear-wheel traction at high speed. Final development phases relied upon DB5 chassis, suitably lengthened and titled MP 219, with rear lip-spoiler and abbreviated Kammback tail Aston Martin incorporated in sports-racing prototypes; the decision was made to produce MP 219 as the Aston Martin DB6 although the prototype de Dion rear axle was rejected, Aston's soldiering on with its well-located live-axle configuration reducing time to market and complexity.
Introduced at the 1965 London Motor Show, the DB6 was a dated design notable as the first model engineered following a factory relocation from Feltham to Newport Pagnell. The DB6 has a resemblance to its predecessor, the DB5; the tail, combined with the relocated rear-axle and the 3.75-inch lengthened wheelbase, provide more stability at high speed. Though fashionable — the rear-end Kamm-styled design was similar to the Ferrari 250 — it did not prove popular with conservative, tradition oriented Aston clientele when the DB6 was introduced. Performance was satisfactory: road-tests of the day observed top speed of the Vantage model between 145 mph to 148 mph, with John Bolster aboard a Vantage spec DB6 reaching a two-way average of 152 mph; the DB6 continued with high-tech Armstrong Selectaride cockpit-adjustable rear shock absorbers as available on the DB5. Other highlights include adopting front-door quarter windows, an oil-cooler air scoop low on the front valance, quarter-bumpers at each corner, revised tail-lamp clusters.
Other notable changes: Roof line raised by two inches improving headroom for rear seat passengers Genuinely useful leg room for rear passengers More steeply raked albeit taller windscreen Split front and rear bumpers Standard chrome wire wheels on bias-ply whitewall tyres Optional power steering Optional air conditioning Standard ZF five-speed manual unit or a BorgWarner three-speed automatic gearbox available at no extra cost Optional Vantage specification retaining triple side-draft Weber 45DCOE carburetors with other minor revisions raising quoted output to 325 hpAnother major change from the DB5 to DB6 was abandonment of the full superleggera construction technique patented by coachbuilders/stylist Touring of Milan. For DB6's construction, the more common body-on-platform technique was used; the modifications combined to add only seventeen pounds weight compared to the DB5. The DB6 is powered by the 3,995 cc twin-overhead camshaft, in-line six-cylinder Aston Martin engine designed by Tadek Marek.
The engine, continued with its triple SU carb setup producing 282 bhp at 5,500 rpm. Although the weight of the DB6 was 17 lb heavier than its predecessor, the stability at high speed, added luggage capacity and comforts for passengers in this grand tourer more than offset any imperceptible loss in performance caused by additional weight; the rear suspension used helical coil springs with ride control, adjustable from inside the car. Curb weight: 1,474 kg Engine: 4.0 L straight-6 Compression ratio: standard=8.9:1. Available as an optional extra for the Mark II was AE Brico electronic fuel-injection combined with the higher compression ratio cylinder head; the Mark II edition shared many parts with the then-new DBS. As with previous Aston Martin models, a high-power DB6 Vantage was offered, it was equipped with higher compression ratio cylinder head. A convertible body style was offered, named the Volante; this was introduced at the 1966 London Motor Show. The DB6-based Volante succeeded the earlier Volantes which were built on the last of the DB5 chassis' and were known as "short chassis" Volantes.
Of the DB6-based Volantes just 140 were built, including 29 high-output Vantage Volante versions prized by collectors. Charles, Prince of Wales, owns a DB6-based Volante MkII, converted to run on bioethanol; the car was given to him by his mother on his 21st birthday. A total of six or seven DB6 Shooting-brakes were produced by British coachbuild
Monte Carlo refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, Saint Michel; the permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth", it is the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier. The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort.
At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In 1856 Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success. The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in 1868, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. Saint-Charles Church on Monte Carlo's Avenue Sainte-Charles was completed in 1883, it was restored in its centenary year. In 1911 when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in three municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins and Saint Michel.
The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place, it hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show, fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville; the Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and, followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou