Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC is the holding company of Jaguar Land Rover Limited, a British multinational automotive company with its headquarters in Whitley, United Kingdom, a subsidiary of Indian automotive company Tata Motors. The principal activity of Jaguar Land Rover Limited is the design, development and sale of vehicles bearing the Jaguar and Land Rover marques. Both marques have long and complex histories prior to their merger – Jaguar going back to the 1930s and Land Rover to the 1940s – first coming together in 1968 as part of the ill-fated British Leyland conglomerate again independent of each other, as subsidiaries of BMW, Ford Motor Company. Ford acquired Land Rover from BMW in 2000 following the break-up of the former Rover Group, the remainder of the British Leyland car producing companies. Jaguar Land Rover has been a subsidiary of Tata Motors since they founded it for the acquisition of Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover from Ford in 2008. On 1 January 2013 the operations of Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover were merged as Jaguar Land Rover Limited and the parent was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC.
Both businesses having been part of British Leyland for parts of their histories until 1984, Jaguar Cars and Land Rover were reunited into the same group again by the Ford Motor Company in 2002. Ford had acquired Jaguar Cars in 1989 and Land Rover from BMW in 2000. In 2006, Ford purchased the Rover brand name from BMW for around £6 million; this reunited the Rover and Land Rover brands for the first time since the Rover group was broken up by BMW in 2000. On 18 January 2008, Tata Motors, a part of the Tata Group, established Jaguar Land Rover Limited as a British-registered, wholly owned subsidiary; the company was to be used as a holding company for the acquisition from Ford of the two businesses – Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover. That acquisition was completed on 2 June 2008. On 1 January 2013, the group, operating as two separate companies, although on an integrated basis, underwent a fundamental restructuring; the parent company was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC, Jaguar Cars Limited was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Limited and the assets of Land Rover were transferred to it.
The consequence was that Jaguar Land Rover Limited became responsible in the UK for the design and marketing of both Jaguar and Land Rover products. In addition to the Jaguar and Land Rover marques, JLR owns the rights to the dormant Daimler and Rover marques; the latter was acquired by Land Rover, whilst still under Ford ownership, from BMW in the aftermath of the collapse of MG Rover Group. In March 2011, Jaguar Land Rover announced that it would hire an additional 1,500 staff at its Halewood plant, signed over £2 billion of supply contracts with UK-based companies, to enable production of its new Range Rover Evoque model. In September 2011, the company confirmed that it would be investing £355 million in the construction of a new engine plant at the i54 business park near Wolverhampton, central England, to manufacture a family of four-cylinder petrol and diesel engines. In November 2011 Jaguar Land Rover announced that it would be creating 1,000 new jobs at its Solihull plant, a 25 per cent increase in the size of the workforce at the site.
In March 2012, Jaguar Land Rover announced the creation of 1,000 new jobs at its Halewood plant, a shift to 24-hour production at the plant. In the same month, Jaguar Land Rover and the China-based carmaker Chery agreed to invest an initial US$2.78 billion in a new joint venture, the activities of which would include the manufacture of Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles and engines, the establishment of a research and development facility, the creation of a new automobile marque, sales of vehicles produced by the company. Jaguar Land Rover planned to create 4,500 manufacturing and engineering jobs in the UK over the next five years. In late 2012, the company announced a joint venture for Jaguars and Land Rovers to be built in China, now the world's biggest car-market; the agreement was with Chery, China's sixth largest auto manufacturer, called for a new Chinese factory in Changshu to build vehicles starting in 2014. Trial production at the facility began in April 2014, with a potential capacity of 130,000 vehicles annually.
The first production model by the Chery Jaguar Land Rover venture was the Evoque, with other models planned that include modifications, such as longer wheelbases, to satisfy Chinese market demand. In September 2013, Jaguar Land Rover announced an additional 1,700 jobs and £1.5 billion investment at its facility in Solihull. The money was to be spent on designing systems to allow the chassis of future models to be made out of aluminium; the same month, the company announced plans to open a £100 million research and development centre called the National Automotive Innovation Campus at the University of Warwick, Coventry to create a new generation of vehicle technologies. Jaguar Land Rover was to invest £50 million in the facility with additional funding from Tata Motors, the University and the UK government; the carmaker said around 1,000 academics and engineers would work there and that construction would start in 2014. Under its chief executive, Dr Ralf Speth, JLR has increased its investment in R&D significantly.
In 2013, according to Speth, it invested £3 billion in "product creation" and claimed to be the "biggest R&D investor in the UK in the automotive business"
Road & Track
Road & Track is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. It is published monthly; the editorial offices are located in Michigan. Road & Track was founded by two friends, Wilfred H. Brehaut, Jr. and Joseph S. Fennessy, in 1947, in Hempstead, New York. Published only six times from 1947 to 1949, it struggled in its early years. By 1952, regular contributor and editor John Bond had become the owner of the magazine, which grew until its sale to CBS Publications in 1972. In 1988, Hachette Filipacchi Media took ownership of the magazine. In October 2008, Matt DeLorenzo became Editor-in-Chief, succeeding Thos L. Bryant, in place for 20 years. Hearst Magazines purchased the magazine in 2011. In June 2012, Larry Webster assumed the role of Editor-in-Chief, DeLorenzo became an adviser to the publication. Additionally, in 2012 the magazine moved its operations from Newport Beach, California to Ann Arbor, Michigan. Road & Track's editorial quality had been criticized before Webster's arrival. During February 2016 Webster resigned as Editor in Chief and Kim Wolfkill was announced as his replacement.
Car and Driver and Road & Track are sister publications at Hearst and have for many years shared the same advertising, sales and circulation departments. However, their editorial operations are distinct and they have separate publishers. In the Mar/Apr 2019 issue, editor-in-chief Kim Wolfkill announced that the editorial offices in Michigan were closing, that publication was moving to New York at the Hearst office, his LinkedIn profile lists February 2019 as his final date at R&T. Road & Track focuses on both race cars. Former race car drivers have contributed material, including Paul Frère and Formula One champion Phil Hill. Gordon Murray, the designer of the McLaren F1, is one of many contributing writers to be featured in the publication. Like many auto magazines, Road & Track used to publish an annual Ten Best list, but it has not done so in years; the trademark stylized ampersand is the title of a monthly article showcasing the latest developments in future cars and prototypes. Other monthly features include "Road Tests", "Drives" of the latest production cars, "Technology Insights" and "Tech Tidbits".
Engineering Editor Dennis Simanaitis, International Editor Sam Mitani and popular Editor-at-Large Peter Egan used to have monthly columns before most staff were let go when the magazine was moved from California to Michigan. In 2004, Road & Track developed a new magazine concept titled Speed, which focuses on the aftermarket tuning trend. In the February 2006 issue, it was announced that Speed would be a web-based magazine, no longer being printed; the ampersand in the title was created in 1955 by Editor Terry Galanoy who replaced the word "and" in the magazine's name because the words Road and Track were graphically too long for newsstand-effective recognition. Subsequently, this design change has been recognized as one of the major branding and product recognition icons by various major design organizations; the magazine contributed to the 1992 video game, Grand Prix Unlimited, developed by Accolade for MS-DOS. The magazine contributed to the 1994 video game, The Need for Speed, to help the designers match vehicle behavior and sounds to that of the real cars.
Car and Driver Car club Sports car Road & Track official site
A café racer is a lightweight, powerful motorcycle optimized for speed and handling rather than comfort – and for quick rides over short distances. With bodywork and control layout recalling early-1960s Grand Prix road racing motorcycles, café racers are noted for their visual minimalism, featuring low-mounted handlebars, prominent seat cowling and elongated fuel tank – and knee-grips indented in the fuel tank; the term originated among British motorcycle enthusiasts of the early 1960s in London within the Rocker or "Ton-Up Boys" youth subculture, where the bikes were used for short, quick rides between popular cafés, in Watford at the Busy Bee café, the Ace Café in Stonebridge, London. In post-war Britain, car ownership was still uncommon, but by the late 1950s the average Briton could afford a car, so by the early 1960s the café racer's significance was that a bike had come to represent speed and rebellion, rather than mere inability to afford a car. In 2014, journalist Ben Stewart described the café racer as a "look made popular when European kids stripped down their small-displacement bikes to zip from one café hangout to another."
Writing in 1973, Wallace Wyss maintained that the term café racer was used in Europe to describe a "motorcyclist who played at being an Isle of Man road racer" but was "someone who owned a racy machine but parked it near his table at the local outdoor cafe." In addition to light weight, a tuned engine and minimalist bodywork, the café racer features distinctive ergonomics. Dropped bars that are low, narrow handlebars – enabled the rider to "tuck in", reducing wind resistance and improving control. Along with the rearward located seat, the posture required rearsets, or rear-set footrests and foot controls, again typical of racing motorcycles of the era. Distinctive half or full race-style fairings were sometimes mounted to frame. Mick Walker declared that the typical specification of an early café racer would be: swept-back pipes, low-mounted clip-on handlebars or'Ace' bars, reverse cone megaphone mufflers, TT100 Dunlop tires, rear sets, larger carburetors.. The bikes featured minimalist styling.
A typical example was the "Triton", a homemade combination of a Triumph Bonneville engine in a Norton Featherbed frame. A less common hybrid was the "Tribsa". Other hybrids café racers included the "NorVin", bikes with racing frames by Rickman or Seeley. Café racer styling evolved throughout the time of their popularity. By the mid-1970s, Japanese bikes had overtaken British bikes in the marketplace, the look of real Grand Prix racing bikes had changed; the hand-made unpainted aluminium racing fuel tanks of the 1960s had evolved into square, fibreglass tanks. Three-cylinder Kawasaki two-strokes, four-cylinder four-stroke Kawasaki Z1, four-cylinder Honda engines were the basis for café racer conversions. By 1977, a number of manufacturers had taken notice of the café racer boom and were producing factory café racers, such as the well-received Moto Guzzi Le Mans and the Harley-Davidson XLCR. A special version of the Honda XBR thumper with wire-spoked wheels, the Honda GB500 TT, sought to emulate BSA and Norton café racers of the 1960s.
In the mid-1970s, riders continued to modify standard production motorcycles into so-called "café racers" by equipping them with clubman bars and a small fairing around the headlight. A number of European manufacturers, including Benelli, BMW, Bultaco and Derbi produced factory "café" variants of their standard motorcycles in this manner, without any modifications made to make them faster or more powerful, a trend that continues today. Manufacturers have noticed. While this approach was not new to the industry, manufacturers have realised the market appeal of this type of ready-to-ride café racer. During the past decade, over 50% of the larger motorcycle manufacturers have adopted the trend. In 2004, Triumph produced a turn-key retro motorcycle with their Thruxton. Another modern cafe racer is the Ducati SportClassic, made from 2006 till 2009. Current stock café racers from motorcycle factories include: BMW R nineT Racer Ducati Scrambler Café Racer Harley-Davidson XL1200CX Roadster, Métisse Mk5 Moto Guzzi V7 Norton Commando 961 Café Racer Royal Enfield Continental GT 650 Yamaha XSR900 Abarth Ducati Scrambler Cafe Racer Rockers were a young and rebellious rock and roll subculture who wanted a fast and distinctive bike to travel between transport cafés along the newly built arterial motorways in and around British towns and cities.
Biker lore has it that the goal of many was to be able to reach 100 miles per hour —called "the ton"—along such a route where the rider would leave from a café, race to a predetermined point and back to the café before a single song could play on the jukebox, called record-racing. However, author Mike Seate contends that record-racing is a myth, the story having originated in an episode of the BBC Dixon of Dock Green television show. Café racers are remembered as being fond of rockabilly music and their image is now embedded in today's rockabilly culture; the Café Racer sub-culture has created a separate look and identity with modern café racers taking style elements from American Greasers, British Rockers, 70s bikers, modern motorcycle riders to create a global style of their own. 59 Club Ace Cafe London Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling Café racer at the Open Directory Project Classic Motorcycles a
The English wheel, in Britain known as a wheeling machine, is a metalworking tool that enables a craftsperson to form compound curves from flat sheets of metal such as aluminium or steel. The process of using an English wheel is known as wheeling. Panels produced this way are expensive, due to the skilled and labour-intensive production method, but it has the key advantage that it can flexibly produce different panels using the same machine, it is a forming machine that works by surface stretching and is related in action to panel beating processes. It is used. English wheel production is at its highest in low-volume sports car production when more formed aluminium alloy is used. Where high-volume production runs of panels are required, the wheel is replaced by a stamping press that has a much higher capital setup cost and longer development time than using an English wheel, but each panel in the production run can be produced in a matter of seconds; this cost is defrayed across a larger production run, but a stamping press is limited to only one model of panel per set of dies.
The English wheel model shown is manually operated, but when used on thicker sheet metals such as for ship hulls the machine may be powered and much larger than the one shown here. The machine is shaped like a large, closed letter "C". At the ends of the C, there are two wheels; the wheel on the top is called the rolling wheel, while the wheel on the bottom is called the anvil wheel. The anvil wheel has a smaller radius than the rolling wheel. Although larger machines exist, the rolling wheel is 8 cm wide or less, 25 cm in diameter, or less; the rolling wheel is flat in cross section. The depth of the C-shaped frame is called the throat; the largest machines have throat sizes of 120 cm, while smaller machines have throat sizes of about 60 cm. The C is supported by a frame; the throat size determines the largest size of metal sheet that the operator can place in the machine and work easily. On some machines, the operator can turn the top wheel and anvil 90 degrees to the frame to increase the maximum size of the work piece.
Because the machine works by an amount of pressure between the wheels through the material, because that pressure changes as the material becomes thinner, the lower jaw and cradle of the frame that holds the anvil roller is adjustable. It may move with a hydraulic jack on machines designed for steel plate, or a jackscrew on machines designed for sheet metals; as the material thins, the operator must adjust the pressure to compensate. Frame designs are the most significant element of this simple device. For the most part wheels have changed little since the 19th century; the early English machines, such as Edwards, Brown and Ranalah, etc. had cast iron frames. These wheels, made during the 19th Century, had Babbitt metal plain bearings, making them difficult to push and pull the metal through when operated at high pressures; when ball bearings came into use, the machines became more suitable for hard and thick material, such as 1/8” steel. Despite the advantages of cast iron, it has less than half the stiffness of steel and sometimes must be replaced by steel when a stiffer frame is needed.
Steel frames made of solid flame-cut plate, or frames built-up of cut-and-welded plates, are common designs. Steel tubing of square section, has been used for wheeling machine frames during the past 30 years, in the US where sheet metal shaping has become a hobby as well as a business. Tube-framed machines are reasonably-priced and are available either as kit-built machines or can be built from plans; the stiffest tubular frames have a triangulated external bracing truss. They are most effective on softer materials, such as 20 ga steel or.063" aluminum. Cast frame machines, like the one pictured, are still available. A properly equipped machine has an assortment of anvil wheels. Anvil wheels, like dollies used with hammers in panel beating should be used to match the desired crown or curvature of the work piece; the operator of the machine passes the sheet metal between the rolling wheel. This process causes it to become thinner; as the material stretches, it forms a convex surface over the anvil wheel.
This surface is known as "crown". A high crown surface is curved, a low crown surface is curved; the rigidity and strength in the surface of a workpiece is provided by the high crown areas. The radius of the surface, after working, depends on the degree that the metal in the middle of the work piece stretches relative to the edge of the piece. If the middle stretches too much, the operator can recover the shape by wheeling the edge of the piece. Wheeling the edge has the same effect in correcting mis-shape due to over-stretching in the middle, as does shrinking directly on the overstretched area by the use of heat shrinking or Eckold-type shrinking; this is. Shrinking the edge prior to wheeling aids the formation of shape during wheeling, reduces the amount of stretching and thinning needed to reach the final shape. Shrinking processes reduce the surface area by thickenin
Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger, their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982, it has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Headquarters and main production site are in Gaydon, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Avro Vulcan bomber. Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, is branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles and real estate development submarines and aircraft on a licensing basis.
Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure, not the case." Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, the pair decided to make their own vehicles; the first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini. They acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps.
After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914 developed as the Green Pea. 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company; that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business. They renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis.
The only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives. The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump start the production of a new car. Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars", they included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model". Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico, with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers and saloons produced. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers; the "LM" team cars were successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans. Financial problems reappeared in 1932.
Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war. In 1947, old-established owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour, he acquired without its factory Lagonda's business for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines and workshops. Aston Martin began to build the classic "DB" series of cars. In April 1950, they announced planned production of their Le Mans prototype to be called the DB2, followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 MkII in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958. While these models helped Aston Martin establish a good racing pedigree, the DB4 stood out and yielded the famous DB5 in 1963.
Aston stayed true to its grand touring style with the DB6, DBS (1967–1
In automobiles, power steering is a device that helps drivers steer by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel. Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled energy to the steering mechanism, so the driver can provide less effort to turn the steered wheels when driving at typical speeds, reduce the physical effort necessary to turn the wheels when a vehicle is stopped or moving slowly. Power steering can be engineered to provide some artificial feedback of forces acting on the steered wheels. Hydraulic power steering systems for cars augment steering effort via an actuator, a hydraulic cylinder, part of a servo system; these systems have a direct mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the linkage that steers the wheels. This means that power-steering system failure still permits the vehicle to be steered using manual effort alone. Electric power steering systems use electric motors to provide the assistance instead of hydraulic systems; as with hydraulic types, power to the actuator is controlled by the rest of the power-steering system.
Other power steering systems have no direct mechanical connection to the steering linkage. Systems of this kind, with no mechanical connection, are sometimes called "drive by wire" or "steer by wire", by analogy with aviation's "fly-by-wire". In this context, "wire" refers to electrical cables that carry power and data, not thin wire rope mechanical control cables; some construction vehicles have a two-part frame with a rugged hinge in the middle. Opposing hydraulic cylinders move the halves of the frame relative to each other to steer; the first power steering system on an automobile was installed in 1876 by a man with the surname of Fitts, but little else is known about him. The next power steering system was put on a Columbia 5-ton truck in 1903 where a separate electric motor was used to assist the driver in turning the front wheels. Robert E. Twyford, a resident of Pittsburgh, included a mechanical power steering mechanism as part of his patent issued on April 3, 1900 for the first four-wheel drive system.
Francis W. Davis, an engineer of the truck division of Pierce-Arrow, began exploring how steering could be made easier, in 1926 invented and demonstrated the first practical power steering system. Davis moved to General Motors and refined the hydraulic-assisted power steering system, but the automaker calculated it would be too expensive to produce. Davis signed up with Bendix, a parts manufacturer for automakers. Military needs during World War II for easier steering on heavy vehicles boosted the need for power assistance on armored cars and tank-recovery vehicles for the British and American armies. Chrysler Corporation introduced the first commercially available passenger car power steering system on the 1951 Chrysler Imperial under the name "Hydraguide"; the Chrysler system was based on some of Davis' expired patents. General Motors introduced the 1952 Cadillac with a power steering system using the work Davis had done for the company twenty years earlier. Charles F. Hammond from Detroit filed several patents for improvements of power steering with the Canadian Intellectual Property Office in 1958.
Most new vehicles now have power steering, owing to the trends toward front wheel drive, greater vehicle mass, wider tires, which all increase the required steering effort. Heavier vehicles, as are common in some countries, would be difficult to maneuver at low speeds, while vehicles of lighter weight may not need power assisted steering at all. Hydraulic power steering systems work by using a hydraulic system to multiply force applied to the steering wheel inputs to the vehicle's steered road wheels; the hydraulic pressure comes from a gerotor or rotary vane pump driven by the vehicle's engine. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder applies a force to the steering gear, which in turn steers the roadwheels; the steering wheel operates valves to control flow to the cylinder. The more torque the driver applies to the steering wheel and column, the more fluid the valves allow through to the cylinder, so the more force is applied to steer the wheels. One design for measuring the torque applied to the steering wheel has a torque sensor – a torsion bar at the lower end of the steering column.
As the steering wheel rotates, so does the steering column, as well as the upper end of the torsion bar. Since the torsion bar is thin and flexible, the bottom end resists being rotated, the bar will twist by an amount proportional to the applied torque; the difference in position between the opposite ends of the torsion bar controls a valve. The valve allows fluid to flow to the cylinder. Since the hydraulic pumps are positive-displacement type, the flow rate they deliver is directly proportional to the speed of the engine; this means that at high engine speeds the steering would operate faster than at low engine speeds. Because this would be undesirable, a restricting orifice and flow-control valve direct some of the pump's output back to the hydraulic reservoir at high engine speeds. A pressure relief valve prevents a dangerous build-up of pressure when the hydraulic cylinder's piston reaches the end of its stroke; the steering booster is arranged so that should the booster fail, the steering will continue to work.
Loss of power steering can affect the handling of a vehicle. Each vehicle owner's manual gives instr
Automotive industry in the United Kingdom
The automotive industry in the United Kingdom is now best known for premium and sports car marques including Aston Martin, Caterham Cars, Jaguar, Land Rover, Lister Cars, Lotus, McLaren, MG, Mini and Rolls-Royce. Volume car manufacturers with a major presence in the UK include Honda, Nissan and Vauxhall Motors. Commercial vehicle manufacturers active in the UK include Alexander Dennis, Ford, IBC Vehicles, Leyland Trucks and London EV Company. In 2008 the UK automotive manufacturing sector had a turnover of £52.5 billion, generated £26.6 billion of exports and produced around 1.45 million passenger vehicles and 203,000 commercial vehicles. In that year around 180,000 people were directly employed in automotive manufacturing in the UK, with a further 640,000 people employed in automotive supply and servicing; this declined to 147,000 including supply industry in 2014 The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing and in 2008 around 3.16 million engines were produced in the country. The UK has a significant presence in auto racing and the UK motorsport industry employs around 38,500 people, comprises around 4,500 companies and has an annual turnover of around £6 billion.
The origins of the UK automotive industry date back to the final years of the 19th century. By the 1950s the UK was the second-largest manufacturer of cars in the world and the largest exporter. However, in subsequent decades the industry experienced lower growth than competitor nations such as France and Japan and by 2008 the UK was the 12th-largest producer of cars measured by volume. Since the early 1990s many British car marques have been acquired by foreign companies including BMW, SAIC, Tata and Volkswagen Group. Rights to many dormant marques, including Austin, Riley and Triumph, are owned by foreign companies. Famous and iconic British cars include the Aston Martin DB5, Aston Martin V8 Vantage, Bentley 4½ Litre, Jaguar E-Type, Land Rover Defender, Lotus Esprit, McLaren F1, MGB, original two-door Mini, Range Rover, Rolls-Royce Phantom III and Rover P5. Notable British car designers include David Bache, Laurence Pomeroy, John Polwhele Blatchley, Ian Callum, Colin Chapman, Alec Issigonis, Charles Spencer King and Gordon Murray.
Motorcars came into use on British roads during the early 1890s, but relied on imported vehicles. The inception of the British motor industry can be traced back to the late 1880s, when Frederick Simms, a London-based consulting engineer, became friends with Gottlieb Daimler, who had, in 1885, patented a successful design for a high-speed petrol engine. Simms acquired the British rights to Daimler's engine and associated patents and from 1891 sold launches using these Cannstatt-made motors from Eel Pie Island in the Thames. In 1893 he formed The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited for his various Daimler-related enterprises. In June 1895 Simms and his friend Evelyn Ellis promoted motorcars in the United Kingdom by bringing a Daimler-engined Panhard & Levassor to England and in July it completed, without police intervention, the first British long-distance motorcar journey from Southampton to Malvern. Simms' documented plans to manufacture Daimler motors and Daimler Motor Carriages were taken over, together with his company and its Daimler licences, by London company-promoter H J Lawson.
Lawson contracted to buy The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited and all its rights and on 14 January 1896 formed and in February floated in London The Daimler Motor Company Limited. It purchased from a friend of Lawson a disused cotton mill in Coventry for car engine and chassis manufacture where, it is claimed, the UK's first serial production car was made; the claim for the first all-British motor car is contested, but George Lanchester's first cars of 1895 and 1896 did include French and German components. In 1891 Richard Stephens, a mining engineer from South Wales, returned from a commission in Michigan to establish a bicycle works in Clevedon, Somerset. Whilst in America he had seen the developments in motive power and by 1897 he had produced his first car; this was of his own design and manufacture, including the two-cylinder engine, apart from the wheels which he bought from Starley in Coventry. This was the first all-British car and Stephens set up a production line, manufacturing in all, twelve vehicles, including four- and six-seater cars and hackneys, nine-seater buses.
Early motor vehicle development in the UK had been stopped by a series of Locomotive Acts introduced during the 19th century which restricted the use of mechanically propelled vehicles on the public highways. Following intense advocacy by motor vehicle enthusiasts, including Harry J. Lawson of Daimler, the worst restrictions of these acts, was lifted by the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896. Under this regulation, light locomotives were exempt from the previous restrictions, a higher speed limit – 14 mph was set for them. To celebrate the new freedoms Lawson organised the Emancipation Run held on 14 November 1896, the day the new Act came into force; this occasion has been commemorated since 1927 by the annual London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. The early British vehicles of the late 19th century relied upon developments from Germany and France. By 1900 however, the first all-British 4-wheel car had been designed and built by Herb