A coxless pair is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for two rowers; the crew consists of a pair of rowers, each having one oar, one on the stroke side and one on the bow side. As the name suggests, there is no coxswain on such a boat, the two rowers must co-ordinate steering and the proper timing of oar strokes between themselves or by means of a steering installation, operated by foot from one of the rowers; the equivalent boat when it is steered by a cox is referred to as a "coxed pair". Racing boats are long and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Made from wood, shells are now always made from a composite material for strength and weight advantages. Pairs have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent yaw; the riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. A coxless pair is considered the most difficult boat to row, as each rower must balance his/her side in cooperation with the other, apply equal power, place their catch and extract the blade in order to move the boat efficiently.
It requires excellent technique and experience. "Coxless pair" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation and is competed in the Olympic Games. Rowing at the Summer Olympics World Rowing Championships Silver Goblets & Nickalls' Challenge Cup
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
Sheila Philip Cochrane Burnford née Every was a British Canadian writer. Born in Scotland and brought up in various parts of the United Kingdom, she attended St. George's School and Harrogate Ladies College, she attended schools in France and Germany. In 1941 she married Dr. David Burnford. During World War II she worked as a volunteer ambulance driver. In 1951 she emigrated to Canada, settling in Ontario. Burnford is best remembered for The Incredible Journey, published by Hodder & Stoughton with illustrations by Carl Burger in 1960; the story of three animal pets traveling in the wilderness won the Canadian Library Association Book of the Year for Children Award in 1963 and the ALA Aurianne Award in 1963 as the best book on animal life written for children ages 8–14. It is marketed for children but Burnford has stated that it was not intended as a children's book, it was a modest success commercially and became a bestseller after release of the 1963 Disney film, The Incredible Journey. Another book, Bel Ria, about a dog's survival in wartime, was based on her own experiences as an ambulance driver.
Burnford wrote other books on Canadian topics, including One Woman's Arctic about her two summers in Pond Inlet, Nunavut on Baffin Island with Susan Ross. She traveled by komatik, a traditional Inuit dog sled, assisted in archaeological excavation, having to thaw the land inch by inch, ate everything offered to her, saw the migration of the narwhals, she died of cancer in the village of Bucklers Hard in Hampshire at the age of 65. The Incredible Journey, illustrated by Carl Burger. Susan Ross One Woman's Arctic Mr. Noah and the Second Flood, illus. Michael Foreman Bel Ria. WorldCat records show four of Burnford's books published in the US as Atlantic Monthly Press books an imprint of Little, Brown. W. H. New, ed. Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002: 166. Sheila Burnford at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Sheila Every Burnford at Library of Congress Authorities, with 14 catalogue records
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona, it marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city, bidding to host those Games. To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler had a new 100,000-seat track and field stadium built, as well as six gymnasiums and many other smaller arenas; the games were the first to be televised, radio broadcasts reached 41 countries. Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million, her film, titled Olympia, pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports. Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy and antisemitism, the official Nazi party paper, the Völkischer Beobachter, wrote in the strongest terms that Jews should not be allowed to participate in the Games.
When threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, Hitler appeared to allow athletes of other ethnicities from other countries to participate. However, German Jewish athletes were barred or prevented from taking part by a variety of methods and Jewish athletes from other countries seem to have been side-lined in order not to offend the Nazi regime. Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million ℛℳ. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin or outlays of the German national government. Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events and became the most successful athlete to compete in Berlin while the host country was the most successful country overall with 89 medals total, with the United States coming in second with 56 medals; these were the final Olympics under the presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour and the final Olympic Games for 12 years due to the disruption of the Second World War. The next Olympic Games were held in 1948.
The bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting votes for their own favorite host cities. The vote occurred in 1931, during the final years of the Weimar Republic, two years before Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power in 1933. Many other cities around the world wanted to host the Summer Olympics for that year, but except for Barcelona they did not receive any IOC votes; the other cities competing to hold the games were Alexandria, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Helsinki, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro and Rome. Helsinki, Rome and Rio de Janeiro would go on to host the Olympic Games in 1952, 1960, 1992 and 2016, respectively; the selection procedure marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city, bidding to host those Games. The only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Athens and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, respectively. After the Nazis took control and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, the IOC held private discussions among its delegates about changing the decision to hold the Games in Berlin.
However, Hitler's regime gave assurances that Jewish athletes would be allowed to compete on a German Olympic team. Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organisation of the Olympics. He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he believed that sports was a "way to weed out the weak and other undesirables". Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organisation of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem, the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office. Among Diem's ideas for the Berlin Games was the introduction of the Olympic torch relay between Greece and the host nation; the 1936 Summer Olympics torch relay was the first of its kind, following on from the reintroduction of the Olympic Flame at the 1928 Games.
It pioneered the modern convention of moving the flame via a relay system from Greece to the Olympic venue. Leni Riefenstahl filmed the relay for the 1938 film Olympia; the sportive, knightly battle awakens the best human characteristics. It unites the combatants in understanding and respect, it helps to connect the countries in the spirit of peace. That's; the games were the first to have live television coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over 70 hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station, they used three different types of TV cameras, so blackouts would occur when changing from one type to another. The 1936 Olympic village is located at Elstal on the western edge of Berlin; the site, 30 kilometres from the centre of the city, consisted of one and two-floor dormitories, a large dining hall, Dining Hall of the Nations, a swimming facility, gymnasium and other training facilities.
Its layout was designed and cons
Jesus College, Cambridge
Jesus College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college's full name is The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint John the Evangelist and the glorious Virgin Saint Radegund, near Cambridge, its common name comes from the name of its Jesus Chapel. Jesus College was established between 1496 and 1516 on the site of the twelfth-century Benedictine nunnery of St Mary and St Radegund by John Alcock Bishop of Ely; the cockerel is the symbol of Jesus College, after the surname of its founder. Three members of Jesus College have received a Nobel Prize. Two fellows of the college have been appointed to the International Court of Justice. Notable alumni include Thomas Cranmer, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Reid, Lord Toulson, Sir Rupert Jackson, Sir David Hare, Sir Roger Scruton, Nick Hornby. Jesus College has assets of £243m making it Cambridge’s third-wealthiest college; the college is known for its expansive grounds which include its sporting fields and for its close proximity to its boathouse.
Ian White, current van Eck Professor of Engineering in the university, has been master of Jesus College since 2011. When founded in 1496, the College consisted of buildings taken over from the Nunnery of St Mary and St Radegund, founded at the beginning of the 12th century; the Benedictine Convent, upon dissolution, included the cloister attached to it. This set of buildings remains the core of the college to this day and this accounts for its distinctly monastic architectural style, which sets it apart from other Cambridge colleges. A library was soon added, the chapel was modified and reduced in scale by Alcock. At its foundation, the college had six fellows and six scholars. Jesus College admits undergraduate and graduates students to all subjects at the university though accepts a larger number of students for engineering, law, natural sciences, economics, history and human, social and political sciences; the college offers a wide range of scholarships. The college performs well in the informal Tompkins Table, which ranks Cambridge colleges by undergraduate results.
Along with students from Trinity, King's, Christ's and St John's, students of the college have been members of the Cambridge Apostles. The main entrance to Jesus College is a walled passage known as the "Chimney"; the term is derived the Middle French word chemin, for "path" or "way". The Chimney leads directly to the Porter's Lodge and into First Court. All the courts at the college, with the exception of the cloister, are open on at least one side; the Quincentenary Library is open 24 hours a day. The library was designed by Eldred Evans and David Shalev in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the foundation of the college in 1996. Completion of the library was shortly followed by a new accommodation building in 2000, now known as Library Court; the Quincentenary Library has a large law collection, housed in a law library on the ground floor. The Old Library was in regular use until 1912, it still is available to private researchers upon appointment. The Old Library includes the Malthus Collection, being the family collection of alumnus Thomas Malthus.
Jesus College has large sporting grounds all on-site. These include football, cricket, squash and hockey pitches; the Jesus College Boat House is only 400 yards away, across Midsummer Common. The college hosts exhibitions of sculpture by contemporary artists, it has hosted work by Sir Antony Gormley, Sir Eduardo Paolozzi, Barry Flanagan. The college grounds include a nature trail, inspired by poetry composed by Samuel Taylor Coleridge during his time as a student. Jesus College is one of the few colleges to allow anyone to walk on the lawns of its courts, with the exception of First Court, Cloister Court and those that are burial sites for deceased nuns from the original nunnery. In common with other Cambridge colleges, this privilege is only extended during Easter term; the College Chapel was founded in 1157 and took until 1245 to complete, is believed to be the oldest university building in Cambridge still in use. It was the Benedictine Convent of St Mary and St Radegund, dissolved by Bishop John Alcock.
The original structure of the chapel was cruciform in shape and the nave had both north and south aisles. A high, pitched roof was surmounted by a steeple; the chapel was used as the parish church of St Radegund. Twice the chapel was ravaged by fire, in 1313 and 1376; when the College took over the precincts during the 15th century, the parish was renamed after the College as Jesus parish, with the churchyard still being used for burials. This, was short lived, as by the middle of the 16th century Jesus parish was absorbed into that of All Saints. Significant alterations were carried out to the church under Alcock, transforming the cathedral-sized church, the largest in Cambridge into a College chapel for a small group of scholars. A large part of the original nave was replaced by College rooms, subsequently part of the Master's Lodge; the misericords were created by the famous English architect Augustus Pugin between 1849 and 1853. Pugin used fragments of the misericords dating from 1500, preserved in the Master's Lodge as templates.
Repairs were undertaken by George Fr
Cambridge University Boat Club
The Cambridge University Boat Club is one of the rowing clubs of the University of Cambridge, England. The club was founded in 1828 and has been located at the Goldie Boathouse on the River Cam, Cambridge since 1882. Nowadays, training takes place on the River Great Ouse at Ely; the prime constitutional aim of CUBC is to beat Oxford University Boat Club in the annual Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. CUBC lead OUBC in the series by 83 races to 80, with 1 dead heat in The Boat Race 1877; the inaugural meeting of Cambridge University Boat Club took place at Gonville and Caius College on 9 December 1828. Following this meeting, it was agreed that a challenge be sent to the University of Oxford to organise a race between representatives of the two universities. A letter was sent to Oxford in which they were challenged "to row a match at or near London, each in an eight-oared boat during the ensuing Easter vacation"; the first Boat Race took place at Henley-on-Thames in June 1829. CUBC was one of five clubs which retained the right until 2012 to appoint representatives to the Council of British Rowing.
The others were Leander Club, London Rowing Club, Thames Rowing Club and Oxford University Boat Club. CUBC has produced numerous Olympic-level rowers in its history. During the Boat Race period both the Blue Boat and Goldie crews boat from King's College School's Boat House on the Putney embankment. Notes Bibliography Dodd, Christopher; the Oxford & Cambridge Boat Race. Stanley Paul. ISBN 978-0-09-151340-5. CUBC website
The Boat Race
The Boat Race is an annual rowing race between the Cambridge University Boat Club and the Oxford University Boat Club, rowed between men's and women's open-weight eights on the River Thames in London, England. It is known as the University Boat Race and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race; the men's race was first held in 1829 and has been held annually since 1856, except during the First and Second World Wars. The first women's event was in 1927 and the race has been held annually since 1964. Since 2015, the women's race has taken place on the same day and course, since 2018 the combined event of the two races has been referred to as "The Boat Race". In the 2019 race, which took place on Sunday 7 April 2019, Cambridge won the men's and women's races as well as both reserve races; the course covers a 4.2-mile stretch of the Thames from Putney to Mortlake. Members of both teams are traditionally known as blues and each boat as a "Blue Boat", with Cambridge in light blue and Oxford in dark blue.
As of 2019, Cambridge has won the men's race 84 times and Oxford 80 times, with one dead heat. Cambridge has led Oxford in cumulative wins since 1930. In the women's race, Cambridge have won the race 44 times and Oxford 30 times. Cambridge has led Oxford in cumulative wins since 1966. A reserve boat race has been held since 1966 for the women. Over 250,000 people watch the race from the banks of the river each year. In 2009, a record 270,000 people watched. A further 15 million or more watch it on television; the tradition was started in 1829 by Charles Merivale, a student at St John's College and his Old Harrovian school friend Charles Wordsworth, studying at Christ Church, Oxford. The University of Cambridge challenged the University of Oxford to a race at Henley-on-Thames but lost easily. Oxford raced in dark blue because five members of the crew, including the stroke, were from Christ Church Head of the River, whose colours were dark blue. There is a dispute as to the source of the colour chosen by Cambridge.
The second race was with the venue moved to a course from Westminster to Putney. Over the next two years, there was disagreement over where the race should be held, with Oxford preferring Henley and Cambridge preferring London. Following the official formation of the Oxford University Boat Club, racing between the two universities resumed in 1839 on the Tideway and the tradition continues to the present day, with the loser challenging the winner to a rematch annually; the race in 1877 was declared a dead heat. Both crews finished in a time of 8 seconds in bad weather; the verdict of the race judge, John Phelps, is considered suspect because he was over 70 and blind in one eye. Rowing historian Tim Koch, writing in the official 2014 Boat Race Programme, notes that there is "a big and entrenched lie" about the race, including the claim that Phelps had announced "Dead heat... to Oxford by six feet". Phelps's nickname "Honest John" was not an ironic one, he was not drunk under a bush at the time of the finish.
He did have to judge. Some newspapers had believed Oxford won a narrow victory but their viewpoint was from downstream. With no clear way to determine who had surged forward at the exact finish line, Phelps could only pronounce it a dead heat. Koch believes that the press and Oxford supporters made up the stories about Phelps which Phelps had no chance to refute. Oxford disabled, were making effort after effort to hold their waning lead, while Cambridge, curiously enough, had settled together again, were rowing as one man, were putting on a magnificent spurt at 40 strokes to the minute, with a view of catching their opponents before reaching the winning-post, thus struggling over the remaining portion of the course, the two eights raced past the flag alongside one another, the gun fired amid a scene of excitement equalled and never exceeded. Cheers for one crew were succeeded by counter-cheers for the other, it was impossible to tell what the result was until the Press boat backed down to the Judge and inquired the issue.
John Phelps, the waterman, who officiated, replied that the noses of the boats passed the post level, that the result was a dead heat. In 1959 some of the existing Oxford blues attempted to oust president Ronnie Howard and coach Jumbo Edwards. However, their attempt failed. Three of the dissidents returned and Oxford went on to win by six lengths. Following defeat in the previous year's race, Oxford's first in eleven years, American Chris Clark was determined to gain revenge: "Next year we're gonna kick ass... Cambridge's ass. If I have to go home and bring the whole US squad with me." He recruited another four American post-graduates: three international-class rowers and a cox, in an attempt to put together the fastest Boat Race crew in the history of the contest. Disagreements over the training regime of Dan Topolski, the Oxford coach, led to the crew walking out on at least one occasion, resulted in the coach revising his approach. A fitness test between Clark and club president Donald Macdonald resulted in a call for Macdonald's removal.