R. J. Rushdoony
Rousas John Rushdoony was a Calvinist philosopher and theologian and is credited as being the father of Christian Reconstructionism and an inspiration for the modern Christian homeschool movement. His followers and critics have argued that his thought exerts considerable influence on the evangelical Christian right. Rushdoony was born in New York City, the son of arrived Armenian immigrants. Before his parents fled the Armenian Genocide of 1915, his ancestors had lived in a remote area near Mount Ararat. There are claims that since the year 320, every generation of the Rushdoony family has produced a Christian priest or minister. Rushdoony himself claimed that his ancestors "…would perpetually give a member of their family to be a priest to perform a kind of Aaronic priesthood as in the Old Testament, an hereditary priesthood. Whoever in the family felt, and our family did so. So from the early 300's until now there has always been someone in the ministry in the family."Within weeks of arriving in America, his parents moved to the small farming community of Kingsburg, California, in Fresno County, where a number of other Armenian families had relocated.
There his father, Yegheazar Khachig Rushdoony, founded Armenian Martyrs Presbyterian. Rousas learned to read English by poring over the family's King James Bible: "By the time I reached my teens I had read the Bible through from cover to cover and over and over again"; the family moved in 1925 for a short time to Detroit, where his father pastored another Armenian church. They returned to Kingsburg in 1931 and Rousas completed school in California, his father was pastor of Bethel Armenian Presbyterian Church in San Francisco in 1942. Rousas had a younger sister and brother, Haig, his father died in Fresno in 1961. Rushdoony attended public schools where he learned English, though Armenian was the language spoken at home, he continued his education at the University of California, where he earned a B. A. in English in 1938, a teaching credential in 1939 and an M. A. in Education in 1940. Rushdoony and Arda Gent married in San Francisco the week before Christmas, 1943. Rushdoony went on to the Pacific School of Religion, a Congregational and Methodist seminary in Berkeley, from which he graduated in 1944.
Through letters over the years he kept up his friendship with his Pacific School of Religion mentor, theology professor George Huntston Williams, who saw in him the "heir of a great national Christian heritage" who would "enunciate anew the Gospel which seems to have been forgotten for a season." In 1944 he was ordained by the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. He was awarded an honorary Ph. D. from Valley Christian University for his book, The Philosophy of the Christian Curriculum. Gary North stated that Rushdoony read at least one book a day, six days a week, for fifty years of his life, underlining sentences and making an index of its main ideas in the rear. Rushdoony and his wife Arda served for eight and a half years as missionaries to the Shoshone and Paiute Indians on the remote Duck Valley Indian Reservation in northern Nevada, they lived in Owyhee. It was during their mission to the Native Americans. Arda taught at the reservation school and at Sunday school, led a Girl Scout troop, coached the girls' basketball team, visited with families.
In 1945 they adopted an orphaned baby from the reservation. Between 1947 and 1952 in Owyhee, four daughters were born to them. In late 1952 Rushdoony took a Presbyterian Church pastorate at Trinity Presbyterian Church in Santa Cruz and the family left Duck Valley in January 1953, their son Mark was born the next month in Santa Cruz. In Santa Cruz, Rushdoony became a reader of the Christian libertarian magazine Faith and Freedom, which advocated an "anti-tax, non-interventionist, anti-statist economic model" in opposition to Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. Faith and Freedom's views on government aligned with Rushdoony's fears of centralized government power, given the Rushdoony family's memories of the Armenian Genocide. Rushdoony contributed articles to Faith and Freedom, including one describing his observations of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation, arguing that government support had reduced residents to "social and personal irresponsibility"; the Rushdoonys separated in 1957 and divorced.
About this time, Rushdoony transferred his church membership from the Presbyterian Church to the Orthodox Presbyterian denomination. The Orthodox Presbyterian Church's newsletter, The Presbyterian Guardian, reported in July 1958 that "the Rev. Rousas J. Rushdoony… was received and a new Orthodox Presbyterian Church organized, consisting of who had separated from the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. in Santa Cruz." In their petition the group asked that Rushdoony be ordained as their pastor and stated, "e cannot abide in any church which seeks to define righteousness or sin, salvation or sanctification, except in terms of the Word of God. We have witnessed, here in Santa Cruz, against modernism, man-made perfectionism, church bureaucracy"; the newsletter article goes on to report, "The Presbytery in receiving the church examined Mr. Thomas Kirkwood and Mr. Kenneth Webb as prospective elders, they with Mr. Rushdoony were constituted the session of the church," and announced the publication of Rushdoony's By What Standard?
That year. The May 1962 edition of The Presbyterian Guardian reported Rushdoony's resignation, noted as "reportedly to devote his time for his writing and lecturing." Rushdoony married his second wife, Dorothy Barbara Ross Kirkwood, in 1962. She die
James B. Jordan
James Burrell Jordan is an American Protestant theologian and author. He is the director of Biblical Horizons ministries, an organisation in Niceville, Florida that publishes books and other media dealing with Bible commentary, Biblical theology, liturgy, it adheres to biblical absolutism including Young Earth Creationism and is committed to the concept of biblical theocracy. Jordan was born in Georgia. After public school, Jordan attended the University of Georgia, where he received a B. A. in comparative literature. While in college, he participated in the Campus Crusade for Young Americans for Freedom, he served as a military historian in the United States Air Force and attended Reformed Theological Seminary in Jackson, before earning an M. A. and Th. M. from Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His master's thesis was on slavery in the Bible. In 1993, Jordan received a D. Litt. from the Central School of Religion for his dissertation on the dietary laws of Moses. After his 1982 ordination in the Association of Reformed Churches, Jordan served for five years alongside Ray Sutton as associate pastor of Westminster Presbyterian Church, in Tyler, Texas.
He was the director of Geneva Ministries and Geneva Divinity School. Since 1988, Jordan has carried out his teaching and writing work full-time through Biblical Horizons, a Niceville, Florida-based research and publishing ministry. Biblical Horizons emphasizes the Trinity and biblical absolutism with a covenant-historical approach to interpretation and a focus on biblical theocracy and worship. Jordan has served since 2000 as head of the Department of Biblical Studies at the Biblical Theological Seminary, St. Petersburg, where he teaches Old Testament and Eschatology. In 2011, Wipf and Stock published a Festschrift in Jordan's honor. Glory of Kings: A Festschrift in Honor of James B. Jordan was edited by Peter J. Leithart, included contributions from Rich Lusk, Douglas Wilson and John Frame. Bill DeJong characterizes Jordan's approach to biblical hermeneutics as "pastoral typology" - that is, seeing biblical typology as pointing not just to the work of Christ, but to Christian worship. Jordan has written many articles and books, including: James B. Jordan and Gary North, eds..
Symposium on the Failure of the American Baptist Culture. Geneva Divinity School. ISBN 0-939404-04-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list James B. Jordan; the Law of the Covenant: An Exposition of Exodus 21–23. Institute for Christian Economics. ISBN 978-0-930464-02-8. James B. Jordan. Judges: A Practical and Theological Commentary. A reissuing of Judges: God’s War Against Humanism. Wipf & Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57910-249-4. Retrieved 2007-04-02. James B. Jordan, ed.. The Reconstruction of the Church. Geneva Ministries. ISBN 0939404117. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list James B. Jordan; the Sociology of the Church: Essays in Reconstruction. Wipf & Stock. ISBN 978-1-57910-248-7. Retrieved 2007-04-02. Gary North and James B. Jordan. Healer of the Nations: Biblical Blueprints for International Relations. Dominion Press. ISBN 978-0-930462-21-5. Retrieved 2008-10-13. James B. Jordan. Through New Eyes. Wipf & Stock. P. 360. ISBN 978-1-57910-259-3. Retrieved 2007-04-02. James B. Jordan. Covenant Sequence in Leviticus and Deuteronomy: Literary Order or Chaos?.
Institute for Christian Economics. ISBN 0-930464-22-2. John Calvin. Covenant Enforced: Sermons on Deuteronomy 27 and 28. Institute for Christian Economics. ISBN 0-930464-33-8. James B. Jordan; the liturgy trap: The Bible versus mere tradition in worship. Transfiguration Press. P. 98. ISBN 978-1-883690-04-5. James B. Jordan. Creation in Six Days: A Defense of the Traditional Reading of Genesis One. Canon Press. P. 272. ISBN 978-1-885767-62-2. A defense of Young Earth creationism against the framework interpretation of Genesis 1. James B. Jordan. Primeval Saints: Studies in the Patriarchs of Genesis. Canon Press. P. 160. ISBN 978-1-885767-86-8. James B. Jordan; the Handwriting on the Wall: A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. American Vision. P. 733. ISBN 978-0-915815-63-0. James B. Jordan; the Vindication of Jesus Christ. Athanasius Press. P. 96. ISBN 978-0-9753914-8-8. James B. Jordan. Crisis and the Christian Future. Athanasius Press. P. 62. ISBN 978-0-9842439-1-4. Biblical Horizons – official website Articles by Jordan Audio of lectures and sermons by Jordan
Presuppositionalism is a school of Christian apologetics that believes the Christian faith is the only basis for rational thought. It attempts to expose flaws in other worldviews, it claims that apart from presuppositions, one could not make sense of any human experience, there can be no set of neutral assumptions from which to reason with a non-Christian. Presuppositionalists claim that a Christian cannot declare his belief in the necessary existence of the God of the Bible and argue on the basis of a different set of assumptions that God may not exist and Biblical revelation may not be true. Two schools of presuppositionalism exist, based on the different teachings of Cornelius Van Til and Gordon Haddon Clark. Presuppositionalism contrasts with evidential apologetics. Presuppositionalists compare their presupposition against other ultimate standards such as reason, empirical experience, subjective feeling, claiming presupposition in this context is: a belief that takes precedence over another and therefore serves as a criterion for another.
An ultimate presupposition is a belief over. For a Christian, the content of Scripture must serve as his ultimate presupposition… This doctrine is the outworking of the lordship of God in the area of human thought, it applies the doctrine of scriptural infallibility to the realm of knowing. Critics of presuppositional apologetics claim that it is logically invalid because it begs the question of the truth of Christianity and the non-truth of other worldviews. Presuppositionalists contrast their approach with the other schools of Christian apologetics by describing the others as assuming that the world is unintelligible apart from belief in the existence of God and arguing on purportedly neutral grounds to support trusting the Christian Scriptures and the existence of God. Presuppositionalists describe Thomistic apologetics as concentrating on the first aspect of apologetics with its logical proofs for the existence of God assuming common ground with the non-Christian and utilizing a piece-by-piece methodology.
In this scheme, the common foundation of neutral brute facts leads to a generic concept of deity to the various characteristics of the Christian God as revealed in Scripture, so forth. Piece-by-piece, Christian theology is built up from a neutral common ground. Presuppositionalists assert that many of the classical arguments are logically fallacious, or do not prove enough, when used as arguments to prove the existence or character of God, they criticize both the assumption of neutrality and the "block house" or "piecemeal" method for failing to start at the level of the controlling beliefs of worldviews and implicitly allowing non-Christian assumptions from the start, thereby trying to build a Christian "house" on a non-Christian "foundation". Evidentialists demur from this assessment, claiming that presuppositionalism amounts to fideism because it rejects the idea of shared points of reference between the Christian and non-Christian from which they may reason in common; the conclusion of evidential apologetics is that the Bible's historical accounts and other truth-claims are more true than false, thus the whole of scriptural revelation may be rationally accepted, where we can't approach absolute certainty we must accept the explanations most to be true.
The goal of presuppositional apologetics, on the other hand, is to argue that the assumptions and actions of non-Christians require them to believe certain things about God and the world which they claim not to believe. This type of argument is technically called a reductio ad absurdum in that it attempts to reduce the opposition to holding an absurd, i.e. self-contradictory position. So, in essence, evidential apologetics attempts to build upon a shared acceptance of self-evident or worldview-neutral facts, while presuppositional apologetics attempts to claim all facts for the Calvinistic Christian worldview as the only framework in which they are intelligible; the modern origins of presuppositional apologetics are in the work of Dutch theologian Cornelius Van Til, a member of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church, who began to adopt a presuppositional approach to defending the truth of his faith as early as the late 1920s. Van Til disliked the term "presuppositional", as he felt it misrepresented his approach to apologetics, which he felt was focused on the preeminence of the Bible as the ultimate criterion for truth, rather than denying or ignoring evidence.
He did, accept the label reluctantly, given that it was a useful way of distinguishing between those who deny a neutral basis for apologetics and those who do not. His student, Greg Bahnsen, aided in some of the developments of Van Tillian Presuppositionalism, the Bahnsen Theological Seminary continues to promote presuppositional apologetics in its curriculum. John Frame, another student of Van Til continues to advocate a presuppositional approach, although he is more critical of Van Til's thought than Bahnsen was. Bahnsen's protégé, Michael R. Butler, has been active in advancing the field. Among his contributions is a technical, metalogical study of transcendental arguments in general and the Transcendental argument for the existence of God in particular, which he wrote for Bahnsen's festschrift. By 1952, presuppositional apologetics had acquired a new advocate in the Presbyterian theologian Gordon Clark, he embraced the label "presuppositional" since his approach to apologetics, emphasizing the p
The Sacramento Union
The Sacramento Union was a daily newspaper founded in 1851 in Sacramento, California. It was the oldest daily newspaper west of the Mississippi River before it closed its doors after 143 years in January 1994, no longer able to compete with The Sacramento Bee, founded in 1857, just six years after the Union; the birth of this storied newspaper institution began 156 years ago, when the city of Sacramento was in its infancy. Under the direction of its first editor, Dr. John F. Morse, who had attracted proprietors through letters to the New Orleans Delta and well-known literary attainments, The Union was printed as The Daily Union on Wednesday, March 19, 1851. Upon the front page of this 23-inch by 34-inch paper, Morse addressed the readers of The Union, committing to “publish the first news in the best style and at the lowest prices” and “to have an efficient correspondent in every important town and mining region in the state.” The paper had evolved through the efforts of four Sacramento Transcript printers.
The printers had introduced the idea of The Union's creation a year earlier, due to their frustrations with a labor dispute between the Transcript and the Placer Times, which were the city’s first two newspapers. The battle between these two newspapers became so fierce that the papers sold advertising space for below the cost of composition for the mere purpose of undercutting their competition. Opening its operation at its 21 J St. headquarters, The Union endured competitive times during its early years, when it was one of about 60 Sacramento newspapers. Sacramento's status as a newspaper town, was short-lived, as all but two newspapers failed, leading to the Union's famous slogan, “The Oldest Daily in the West”; the Union's early years are recognized for their famous contributors, who included Mark Twain, Bret Harte and Dan De Quille. The Daily Union evolved quite as a leading newspaper, as its initial circulation of 500 was soon afterward expanded with an wider circulation and the daily publication was joined by the semi-monthly Steamer Union for Atlantic states and European readers, the Weekly Union, the semi-annual Pictorial Union, which featured drawings of towns and other scenes of the era.
The Union, referred to as the “Miners’ Bible” during its early years, passed a major test when it overcame a great fire on November 2, 1852, continued printing on a small press, saved from the flames. A brick building, which still stands today, was constructed at 121 J Street to replace the paper’s original building. In 1852, Thomas Gardiner, one of the founders of the Los Angeles Times, was publisher of the Union. On November 17, 1858, The Union became the first California newspaper to issue a double-sheet daily; the publication was recognized as the largest double-sheet daily in the nation. The Sacramento Publishing Co. purchased the Sacramento Daily Union, as it was known, the Daily Record in 1875, merged them into one newspaper, calling it the Sacramento Daily Record-Union – a name, dropped. The Missouri-born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his nom de plume of Mark Twain, is remembered most for his contributions to The Union; this point was evident through the large bronze bust of Twain, which sat just west of the State Capitol in the lobby of The Union’s latter building at 301 Capitol Mall.
Inscribed on the bust were Twain’s words: “Early in 1866, George Barnes invited me to resign my reportership on his paper, the San Francisco Morning Call, for some months thereafter, I was without money or work. The proprietors of the Sacramento Union, a great and influential daily journal, sent me to the Sandwich Islands to write four letters a month at twenty dollars a piece. I was there for four or five months, returned to find myself about the best known man on the Pacific Coast.” Twain dispatched a series of articles on Hawaii for The Union in 1866. These were popular, many historians credit the series with turning Twain into a journalistic star; because many people thought that Twain wrote in The Union building, whenever The Union was struggling financially during the turn of the 20th century, the owners would drag out an old desk and sell it for a princely sum as "the desk where Mark Twain sat." Said Charlotte Gilmore, former head of The Union's “morgue” or bound volumes collection, the original Twain articles were cut out and stolen from The Union's bound volumes during the 1970s.
“Sometime after I left in the summer of 1971, it happened,” Gilmore said. “It’s a disappointing situation, but at least the articles were photographed before this happened.” The Union's bound volumes, as well as the bronze bust of Twain, are now in the possession of the Shields Library at UC Davis, having been donated by the Danel and Reboin families, owners of the Herald Printing Co. The Twain articles can be viewed on microfilm at the Sacramento Public Library’s central location at 828 I St. In 1966, the paper was purchased by Copley Press, which brought in millions of dollars that resulted in improvements such as the 1967 construction of the publication’s Capitol Mall headquarters and a new long-run, photo-offset press. During those years it was the dominant morning newspaper in Sacramento. In the mid-1970s, the Bee an afternoon newspaper, decided to go head-to-head with the Union as a morning newspaper and promised that the Bee would arrive on the doorstep by 6:00 a.m. The Union circulation department couldn't equal that service, the Bee became the larger of the two dailies.
While the Bee had a much larger staff, the Union beat the Bee on a number of huge stories. Among them were the Dorothea Puente Victorian grave
Homeschooling known as home education is the education of children at home or a variety of other places. Home education is conducted by a parent or tutor or online teacher. Many families use less formal ways of educating. "Homeschooling" is the term used in North America, whereas "home education" is used in the United Kingdom, in many Commonwealth countries. Before the introduction of compulsory school attendance laws, most childhood education was done by families and local communities. In many developed countries, homeschooling is a legal alternative to private schools. In other nations, homeschooling remains illegal or restricted to specific conditions, as recorded by homeschooling international status and statistics. According to the US National Center for Education Statistics, about three percent of all children in the US were homeschooled in 2011–2012 school year; the study found that 83 percent were White, 5 percent were Black, 7 percent were Hispanic, 2 percent were Asian or Pacific Islander.
As of 2016, there are about 1.7 million homeschooled students in the United States. On average, homeschoolers score above the national average on standardized tests. Homeschool students have been accepted into many Ivy League universities. For most of history and in different cultures, the education of children at home by family members was a common practice. Enlisting professional tutors was an option available only to the wealthy. Homeschooling declined in the 19th and 20th centuries with the enactment of compulsory attendance laws. But, it continued to be practiced in isolated communities. Homeschooling began a resurgence in the 1960s and 1970s with educational reformists dissatisfied with industrialized education; the earliest public schools in modern Western culture were established during the reformation with the encouragement of Martin Luther in the German states of Gotha and Thuringia in 1524 and 1527. From the 1500s to 1800s the literacy rate increased. Home education and apprenticeship continued to remain the main form of education until the 1830s.
However, in the 18th century, the majority of people in Europe lacked formal education. Since the early 19th century, formal classroom schooling became the most common means of schooling throughout the developed countries. In 1647, New England provided compulsory elementary education. Regional differences in schooling existed in colonial America. In the south and plantations were so dispersed that community schools such as those in the more compact settlements of the north were impossible. In the middle colonies, the educational situation varied. Most Native American tribal cultures traditionally used home education and apprenticeship to pass knowledge to children. Parents were supported by tribal leaders in the education of their children; the Native Americans vigorously resisted compulsory education in the United States. In the 1960s, Rousas John Rushdoony began to advocate homeschooling, which he saw as a way to combat the secular nature of the public school system in the United States, he vigorously attacked progressive school reformers such as Horace Mann and John Dewey, argued for the dismantling of the state's influence in education in three works: Intellectual Schizophrenia, The Messianic Character of American Education, The Philosophy of the Christian Curriculum.
Rushdoony was called as an expert witness by the Home School Legal Defense Association in court cases. He advocated the use of private schools. During this time, American educational professionals Raymond and Dorothy Moore began to research the academic validity of the growing Early Childhood Education movement; this research included independent studies by other researchers and a review of over 8,000 studies bearing on early childhood education and the physical and mental development of children. They asserted that formal schooling before ages 8–12 not only lacked the anticipated effectiveness, but harmed children; the Moores published their view that formal schooling was damaging young children academically mentally, physiologically. The Moores presented evidence that childhood problems such as juvenile delinquency, increased enrollment of students in special education classes and behavioral problems were the result of earlier enrollment of students; the Moores cited studies demonstrating that orphans who were given surrogate mothers were measurably more intelligent, with superior long-term effects – though the mothers were "mentally retarded teenagers" – and that illiterate tribal mothers in Africa produced children who were and more advanced than typical western children, "by western standards of measurement".
Their primary assertion was that the bonds and emotional development made at home with parents during these years produced critical long-term results that were cut short by enrollment in schools, could neither be replaced nor corrected in an institutional setting afterward. Recognizing a necessity for early out-of-home care for some children special needs and impoverished children and children from exceptionally inferior homes, they maintained that the vast majority of children were far better situated at home with mediocre parents, than with the most gifted and motivated teachers in a school setting, they described the difference as follows: "This is like saying, if you can help a child by taking him off the cold street and housing him in a warm tent warm tents should be provided for all children – when obviousl
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th
Ray R. Sutton is an American Anglican bishop, he was bishop coadjutor in the Diocese of Mid-America of the Reformed Episcopal Church, since 1999, a founding member of the Anglican Church in North America, in 2009. He is Rector of the Church of the Holy Communion in Dallas, Texas and Professor of Scripture and Theology at Cranmer Theological House in Houston and headmaster of Holy Communion Christian Academy. Sutton was born in Louisville and moved to Dallas at age thirteen, he is head of the Ecumenical Relations Committee of the Anglican Church of North America. He took over the leadership of the Reformed Episcopal Church and the Diocese of Mid-America on 24 November 2016 upon the death of Royal U. Grote Jr. on a provisional level, with his installation taking place on 15 June 2017. Sutton is married to Susan Jean Schaerdel of Dallas, they have three grandchildren. Bachelor of Fine Arts – Southern Methodist University in Master of Theology – Dallas Theological Seminary Doctor of Philosophy – Wycliffe Hall, Oxford University, in association with Coventry University Doctor of Theology – Central School of Religion Doctor of Divinity – Cummins Theological Seminary Sutton served in parish ministry from 1976 until 1991.
He was a co-pastor with James B. Jordan of Westminster Presbyterian Church in Tyler, a prominent church in the Christian Reconstructionist movement. Other members included David Chilton; the church belonged to the Westminster Presbyterian Church of the Association of Reformation Churches in America. North praised Sutton for uncovering that Meredith G. Kline's five-point covenant model applied to the whole Bible, that it applies to three covenant institutions of family and church. Sutton served as Dean and Associate Professor of New Testament at the Reformed Episcopal Seminary in Philadelphia from 1991 until 1995. Since the Synod of the Reformed Episcopal Diocese of Mid America in February 2013, he is once again the president of Cranmer Theological House based in the Houston area. Cranmer House supports a satellite campus in Dallas at Sutton's parish, The Church of the Holy Communion. Sutton was ordained a bishop coadjutor of the Reformed Episcopal Church in 1999 and arrived at the Church of the Holy Communion in 2001.
Sutton has authored several theology works: The Sacramental Theology of Daniel Waterland, 1998. Signed and Delivered: A Study of Holy Baptism, Classical Anglican Press, Houston, TX. ISBN 1-893293-54-8 Captains and Courts, a Biblical Defense of Episcopal Government. Second Chance: Biblical Principals of Divorce and Remarriage, Biblical Hope for the Divorced, Biblical Blueprint Series Vol. #10, The Institute for Christian Economics. That You May Prosper: Dominion by The Institute for Christian Economics. Who Owns the Family?: God or the State? Biblical Blueprint Series Vol. #03, Dominion Press, Ft. Worth, TX. Ray Sutton, David Chilton, Gary DeMar, Victoria T. deVries, Michael Gilstrap, Power for Living, Arthur S. DeMoss Foundation. Sutton, Ray R. "Covenantal Evil." Covenant Renewal 2 4. Sutton, Ray R. "Oath and Symbol." Covenant Renewal 3 4: 1–4. Sutton, Ray R. "Clothing and Calling." in The Reconstruction of the Church. Christianity and Civilization Vol 4. Ed. James B. Jordan. Tyler, Texas: Geneva Ministries.
Sutton, Ray R. "The Saturday Night Church and the Liturgical Nature of Man." in The Reconstruction of the Church. Christianity and Civilization Vol 4. Ed. James B. Jordan. Tyler, Texas: Geneva Ministries. Ray R. Sutton, "The Church as a Shadow Government," Christianity and Civilization III: Tactics of Christian Resistance, Geneva Divinity School. Ray Sutton, "The Baptist Failure", Christianity & Civilization, James B. Jordan, ed. Geneva Divinity School. What is Anglicanism?, Latimer Press, by Mark F. M. Clavier, co-edited by Ray Sutton and Peter C. Moore