County Offaly is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Midlands Region and is located in the province of Leinster, it is named after the ancient Kingdom of Uí Failghe and was known as King's County. Offaly County Council is the local authority for the county; the county population was 77,961 at the 2016 census. Offaly is the 18th largest of Ireland's 32 counties by area and the 24th largest in terms of population, it is the fifth largest of the 10th largest by population. Tullamore is the 30th largest in Ireland. Offaly borders seven counties: Galway, Tipperary, Westmeath and Meath; the Slieve Bloom Mountains are in the southern part of the county on the border with County Laois. Offaly has the 24th highest county peak in Ireland; the highest point is Arderin in the Slieve Blooms at 527 metres. The Slieve Bloom Mountains contain the county's highest points including Stillbrook Hill and Wolftrap Mountain which are the county's second and third highest peaks. Croghan Hill is located in northern Offaly.
Although only 234 metres high, it is known for its view over the surrounding area and it stands out by itself. The floodplain of the River Shannon is in the north-western part of the county; the River Camcor is a Wild Trout Conservation Area. The River Brosna runs across the county from Lough Owel in Westmeath to Shannon Harbour. Silver River runs through several towns in the south of the county before joining Brosna near the town of Ferbane; the Grand Canal runs across the county from Edenderry on the north-east to Shannon Harbour before joining the Shannon. The county contains many small lakes from Lough Boora to Pallas Lake and it contains 42 hectares of swamp land. There are a number Eskers in the counties landscape including Esker Riada. Offaly comprises a flat landscape and is known for its extensive bog and peatlands. There are many large bogs in Offaly including the Bog of Allen, Clara bog, Boora bog and Raheenmore Bog which are spread out across the county with the Bog of Allen extending into four other counties.
The county consists of 42,000 hectares of peatlands, 21% of Offaly's total land area. Offaly contains 9,000 hectares of forest and woodland area, which only amounts to 4.5% of the county's land area. This includes woodlands within the Lough Boora Parklands. 75% of Offaly's forested area is Conifer High Forest. The following are the historical baronies located in County Offaly: Ballyboy Ballybrit Ballycowen Clonlisk Coolestown Eglish Garrycastle Geashill Kilcoursey Lower Philipstown Upper Philipstown Warrenstown One of the earliest known settlements in County Offaly is at Boora bog which dates back to the Mesolithic era. Excavations here provide evidence of a temporary settlement. Stone axes, arrow heads and blades were discovered which date to between 6,800 – 6,000 BCE; the Dowris Hoard dating from the Late Bronze Age was found in a bog at Dowris, Whigsborough near Birr. It is the largest collection of Bronze Age objects found in Ireland, it includes more than 200 items of which 190 are extant, 111 in the National Museum of Ireland and 79 in the British Museum.
Forty four spearheads were found, forty-three axes, twenty-four trumpets, forty-four crotals. A bronze bucket was found, it was constructed of sheets of bronze riveted together, this item is considered to be an imported item, two other buckets were found and these are presumed to be native copies. After Christianisation, the monastic complex of Clonmacnoise was erected at the River Shannon near Shannonbridge, it is today a significant tourist destination. The county itself was formed following the Tudor plantations of Laois and Offaly in an attempt by the English Crown to expand its sphere of influence in Ireland which had declined following the Norman Conquest of Ireland. Both Laois and Offaly were petty kingdoms in Gaelic Ireland located just outside the Pale; the older kingdoms of Leix and Uí Failghe are not coterminous with the present day counties that were formed. The Kingdom of Uí Failghe from which the name Offaly is derived, was ruled by the Ó Conchobhair Failghe whose territory extended from the east of the county into north Kildare.
The Kingdom of Firceall ruled by the O'Molloy clan constituted much of the centre of the county. The Kingdom of Firceall was part of the Kingdom of Meath while Uí Failghe was part of the Kingdom of Leinster. Much of the south of the present day county was ruled by Ó Cearbhaill of Éile. Ely formed part of the Kingdom of Munster; these petty kingdoms were swept aside by the Tudor plantations. In 1556, an Act of the Parliament of Ireland created "King's County", named after Philip, the King of Ireland; this replaced the old Kingdoms with the present day County System. Despite the county's name being upheld as Offaly through the 2001 Local Government Act, no legislation was enacted after independence explicitly changing the name from King's County, the name formally established under the 1898 Local Government Act which continued to have legal effect. Legal transfers and assignments of land in the county still refer to it as "King's County". Offaly County Council is the local authority for the county.
The council is responsible for local services such a
Captain lieutenant or captain-lieutenant is a military rank, used in a number of navies worldwide and in the British Army. It is equivalent to the Commonwealth or US naval rank of lieutenant, has the NATO rank code of OF-2, though this can vary; the same rank is used in the navies of Finland and Norway. The latest revision of the relevant NATO STANAG standardization agreement makes the longstanding courtesy practice of translating the rank into English as "lieutenant commander" for all German and Norwegian officers of that rank official; the Norwegian Navy goes a step further in ranking the kapteinløytnant as OF-3 when serving afloat, disregarding the Norwegian national tri-service ranking. In the Estonian Navy the sounding rank of kaptenleitnant is an officer rank classified as NATO OF-4, i.e. equal to commander in the Royal Navy and United States Navy. As the commander of the Estonian Navy is a captain, this is the de facto second highest rank in the Estonian Navy; the French Army of the Ancien Régime used a rank of capitaine-lieutenant similar to the British one.
It was encountered in the Royal Guard, where the king was captain of most of the guard companies, but the effective command was in the hands of a captain-lieutenant. D'Artagnan is the most famous captain-lieutenant in French history, as commander of the first mousquetaire company. Kapitänleutnant is an OF2 rank equivalent to the Hauptmann in the German Army and the German Air Force. See In the Royal Netherlands Navy, a kapitein-luitenant ter zee is equivalent to a US Navy or Royal Navy commander. In the Portuguese Navy, a capitão-tenente is the equivalent naval rank to a British or American lieutenant commander; the Brazilian Navy uses the rank of capitão-tenente, in the same manner as the Navy of Portugal, but in contrast to those of other South American countries. It is equivalent to the RN lieutenant. Kapitan-leytenant is a rank in the Russian Navy the Red Fleet/Soviet Navy and Imperial Russian Navy, it is the rank above a senior lieutenant. In Soviet times, it may be achieved as early as an officer's 5th year of service.
In Russian and other East-European navies it is the most senior junior officer rank. The Russian Navy assigns this rank the two-and-a-half stripe insignia used in Britain and the US for lieutenant commanders. On the other hand, the US Navy considers this rank equivalent to lieutenant. In terms of responsibilities, officers of this rank may serve as department heads on larger warships, but may serve as commanding officers of 3rd and 4th rank warships. Unlike the equivalent OF2-rank Kapitänleutnant in the German Navy, submarines are at least nominally not on the list of eligible positions. In the past, when the boats were smaller, captain-lieutenants were eligible for the submarine command. However, in current Soviet/Russian ship ranking no modern submarine is given 3rd rank; this reflects the high status of submarines, as all nuclear submarines are considered 1st rank and large and medium diesels 2nd rank, while smaller 3rd rank submarines aren't built. Rank insignia IRA, Soviet Navy, RF Navy The rank is used by the navies of several ex-Soviet republics and former Eastern bloc countries.
It is used in the navies of Latvia. These are equivalent to lieutenant. Captain-Lieutenant is a rank in the Ukrainian Navy; these are equivalent to lieutenant. The armed forces of Ukraine, formed during the collapse of the USSR, adopted the Soviet model of military ranks, as well as the Soviet marks of distinction. For the distinguishing marks, the captain-lieutenant had three tapes on the sleeve, chains of one lumen on which four small five-pointed stars were placed. On July 5, 2016, the President of Ukraine approves the "Uniform Design and Signs of the Distinction of the Armed Forces of Ukraine"; the draft includes, among other things, military ranks and distinguishing marks for military personnel. The marks of the distinction of servicemen are changing, departing from the Soviet standard. November 20, 2017 issued by the order of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine No. 606, which specifies the rules for wearing and using uniform weapons by military personnel. The distinguishing marks of the captain-lieutenant become three tapes.
The distinguishing marks are placed on the coats. Rank insignia UA Navy Captain-lieutenant was a rank in the British Army. A regiment's field officers - its colonel, lieutenant colonel, major - commanded their own companies, as well as carrying out their regimental command duties. However, from the 17th century onwards, the colonel became a patron and ceremonial head instead of an actual tactical commander, with command in the field devolving to the lieutenant colonel; this left the colonel's company without a captain. The lieutenant of this company thus became its acting captain; this state of affairs was formally recognised with the creation of the rank of captain-lieutenant, with its own entry in the table of prices for the purchase of commissions. In 1772 captain-lieutenants were granted rank in the Army; the rank was abolished sometime in the ea
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain was by birth a Princess of Great Britain and member of the House of Hanover and by marriage Queen consort of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1772. The youngest and posthumous daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales, by Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Caroline Matilda was raised in a secluded family atmosphere away from the royal court. At the age of fifteen, she was married to her first cousin, King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway, who suffered from a mental illness and was cold to his wife throughout the marriage, she had two children: the future Frederick VI and Louise Augusta, whose biological father may have been the German physician Johann Friedrich Struensee. In 1769, Struensee entered the service of the Danish king. Struensee gained more and more power and instituted a series of reforms that Caroline Matilda supported. Struensee's reforms and his relationship with the Queen generated powerful enemies, who included Christian VII's stepmother Queen Dowager Juliana Maria and her son Prince Frederick.
Juliana Maria directed a plot to overthrow the lovers, which ended with the execution of Struensee and Caroline Matilda's divorce and banishment. She died in Hanover, at the age of twenty-three from scarlet fever. Caroline Matilda was born in Leicester House, London, on 22 July 1751 as the ninth and youngest child of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, her father died about three months before her birth, on 31 March 1751. At birth, she was given the style and title Her Royal Highness Princess Caroline Matilda, as daughter of the Prince of Wales, though by the time of her birth that title had passed to her brother George. Both of her names were used to distinguish her from Princess Caroline; the princess was christened ten days after being born, on 1 August, at the same house, by the Bishop of Norwich, Thomas Hayter. Her godparents were her brother George, her aunt Caroline, her sister Augusta, she was brought up by her strict mother away from the English court and was described as natural and informal, for this reason, she was uninterested in politics and court intrigues as an adult.
She spent most of the time with her family in Leicester House, but during holidays they moved to Kew Palace. Caroline Matilda enjoyed outdoor life and riding, despite the irregularities of her and her sisters' education, she was musically gifted, an accomplished singer with a beautiful voice and could speak three languages: Italian and German. In 1764, a marriage was suggested between the Danish House of Oldenburg and the British House of Hanover between Christian, Crown Prince of Denmark, a British princess; the Danish Crown Prince was the oldest surviving son of King Frederick V and his first wife Princess Louise of Great Britain, in consequence, first cousin of the children of the late Prince of Wales. The marriage was considered suitable because the British and Danish royal families were both Protestant and of the same rank, thus had the same status as well as religion. Additionally, the deceased Queen Louise had been popular in Denmark; the marriage negotiations were intended for the eldest unmarried daughter of the former Prince of Wales, Princess Louise Anne, but after the Danish representative in London, Count von Bothmer, was informed of her weak constitution, her younger sister Caroline Matilda was chosen for the match instead.
The official betrothal was announced on 10 January 1765. On 14 January 1766, in the middle of preparations for the wedding, King Frederick V died and his 17-year-old son became King Christian VII. On 1 October of that year in the royal chapel of St James's Palace the marriage was celebrated by proxy, the groom being represented by Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany. Two days Caroline Matilda departed from Harwich for Rotterdam, three weeks she arrived in Altona, where she left her British entourage and was welcomed by her appointed Danish courtiers. Twelve days Caroline Matilda arrived in Roskilde, where she met her future husband; the official wedding ceremony took place on 8 November 1766 in the Royal Chapel at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Marriage celebrations and balls lasted for another month. On 1 May 1767, Caroline Matilda was crowned Queen of Denmark in Copenhagen; the young Queen at the Danish court was described as temperamental and charming. She was thought too plump to be described as a beauty, but she was considered attractive: it was said of her that "her appearance allowed her to avoid criticism of women, but still captivate the male eye."
However, her natural and unaffected personality was not popular at the strict Danish court, despite the fact that she was warmly received in Copenhagen. The weak-willed, self-centered, mentally ill Christian VII was cold to his wife and not in a hurry to consummate the marriage; the reason for this attitude towards his wife could be that the King was forced to marry by the court, who believed that marriage would lead to improvement in his mental problems. Despite rumors of homosexuality, the King had a mistress with whom he began a relationship in Holstein in the summer of 1766, visited courtesans in Copenhagen, of which the most famous was Anna Katrina Bentgagen, nicknamed Støvlet-Cathrine. Caroline Matilda became close to her Overhofmesterinde, Louise von Plessen, who regarded the King's friends, suc
Thomas Davey (governor)
Thomas Davey was a New South Wales Marine and member of the First Fleet to New South Wales, who went on to become the second Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land. Davey was born in England in the son of a mill owner. There are no records of early youth. In 1775 Great Britain declared war on her American colonies. Strenuous lobbying by Davey's father secured political patronage for a commission as second lieutenant in His Majesty's Marine Forces, Davey was posted aboard HMS Vengeance in this capacity in 1779. In the following year he transferred to the 50-gun frigate HMS Preston and took part in attacks on French forces in the West Indies, he was promoted to first lieutenant in mid-1780 but fell ill shortly afterward and was invalided back to England. He did not return to active service until 1786, he left Sydney at the end of 1792, at the time of the mutiny at the Nore was a captain of marines, fought at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. In September 1811, through the influence of Lord Harrowby, he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Tasmania in June 1812.
It is said that he left England without informing his wife, but she got wind of his departure and, managed to get aboard. Upon being informed of her arrival Davey hurled his wig at the wall, he arrived in Sydney on 25 October 1812 and reported to Governor Lachlan Macquarie, whose orders he had been instructed to observe. He remained in Sydney for nearly four months, did not land at Hobart until 20 February 1813. All his possessions were Davey put in a claim of substantial length. Davey appears to have had no qualifications for his position, he was indolent and without sense of dignity, indulged in the hard-drinking, a characteristic of the period. He is still remembered for his invention of the "Blow My Skull" punch, the recipe for, found in Edward Abbott's The English and Australian Cookery Book. Macquarie had received a private letter from the authorities warning him to keep a close watch on Davey, on 30 April 1814 reported that his conduct was pretty correct, "except for making locations of land to persons not entitled", he had every reason to believe that he "is honest and means well" but that his character made him a "very unfit man for so important a station".
Nearly a year Macquarie again reported adversely, in April 1816 Earl Bathurst in a dispatch to Macquarie recalled Davey, but suggested that he should be allowed to resign, that a grant of land should be made to him. Davey was confronted by one of the largest, most daring and successful bushranging gangs of Australian history, that of Michael Howe. Davey was humiliated time and time again by Howe's exploits. Signing himself as "The Governor of the Rangers" in letters to Davey, Howe threatened to set the colony on fire from end to end and Davey feared that there would be a general uprising of the convicts. Davey handed over his position to Governor William Sorell on 9 April 1817. Considerable grants of land were made to him, but he was not successful with them and he sailed to England from Sydney in August 1821, leaving his wife and daughter in Tasmania, he died on 2 May 1823. Davey was of a weakly, amiable nature, but much progress was made during his administration, including the designation of Hobart as a free port.
As lieutenant governor he had encouraged humane treatment of aborigines, strong action against bushranging. His limited official powers had a consequential and negative effect in his subsequent reputation, as did his poor choices of subordinate officials, his service is commemorated in the name of Port Davey in Tasmania, an inlet on the south west coast of Tasmania. Davey Street in Hobart is named in his honour. Richard Davey was a descendant. Governor Davey's John; the First Fleet Marines. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702220655. Serle, Percival. "Davey, Thomas". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Alexander, Alison, ed.. The Companion to Tasmanian History. Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania. ISBN 1-86295-223-X. OCLC 61888464. Robson, L. L.. A History of Tasmania. Volume I. Van Diemen's Land From the Earliest Times to 1855. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554364-5
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to a correctional facility located in a remote location it is more used to refer to communities of prisoners overseen by wardens or governors having absolute authority. Penal colonies have been used for penal labour in an economically underdeveloped part of a state's territories, on a far larger scale than a prison farm; the British used colonial North America as a penal colony through a system of indentured servitude. Merchants would transport the convicts and auction them off to plantation owners upon arrival in the colonies, it is estimated that some 50,000 British convicts were sent to colonial America and the majority landed in the Chesapeake Colonies of Maryland and Virginia. Transported convicts represented one-quarter of all British emigrants during the 18th century.
The colony of Georgia, for example, was first founded by James Edward Oglethorpe who intended to use prisoners taken from debtors' prison, creating a "Debtor's Colony," where the prisoners could learn trades and work off their debts. Though this failed, the idea that the state began as a penal colony has persisted, both in popular history and local lore; the British would ship Irish and the Welsh to the Americas whenever rebellions took place in Ireland, Scotland or Wales but these were sent to Maryland and Virginia, not Georgia. When that avenue closed in the 1780s after the American Revolution, Britain began using parts of what is now known as Australia as penal settlements. Australian penal colonies included Norfolk Island, Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales. Advocates of Irish Home Rule or of Trade Unionism sometimes received sentences of deportation to these Australian colonies.. Without the allocation of the available convict labour to farmers, to pastoral squatters, to government projects such as roadbuilding, colonisation of Australia may not have been possible considering the considerable drain on non-convict labor caused by several goldrushes that took place in the second half of the 19th century after the flow of convicts had dwindled and ceased.
Bermuda, off the North American continent, was used during the Victorian period. Convicts housed in hulks were used to build the Royal Naval Dockyard there, during the Second Boer War, Boer prisoners-of-war were sent to the archipelago and imprisoned on one of the smaller islands. In colonial India, the British made various penal colonies. Two of the most infamous ones are on the Andaman Islands and Hijli. In the early days of settlement, Singapore Island was the recipient of Indian convicts, who were tasked with clearing the jungles for settlement and early public works. France sent criminals to tropical penal colonies including Louisiana in the early 18th century. Devil's Island in French Guiana, 1852 -- 1939, received other criminals. New Caledonia and its Isle of Pines in Melanesia received transported dissidents like the Communards, Kabyles rebels as well as convicted criminals between the 1860s and 1897; the Qing Empire of 1644–1912 used Xinjiang province in the north-west of China as a penal colony.
Ecuador has used two islands in the Galapagos archipelago as penal colonies: the Island of San Cristóbal and Isabela Island. Imperial Russia used Siberia as a penal colony for dissidents. Though geographically contiguous with heartland Russia, Siberia provided both remoteness and a harsh climate. In 1857 a penal colony was established on the island of Sakhalin; the Soviet Gulag system and its tsarist predecessor, the katorga system, provided penal labor to develop forestry and mining industries, construction enterprises, as well as highways and railroads across Siberia and in other areas. In modern Russian Federation, corrective labor colonies are a common type of prison. In Paraguay the first ruler and supreme dictator Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia opened the penal colony of Tevego in 1813, where petty criminals were sent, it re-established in 1843 as San Salvador. It was evacuated towards the end of the Paraguayan War of 1864–1870; the Kingdom of Hawaii under the rule of King Kamehameha III replaced the death penalty with exile, Kahoolawe became a men's penal colony sometime around 1830, while Kaena Point on Lanai served as the female penal colony.
The law making the island a penal colony was repealed in 1853. Buru Island in Indonesia was used as penal colony during the New Order era to hold political prisoners. Apartheid South Africa used Robben Island as penal colony for anti apartheid activists; the Netherlands had a penal colony from the late 19th century. The Department of Justice took over the town of Veenhuizen to turn it into a collection of prison buildings; the town stands in the least populated province of Drenthe in the north of the country, isolated in the middle of a vast area of peat and marshland. Mexico uses the island of Isla María Madre as a penal colony. With a small population, the colony is governed by a state official, both the governor of the islands and chief judge; the military command is independent of the government and is exercised by an officer of the Mexican Navy. The other islands are uninhabited. Brazil had a prison on the
Charlestown is the oldest neighborhood in Boston, United States. Called Mishawum by the Massachusett, it is located on a peninsula north of the Charles River, across from downtown Boston, adjoins the Mystic River and Boston Harbor. Charlestown was laid out in 1629 by engineer Thomas Graves, one of its early settlers, in the reign of Charles I of England, it was a separate town and the first capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Charlestown became a city in 1848 and was annexed by Boston on January 5, 1874. With that, it switched from Middlesex County, to which it had belonged since 1643, to Suffolk County, it has had a substantial Irish American population since the migration of Irish people during the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s. Since the late 1980s the neighborhood has changed because of its proximity to downtown and its colonial architecture. A mix of yuppie and upper-middle class gentrification has influenced much of the area, as it has in many of Boston's neighborhoods, but Charlestown still maintains a strong Irish American population and "Townie" identity.
In the 21st century, Charlestown's diversity has expanded along with growing rates of the poor and wealthy. Today Charlestown is a residential neighborhood, with much housing near the waterfront, overlooking the Boston skyline. Charlestown is home to many historic sites and organizations, with access from the Orange Line Sullivan Square or Community College stops or the I-93 expressway. Thomas and Jane Walford were the original English settlers of the peninsula between the Charles and the Mystic, they were given a grant by Sir Robert Gorges, with whom they had settled at Wessagusset in September 1623 and arrived at what they called Mishawaum in 1624. John Endicott, first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, sent William and Ralph Sprague to Mishawaum to lay out a settlement. Thomas Walford, acting as an interpreter with the Massachusetts Indians, negotiated with the local sachem Wonohaquaham for Endicott and his people to settle there. Although Walford had a virtual monopoly on the region's available furs, he welcomed the newcomers and helped them in any way he could, unaware that his Episcopalian religious beliefs would cause him to be banished from Massachusetts to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, within three years.
A Puritan English city during the Colonial era, Charlestown proper was founded in 1628 and settled July 4, 1629, by Thomas Graves, Increase Nowell, Simon Hoyt, the Rev. Francis Bright, Ralph and William Sprague, about 100 others who preceded the Great Migration. John Winthrop's company stopped here for some time in 1630, before deciding to settle across the Charles River at Boston; the territory of Charlestown was quite large. From it, Woburn was separated in 1642, Melrose and Malden in 1649, Stoneham in 1725, South Medford, the land south of the Mystic River was known as "Mistick Field", it was transferred from Charlestown to Medford in 1754. This grant included the "Charlestown Wood Lots", part of what was at the time Woburn. Other parts of Medford were transferred to Charlestown in 1811. Somerville was transferred in 1842. Everett, Burlington and Cambridge acquired areas allocated to Charlestown. On June 17, 1775, the Charlestown Peninsula was the site of the Battle of Bunker Hill, named for a hill at the northwest end of the peninsula near Charlestown Neck.
British troops unloaded at Moulton's Point and much of the battle took place on Breed's Hill, which overlooked the harbor from about 400 yards off the southern end of the peninsula. The town, including its wharves and dockyards, was completely destroyed during the battle by the British; the town was not appreciably rebuilt until the end of hostilities but, in 1786, the first bridge across the Charles River connected Boston with Charlestown. An 87-acre Navy Yard was established in 1800; the Bunker Hill Monument was erected between 1827 and 1843 using Quincy granite brought to the site by a combination of purpose-built railway and barge. Notable businesses included Schrafft's candy company. Around the 1860s an influx of Irish immigrants arrived in Charlestown; the area long remained an Irish and Catholic stronghold similar to South Boston and Dorchester, to the extent that the informal demonym "Townie" continues to imply the working-class Irish, as opposed to newer immigrants. During the Civil War, over 26,000 men joined the Union Army and Navy at the Navy Yard, responsible for constructing some of the most famous vessels of the conflict: the Merrimack, the Hartford, the Monadnock.
Following the war, the city commissioned Martin Milmore to construct its civil war memorial, dedicated in 1872 and still standing in the community's Training Field. The city developed a water supply from the Mystic Lakes and, on October 7, 1873, a vote was held to determine whether Charlestown should leave Middlesex County and join Boston as part of Suffolk County. Out of its 32,040 residents, 2240 voted in support of the merger and 1947 opposed. Boston residents approved the question, 5,960–1,868. Charlestown's separate city government was dissolved the next year. During the early 1960s, the city initiated plans to demolish and redevelop sixty percent of the housing in Charlestown. In 1963, the Boston Redevelopment Authority held a town meeting to discuss their development plans with the community; the BRA's dealings with Boston's West End had created an atmosphere of distrust towards urban renewal in Boston, Charlestown residents opposed the plan by an overwhelming majority. By 1