Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
1988 Canadian federal election
The 1988 Canadian federal election was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 34th Parliament of Canada. It was an election fought on a single issue: the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement. Incumbent Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, had signed the agreement; the Liberal Party, led by John Turner, was opposed to the agreement, as was the New Democratic Party led by Ed Broadbent. The Conservatives went into the election suffering from a number of scandals. Despite winning a large majority only four years before, they looked vulnerable at the outset; the Liberals had some early struggles, notably during one day in Montreal where three different costs were given for the proposed Liberal daycare program. The campaign was hampered by a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation report that stated there was a movement in the backroom to replace Turner with Jean Chrétien though Turner had passed a leadership review in 1986.
Support swung forth between the Conservatives and Liberals over free trade. With mid-campaign polls suggesting a Liberal government, this prompted the Conservatives to stop the calm campaign they had been running, go with Allan Gregg's suggestion of "bombing the bridge" that joined anti-FTA voters and the Liberals: Turner's credibility; the ads focused on Turner's leadership struggles, combined with over $6 million CAD in pro-FTA ads, managed to stop the Liberals' momentum. The Liberals reaped most of the benefits of opposing the FTA and doubled their representation to 83 seats to emerge as the main opposition; the Progressive Conservatives won a strong majority government with 169 seats. Despite the Liberals' improved standing, the results were considered a disappointment for Turner, after polls in mid-campaign predicted a Liberal government; the election loss sealed Turner's fate and he resigned in 1990, was succeeded by Jean Chrétien. Although most Canadians voted for parties opposed to free trade, the Tories were returned with a majority government, implemented the deal.
Until the 2011 federal election, the 1988 election was the most successful in the New Democratic Party's history. The party dominated in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, won significant support in Ontario and elected its first member from Alberta; this was the second election contested by the Green Party, it saw a more than 50% increase in its vote, but it remained a minor party. The election was the last for Canada's Social Credit movement: the party won no seats, had an insignificant portion of the popular vote; the newly founded Reform Party contested the election, but was considered little more than a fringe group, did not win any seats. For the Progressive Conservatives, this was the last federal election. For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1988 election see 34th Canadian Parliament. Note: "% change" refers to change from previous election A number of unregistered parties contested the election; the Western Canada Concept party, led by Doug Christie, fielded three candidates in British Columbia.
The Western Independence Party ran one candidate in British Columbia, seven in Alberta, three in Manitoba. The Liberal candidate in Etobicoke-Lakeshore, Emmanuel Feuerwerker, withdrew from the race after suffering a heart attack, resulting in the Liberals not running a candidate in all 295 ridings during this election; the Marxist–Leninist Party fielded candidates in several ridings. Blair T. Longley campaigned in British Columbia as a representative of the "Student Party". Newspaper reports indicate that this was a tax-avoidance scheme; the moribund Social Credit Party fielded fewer candidates than was required for official recognition, but the Chief Electoral Officer allowed the party's name to appear on the ballot by virtue of its history as a recognized party. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote. Note: Parties that captured less than 1% of the vote in a province are not recorded. Number of parties: 11 First appearance: Christian Heritage Party, Reform Party Final appearance: Confederation of Regions Party, Rhinoceros Party, Social Credit Party Final appearance before hiatus: Communist Party London-Middlesex, ON: Terry Clifford def.
Garnet Bloomfield by 8 votes Northumberland, ON: Christine Stewart def. Reg Jewell by 28 votes Hamilton Mountain, ON: Beth Phinney def. Marion Dewar by 73 votes York North, ON: Maurizio Bevilacqua def. Michael O'Brien by 77 votes ON: David MacDonald def. Bill Graham by 80 votes London East, ON: Joe Fontana def. Jim Jepson by 102 votes ON: Bob Speller def. Bud Bradley by 209 votes PE: George Proud def. Thomas McMillan by 259 votes Cariboo—Chilcotin, BC: Dave Worthy def. Jack Langford by 269 votes Vancouver Centre, BC: Kim Campbell def. Johanna Den Hertog by 269 votes Canadian federal election, 1911, an election contested over free trade with the United States. List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in CanadaArticles on parties' candidates in this election: Riding map Election 1988, by Stephen Azzi Debate'88
Windsor is a city in Southwestern Ontario, situated on the south bank of the Detroit River directly across from Detroit, Michigan. Located in Essex County, it is the southernmost city in Canada and marks the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the city's population was 217,188 at the 2016 census, making it the third-most populated city in Southwestern Ontario after London and Kitchener. The Detroit–Windsor urban area is North America's most populous transborder conurbation, the Ambassador Bridge border crossing is the busiest commercial crossing on the Canada–United States border. Windsor is a major contributor to Canada's automotive industry and has a storied history and a diverse culture. Known as the "Automotive Capital of Canada", Windsor's industrial and manufacturing heritage is responsible for how the city has developed through the years. At the time when the first Europeans arrived in the 17th century, the Detroit River region was inhabited by the Huron, Odawa and Iroquois First Nations.
A French agricultural settlement was established at the site of Windsor in 1749. It is the oldest continually inhabited European-founded settlement in Canada west of Montreal; the area was first named la Petite Côte. It was called La Côte de Misère because of the sandy soils near LaSalle. Windsor's French-Canadian heritage is reflected in French street names such as Ouellette, François, Langlois and Lauzon; the current street system reflects the Canadien method of agricultural land division, where the farms were long and narrow, fronting along the river. Today, the north–south street name indicates the name of the family that once farmed the land where the street is now located; the street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions. There is a significant French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas. In 1797, after the American Revolution, the settlement of "Sandwich" was established, it was renamed Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England.
The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's west side is home to some of the city's oldest buildings, including Mackenzie Hall built as the Essex County Courthouse in 1855. Today, this building is a community centre; the oldest building in the city is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792. It is owned by houses government offices; the François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated to local history. Windsor was the site of a battle during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838, it was attacked by a band of rebels from Detroit. Windsor served as a theatre for the Patriot War that year. In 1846, Windsor had a population of about 300. Two steamboats offered service to Detroit; the barracks were still manned. There were various types of a bank agency and a post office; the city's access to the Canada–US border made it a key stop for refugee slaves gaining freedom in the northern United States along the Underground Railroad. Many went across the Detroit River to Windsor to escape pursuit by slave catchers.
There were estimated to be 20,000 to 30,000 African-American refugees who settled in Canada, with many settling in Essex County, Ontario. Windsor was incorporated as a village in 1854 became a town in 1858, gained city status in 1892; the Windsor Police Service was established on July 1, 1867. A fire consumed much of Windsor's downtown core on October 12, 1871, destroying more than 100 buildings. Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities until 1935, they are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford City was incorporated as a village in 1912. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890. Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status, it was incorporated as a town in 1858. These three towns were annexed by Windsor in 1935; the nearby villages of Ojibway and Riverside were incorporated in 1921 respectively. Both were annexed by Windsor in 1966. During the 1920s, alcohol prohibition was enforced in Michigan. Rum-running in Windsor was a common practice during that time.
On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housing the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten people were at least one hundred injured; the 45th anniversary of the event was commemorated by the Windsor Star on October 25, 2005. It was featured on History Television's Disasters of the Century; the Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the city's past, its success as a railway centre, its contributions to World War I and World War II fighting efforts. It recalled the naming controversy in 1892 when Windsor aimed to become a city; the most popular names listed in the naming controversy were "South Detroit", "The Ferry", Richmond. Windsor was chosen to promote the heritage of new English settlers in the city and to recognize Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England. However, Richmond was a popular name used until World War II by the local post office. Windsor has a humid continental climate with four distinct seasons; the mean annual temperature
2011 Canadian federal election
The 2011 Canadian federal election was held on Monday, May 2, 2011, to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 41st Canadian Parliament. The writs of election for the 2011 election were issued by Governor General David Johnston on March 26. Prime Minister Stephen Harper advised the Governor General to dissolve parliament after the House of Commons passed a motion of non-confidence against the government, finding it to be in contempt of parliament. A few days before, the three opposition parties had rejected the minority government's proposed budget; the Conservative Party remained in power, increasing its seat count from a minority to a majority government. The Liberal Party won the fewest seats in its history, party leader Michael Ignatieff was defeated in his riding; the Bloc Québécois lost official party status for the first time since contesting general elections in 1993. Party leader Gilles Duceppe subsequently resigned as leader; the New Democratic Party won the largest number of seats in its history, enabling it to form the Official Opposition for the first time.
The Green Party elected its first member to the House of Commons with its leader, Elizabeth May, becoming MP for Saanich—Gulf Islands. The 2008 federal election resulted in the continuation of the incumbent Conservative minority government, headed by Stephen Harper; the 40th Parliament was marked by two controversial prorogations: the first in December 2008 which ended an attempted opposition coalition, the second a year following, which prompted public protests. Following the first prorogation and the Liberal Party provided support for the government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper. On August 31, 2009, the Liberals withdrew their backing but the NDP under Jack Layton abstained and the Conservatives survived the confidence motion. Ignatieff's attempt to force a September 2009 election was reported as a miscalculation, as polls showed that most Canadians did not want another election. Ignatieff's popularity as well as that of the Liberals dropped off immediately afterwards. In 2011, Elections Canada laid charges against the Conservative Party, alleging contraventions of the Canada Elections Act five years earlier.
This issue, along with the Bloc Québécois announcing its intention to vote against the budget, unless it contained numerous changes including $2 billion in compensation to Quebec for harmonizing PST and GST and funding for a new NHL arena in Quebec City, increased the speculation that there would be an election called soon as the Conservatives rejected the Bloc demands as "blackmail". On March 9, 2011, Speaker of the House of Commons Peter Milliken ruled that Bev Oda, a minister of the Crown, separately, the Cabinet itself could both be in contempt of parliament, the latter for its ongoing refusal to meet opposition requests for details of proposed bills and their cost estimates. Milliken directed both matters to committee and set as the deadline for its report March 21, 2011, one day before the budget was to be tabled; the committee found the government to be in contempt of Parliament. The vote divided along party lines, with the governing but minority Conservative Members of Parliament opposing the finding and issuing a dissenting report.
After the committee released its findings, opposition leader and head of the Liberal Party Michael Ignatieff proposed a motion of no confidence against the Crown-in-Council and, on March 25, 2011, the House of Commons voted on the motion, the majority agreeing, by a margin of 156 to 145, with the committee's conclusions. A cabinet being found in contempt of parliament is without precedent in Canada or any other Commonwealth country. Earlier that week, all three opposition parties had indicated that they would oppose the government's budget; the parties' campaign slogans for the 2011 election: Bloc Québécois: "Parlons Québec" Conservative Party: "Here For Canada / Ici pour le Canada". In francophone Quebec, Harper ran under the slogan "Notre région au pouvoir". Green Party: "It's Time" & "Canada needs Elizabeth May but only you can elect her" Liberal Party: "Rise Up Canada" & "Change we need, from a proven team." The first one refers to Harper's contempt charge. The second one was used after the NDP's surge in the opinion polls, making reference to the fact that it has never formed a federal government.
New Democratic Party: "Working For Families / Travaillons ensemble", "You have a choice", & "That's Canadian Leadership" Pairing off the top three parties, percentage of seats swung between the parties can be calculated as: Conservative to NDP: 5.24% Liberal to Conservative: 4.66% Liberal to NDP: 9.90% The voter turnout was 61.1%. Several constituencies were focused upon by the various parties, due to: their being lost in the 2008 election. Under these criteria, the following were the top targets for each of the parties: With an overall voter turnout of 61.4% and 14,823,408 ballots cast, the Conservative Party remained in power, moving from a minority to a majority government by winning 166 of the 308 seats. The New Democratic Party won the largest number of seats in their history, including a large majority of seats in Quebec and formed the Official Opposition for the first time; the Liberal Party won the fewest seats in their history and party leader Michael Ignatieff was defeated in his own riding.
The Bloc Québécois, which had always won at least a majority of seats in Quebec in every election of their existence, lost nearly all th
2015 Canadian federal election
The 2015 Canadian federal election was held on October 19, 2015, to elect members to the House of Commons of the 42nd Canadian Parliament. The writs of election for the 2015 election were issued by Governor General David Johnston on August 4; the ensuing campaign was one of the longest in Canadian history. It was the first time since the 1979 election that a Prime Minister attempted to remain in office into a fourth consecutive Parliament and the first time since the 1980 election that someone attempted to win a fourth term of any kind as Prime Minister; the Liberal Party, led by Justin Trudeau, won 184 seats, allowing it to form a majority government with Trudeau becoming the next Prime Minister. Trudeau and the rest of his cabinet were sworn in on November 4, 2015; the Conservative Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister Stephen Harper, won 99 seats, becoming the Official Opposition after nine years on the government benches. The New Democratic Party, led by Thomas Mulcair, won 44 seats, becoming the third-largest party in the House of Commons, after having formed the Official Opposition following the 2011 election.
The Bloc Québécois won 10 seats, the Green Party won 1 seat, Strength in Democracy lost all its seats. The Liberal Party's increase of 148 seats from the previous election was the largest-ever numerical increase by a party in a Canadian election. Prior to the campaign, the Liberals had held only 36 seats—the fewest seats held at dissolution by any federal party that won the following election; the Liberals became the first federal party in Canadian history to win a majority of seats without having been either the governing party or the Official Opposition in the previous parliament, this was only the second time a party went from having the third-most seats to the most seats. It was the second largest number of seats won in a federal election for the Liberals, the best being 191 in 1949; the election had the highest voter turnout since 1993. Every party represented in the House of Commons except the Liberal Party recorded a decrease in its popular vote share. Following the election, Harper conceded defeat to Trudeau and resigned as leader of the Conservative Party.
Gilles Duceppe resigned as leader of the Bloc Québécois shortly after the election on October 22, 2015. Thomas Mulcair announced his intention to remain leader of the NDP, but was forced to step down after losing a party vote on his leadership in the spring of 2016; the 2011 federal election resulted in the continuation of the incumbent Conservative government headed by Stephen Harper, while the New Democratic Party became Official Opposition and the Liberal Party became the third party. The Bloc Québécois won the Green Party won one seat. Liberal leader Michael Ignatieff and Bloc leader Gilles Duceppe resigned shortly after failing to win their own ridings; the Bloc Québécois lost official party status by failing to attain the minimum seats needed. Bob Rae was chosen as interim leader of the Liberal Party. In July 2011 Jack Layton, suffering from cancer, temporarily stepped down as leader of the NDP because of illness, indicating his intention to return for the reconvening of Parliament in September.
Weeks Layton died of cancer and was given a state funeral. In March 2012 Tom Mulcair was elected leader of the New Democratic Party. In April 2013 Justin Trudeau was elected leader of the Liberal Party. Bloc Québécois leader Daniel Paillé stepped down in December 2013 and was replaced in June 2014 by Mario Beaulieu, who in turn was replaced in June 2015 by Duceppe. In late 2014, MPs Jean-François Larose of the NDP and Jean-François Fortin of the Bloc formed the new political party Strength in Democracy; as set forth in the Fair Representation Act, the number of seats in the House of Commons to be contested in the 42nd Canadian federal election was 338, an increase of 30 seats from the 308 seats comprising the House of Commons of Canada of the 41st Parliament of Canada, at its dissolution. Prime Minister Stephen Harper requested writs of election for a federal general election from Governor General David Johnston on August 2; the official proclamations were issued on August 4. The date of the vote is determined by the fixed-date Canada Elections Act.
At 11 weeks, the campaign was the longest in modern Canadian history. As a result of the 2012 federal electoral redistribution, the number of electoral districts was increased to 338, with additional seats based on population assigned to Alberta, British Columbia and Quebec. Traditionally, party leaders participated in at least two nationally televised debates during the federal election – at least one each in English and French; these debates were produced by a consortium of Canada's major television networks. In May 2015, the Conservatives said they would not participate in the consortium debates and instead would take part in as many as five independently staged debates in the run-up to the fall federal election; the Conservatives agreed to participate in a French-language debate organized by the consortium of broadcasters as one of their five debates. The New Democratic Party confirmed that Tom Mulcair would accept every debate where the Prime Minister was present; the NDP had confirmed its intention to participate in both of the consortium debates before Stephen Harper withdrew but only participated in the French language consortium debate which included the Conservatives.
Liberal leader Justin Trudeau attended the Maclean's, Globe and Mail, French consortium debates. The Bloc Québécois attended the French language consortium debate and confirmed its attendance at the French-language TVA debate
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was a federal political party in Canada. In 2003, the party membership voted to dissolve the party and merge with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada. One member of the Senate of Canada, Elaine McCoy, sat as an "Independent Progressive Conservative" until 2016; the conservative parties in most Canadian provinces still use the Progressive Conservative name. Some PC Party members formed the Progressive Canadian Party, which has attracted only marginal support. Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, belonged to the Liberal-Conservative Party, but in advance of confederation in 1867, the Conservative Party took in a large number of defectors from the Liberals who supported the establishment of a Canadian Confederation. Thereafter, the Conservative Party became the Liberal-Conservative Party until the turn of the twentieth century; the federal Tories governed Canada for over forty of the country's first 70 years of existence.
However, the party spent the majority of its history in opposition as the nation's number-two federal party, behind the Liberal Party of Canada. From 1896 to 1993 the Tories formed a government only five times—from 1911 to 1921, from 1930 to 1935, from 1957 to 1963, from 1979 to 1980 and from 1984 to 1993, it stands as the only Canadian party to have won more than 200 seats in an election—a feat it accomplished twice: in 1958 and 1984. The party suffered a decade-long decline following the 1993 federal election and formally dissolved on 7 December 2003, when it merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada; the last meeting of the Progressive Conservative federal caucus was held in early 2004. The Conservative Party of Canada took power in 2006 and governed under the leadership of Stephen Harper until 2015, when it was defeated by the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau. Between the party's founding in 1867, its adoption of the "Progressive Conservative" name in 1942, the party changed its name several times.
It was most known as the Conservative Party. Several loosely associated provincial Progressive Conservative parties continue to exist in Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador; as well, a small rump of Senators opposed the merger, continued to sit in the Parliament of Canada as Progressive Conservatives. The last one of them rescinded their party status in 2016; the Yukon association of the party renamed itself as the Yukon Party in 1990. The British Columbia Progressive Conservative Party changed its name to the British Columbia Conservative Party in 1991. Saskatchewan's Progressive Conservative Party ceased to exist in 1997, when the Saskatchewan Party formed – from former PC Members of the Legislative Assembly with a few Saskatchewan Liberal MLAs joining them; the party adopted the "Progressive Conservative" party name in 1942 when Manitoba Premier John Bracken, a long-time leader of that province's Progressive Party, agreed to become leader of the federal Conservatives on condition that the party add Progressive to its name.
Despite the name change, most former Progressive supporters continued to support the Liberal Party of Canada or the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Bracken's leadership of the Conservative Party came to an end in 1948. Many Canadians continued to refer to the party as "the Conservatives". A major weakness of the party since 1885 was its inability to win support in Quebec, estranged by that year's execution of Louis Riel; the Conscription Crisis of 1917 exacerbated the issue. Though the Conservative Party of Quebec dominated politics in that province for the first 30 years of Confederation at both the federal and provincial levels, in the 20th century the party was never able to become a force in provincial politics, losing power in 1897, dissolving in 1935 into the Union Nationale, which took power in 1936 under Maurice Duplessis. In 20th-century federal politics, the Conservatives were seen as insensitive to French-Canadian ambitions and interests and succeeded in winning more than a handful of seats in Quebec, with a few notable exceptions: the 1930 federal election, in which Richard Bedford Bennett led the party to a thin majority government victory by securing 24 seats in rural Quebec.
The party never recovered from the fragmentation of Mulroney's broad coalition in the late 1980s resulting from Anglophone Canada's failure to ratify the Meech Lake Accord. Prior to its merger with the Canadian Alliance, it held only 15 of 301 seats in the House of Commons of Canada; the party did not hold more than 20 seats in Parliament between 1993 and 2003. The party pre-dates confederation in 1867, when it accepted many conservative-leaning former members of the Liberal Party into its ranks. At confederation, the Liberal-Conservative Party of Canada became Canada's first governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald, for years was either the governing party of Canada or the largest opposition party; the party changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada following the election as leader of Progressive Party of Manitoba Premier John Bracken in December 1942, who insisted on the name change as a condition of becoming leader. The Progressive Conservative Party was on the
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre federal political party in Canada. It was formed in 2003 from the merger of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance, it traces its history to the original Conservative Party of Canada, formed after Confederation in 1867 and changed its name to Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. In Canadian politics, the party sits to the right of the Liberal Party of Canada. Like their federal Liberal rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", welcoming a broad variety of members; the party's leader is Andrew Scheer. From Confederation till 1942, the Conservative Party of Canada participated in numerous governments. Before 1942, the predecessors to the Conservatives had multiple names, but by 1942, the main right-wing Canadian force became known as the Progressive Conservatives. In 1957, John Diefenbaker became the first Prime Minister from the Progressive Conservative Party, remained in office until 1963.
Another Progressive Conservative government was elected after the results of the 1979 federal election, with Joe Clark becoming Prime Minister. Clark served from 1979 to 1980, when he was defeated by the Liberal Party after the 1980 federal election. In 1984, the Progressive Conservatives won with Brian Mulroney becoming Prime Minister. Mulroney was Prime Minister from 1984 to 1993, his government was marked by free trade agreements and economic liberalization; the party suffered a near complete loss after the 1993 federal election, thanks to a splintering of the right-wing. A similar result occurred in 1997, in 2000, when the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives merged, forming the Conservative Party of Canada; the unified Conservative Party favours lower taxes, small government, more decentralization of federal government powers to the provinces modeled after the Meech Lake Accord and a tougher stand on "law and order" issues.
The party won two minority governments after the 2006 federal election, a majority government in the 2011 federal election before being defeated in the 2015 federal election by a majority Liberal government. John Lynch-Staunton served as interim leader of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada from 8 December 2003 until 20 March 2004, when the party elected Stephen Harper as its first leader. Andrew Scheer was elected leader on 27 May 2017; the Deputy Leader is appointed by the Leader. The National Council is the party's national governing body, elected by the Conservative Party membership at its bi-annual meetings. A National Councillor is elected for a two-year term and cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. Composition of the National Council is based on the following criteria: four members from a province with more than 100 seats in the House of Commons three members from a province with 52–100 seats two from any province with 26–50 seats one member from each province with 4–25 seats one member from each territory the Party leader The Chair of the Conservative Fund Canada the Executive Director.
At present, the National Council has four members from Ontario. The party president is elected by National Council following their election. Since 2016, the President of the Conservative Party has been Scott Lamb, a councillor representing British Columbia; the party President is the conduit between the National Council. Don Plett interim until 2005 John Walsh Scott Lamb The Executive Director answers to the party President, is responsible for the day-to-day management and operations of the party. From February 2009 to December 2013, the Executive Director was Dan Hilton. Dimitri Soudas was named the new Executive Director in December 2013. On 30 March 2014, Soudas was told to resign or be fired from the position after interfering with the nomination contest taking place in his fiancée's riding. In July 2014, Dustin Van Vugt was brought in as the Deputy Executive Director – a position created for him; some media agencies, such as the CBC, suggested that this was a way for Thompson to begin handing over the work for the top job to Van Vugt, until his promotion to Executive Director could be formally ratified by the party's National Council.
In October 2014, Van Vugt's position was unanimously ratified by the party's National Council, Thompson became the Chief Operations Officer. The Director of Political Operations reports to the Executive Director, is one of the most important positions within the party; the person filling this role has direct access to the party leader, due to their responsibilities for organizing the party's work on the ground and in preparing for the next election. With Stephen Harper as Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader, the Director of Political Operations has moved from party positions to the Prime Minister's and other Minister's Offices, back to the party's headquarters, depending on the identified needs. Doug Finley was the Director of Political Operations until 2009, when Finley was appointed to the Senate and Jenni Byrne Finley's Deputy, became the Director. In August 2013, Byrne left the job to become the co-Deputy Chief of Staff in the Prime Minister's O