Troy Duffy is an American director and musician. He has directed two films, The Boondock Saints, its sequel, The Boondock Saints II: All Saints Day, he was the subject of a 2003 documentary film Overnight. Duffy moved to Los Angeles in his twenties to pursue a music career with The Brood. While seeking gigs, he worked at a bar where he wrote the script for the motion picture The Boondock Saints during his break periods; the inspiration for the screenplay happened one day when he came home from his job to find a dead woman being wheeled out of a drug dealer's apartment across the hall. Duffy rented a computer and wrote the screenplay for The Boondock Saints based on his disgust at what he saw: I decided right there that out of sheer frustration and not being able to afford a psychologist, I was going to write this, think about it. People watching the news sometimes get so disgusted by. Susan Smith drowning her kids... guys going into McDonald's, lighting up the whole place. You hear things that disgust you so much that if you're Mother Teresa, there comes a breaking point.
One day you're gonna watch the news and you're gonna say,'Whoever did that despicable thing should pay with their life.' You think -- for maybe just a minute --. I was going to give everybody that sick fantasy, and tell it as truthfully as I could. I wrote in three sections. I wrote the beginning and I started thinking of cool shit for the middle. Somehow between the beginning and the middle, the ending dictated itself; the script featured two brothers in Boston dedicated to killing Mafia thugs. Duffy had completed the screenplay in fall of 1996 and passed it to a producer's assistant at New Line Cinema to be read by a senior executive; the screenplay changed hands through multiple studios and Duffy was approached by multiple producers for the rights. In March 1997, he was contracted by Paramount Pictures for $500,000, in the month, Miramax Films won a bidding war to buy The Boondock Saints; the studio offered $450,000 to Duffy to direct the film. It was reported the script was worth $300,000, the film itself was given a $15 million budget by Miramax's Harvey Weinstein.
Duffy's band The Brood would do the soundtrack, as a bonus, Miramax offered to buy and throw in co-ownership of J. Sloan's, where Duffy worked. Filming of The Boondock Saints was scheduled for the coming autumn in Boston. Duffy sought to cast Stephen Dorff and Mark Wahlberg as the Irish brothers, though Wahlberg passed for Boogie Nights; the director wanted to cast Billy Connolly and Kenneth Branagh in the film, with Branagh playing the gay FBI agent. Duffy expressed interest in casting Brendan Fraser, Nicky Katt, Ewan McGregor, with two of them as the brothers, but no decisions were finalized; the director sought Patrick Swayze to play the FBI agent, but Miramax preferred Sylvester Stallone, Bill Murray or Mike Myers. Before pre-production work was supposed to begin in Boston in December 1997, Miramax pulled out of the project. Producer Lloyd Segan said that the project had stalled due to location problems. While Duffy was able to keep the writer's fee of $300,000, the studio required the reimbursement of the $150,000 director's fee and the $700,000 advance to develop the project.
After being dropped by Miramax, still believing that the film was a hot commodity, Duffy convinced agents at the William Morris Agency to help him market it to other studios. The independent studio Franchise Pictures agreed to finance the project, for less than half of Miramax's original budget, once other elements were in place. Desperate to get the project rolling and convinced that it would prove a major success, Duffy took the deal. Duffy approached actors Sean Patrick Flanery and Norman Reedus to play the Irish vigilante brothers and Willem Dafoe to play the FBI agent. Having found someone to back the film, filming began in Toronto, with the final scenes being filmed in Boston; the name of Duffy's band The Brood was changed to The Boondock Saints, following the movie's release. The film featured two songs from the band: "Holy Fool", which played during Rocco's tavern shootout, "Pipes", which played during the credits. After shooting, the film was shopped at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival in the hopes of finding a distributor – every major studio in the US turned it down.
After failing to find a distributor at Cannes, the film was picked up by a small company for a limited theatrical release of five theaters in the US for a period of seven days. Duffy's story is featured in the documentary by filmmaker Jeff Santo entitled Off The Boulevard. A more critical view of Duffy's rise and fall is told in Overnight, a documentary by Tony Montana and Mark Brian Smith. Through word of mouth, The Boondock Saints has grossed over $50 million in domestic video sales, of which Duffy received nothing due to the structure of the contract he signed with the distribution company. According to Duffy, neither he, his producers nor his principal cast got paid, he sued Franchise Pictures and other undisclosed companies for royalties of the first film and rights to the sequel. After a lengthy lawsuit, Troy Duffy, his producers and the principal cast received an undisclosed amount of The Boondock Saints royalties as well as the sequel rights. After a number of years, he returned for the sequel to The Boondock Saints, titled The Boondock Saints II: All Saints Day, released on October 30, 2009.
The film grossed $11 million at the box office and has grossed over $50 million in DVD
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Norwich, known as'The Rose of New England,' is a city in New London County, United States. The population was 40,493 at the 2010 United States Census. Three rivers, the Yantic, the Shetucket, the Quinebaug, flow into the city and form its harbor, from which the Thames River flows south to Long Island Sound. Norwichtown was founded in 1659, by settlers from Old Saybrook led by Major John Mason and Reverend James Fitch, they purchased the land "nine miles square" that would become Norwich from the local Native Mohegan Sachem Uncas. One of the co-founders of Norwich was Thomas Leffingwell, who had rescued Chief Uncas when surrounded by his Narragansett enemies, whose son founded the Leffingwell Inn. In 1668, a wharf was established at Yantic Cove. Settlement was in the three-mile area around the Norwichtown Green; the 69 founding families soon divided up the land in the Norwichtown vicinity for farms and businesses. By 1694, the public landing built at the head of the Thames River allowed ships to offload goods at the harbor.
The distance between the port and Norwichtown was serviced by the East and West Roads, which became Washington Street and Broadway. The original center of the town was a neighborhood now called Norwichtown, an inland location chosen to be the center of a agricultural farming community. By the latter 18th century, shipping at the harbor began to become far more important than farming when industrial mills began manufacturing on the three smaller rivers. By the early 19th century, the center of Norwich had moved to the Chelsea neighborhood; the official buildings of the city were located in the harbor area, such as the City Hall and post office, all the large 19th-century urban blocks. The former center is now called Norwichtown to distinguish it from the current city. Norwich merchants were shipping goods directly from England, but the Stamp Act of 1764 forced Norwich to become more self-sufficient. Soon large mills and factories sprang up at the falls on the rivers; the ship captains of Norwich and New London who were skillful at avoiding Imperial taxation during peacetime were just as successful eluding warships during war.
During the American Revolution Norwich supported the cause for independence by supplying soldiers and munitions. Norwich was a center for activity for the Sons of Liberty. Colonial era less noteworthies include Christopher Leffingwell, Daniel Lathrop; the Oxford English Dictionary attests the first recorded use of the term "Hello" to The Norwich Courier on 18 October 1826. Regular steamship service between New York and Boston helped Norwich to prosper as a shipping center through the early part of the 19th century. During the Civil War, Norwich once again rallied and saw the growth of its textile and specialty item manufacturing; this was spurred by the building of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad in 1832–1837 bringing goods and people both in and out of Norwich. By the 1870s the Springfield and New London Railroad was running trains through Norwich. In 1892, the city's first electric trolleys started service to local areas, plus to some cities including Westerly, New London and Putnam. In 1952 the town and city of Norwich were consolidated into one.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.5 square miles, of which 28.3 sq mi is land and 1.2 sq mi is water. Several Norwich neighborhoods maintain independent identities and are recognized by official signs marking their boundaries. Neighborhoods of Norwich are Norwichtown, Bean Hill, Taftville, Occum, East Great Plains, Laurel Hill and Chelsea As of the census of 2000, there were 36,117 people, 15,091 households, 9,069 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,274.7 people per square mile. There were 16,600 housing units at an average density of 585.9 per square mile. Twenty-nine percent of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. Thirty-two percent of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 24.1% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. In 2012, the population had risen to 40,502 and the racial makeup of the city was 70% White, 13% Hispanic or Latino, 10% Black or African American, 8% Asian, 1% Native American. A significant influx of Chinese Americans has settled in Norwich since 2010; the 2012 median income for a household in the city was $51,300. Fifteen percent of the population were below the poverty line; the AA Eastern League Connecticut Defenders the Norwich Navigators, were a farm team of the San Francisco Giants and they played at Senator Thomas J. Dodd Memorial Stadium from both's inception in 1995 until the team announced its move to Richmond, Virginia for the 2010 season, where they are now known as the Richmond Flying Squirrels.
However, starting in 2010, Dodd Stadium became the home to the Connecticut Tigers in the Class-A short-season New York–Penn League. The ESPN mini-series; this forested area is Norwich's la
The Actors Studio is a membership organization for professional actors, theatre directors and playwrights at 432 West 44th Street between Ninth and Tenth Avenues in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. It was founded October 5, 1947, by Elia Kazan, Cheryl Crawford and Robert Lewis, who provided training for actors who were members. Lee Strasberg joined and took the helm in 1951 until his death on February 17, 1982; the Studio is best known for its work teaching method acting. The approach was developed by the Group Theatre in the 1930s based on the innovations of Konstantin Stanislavski. While at the Studio, actors work together to develop their skills in a private environment where they can take risks as performers without the pressure of commercial roles; as of May 2018, the studio's co-presidents are Alec Baldwin and Al Pacino. The Artistic Director in New York, is Beau Gravitte, the Associate Artistic Director in New York is Estelle Parsons. After an initial meeting held on October 5, 1947, at the Labor Stage, located at 106 W. 39th Street, in which goals and ground rules of the new organization were discussed, the studio opened for business the following day at the Union Methodist Episcopal Church, located at 229 West 48th Street home to the Actors Kitchen and Lounge, long a source of rental rehearsal space for local theatrical producers.
Before settling in its current location in 1955, the Studio moved over an eight-year period: In January 1948, it was a dance studio on East 59th Street. In April of that year, a move to the CBS Building at 1697 Broadway, near 53rd Street, established some semblance of stability. From that point, the old Theatre Guild rehearsal rooms on the top floor of the ANTA Theatre became home, as they would remain until October 1954, at which point theatre renovations reduced the Studio to renting space twice a week; this it did at the Malin Studios at 1545 Broadway, room 610. This arrangement would persist throughout the 1954–1955 theatrical season as the Studio was acquiring and renovating its current venue. In 1955 it moved to its current location in the former West Forty-fourth Street United Presbyterian Church, a Greek Revival structure, built for the Seventh Associate Presbyterian Church in 1858 or 1859, it was one of the last churches to be built in that style in New York City. From September 1994 through May 2005, the Studio collaborated with The New School in the education of masters-level theatre students at the Actors Studio Drama School.
After ending its contract with the New School, the Actor's Studio established The Actors Studio Drama School at Pace University in 2006. Inside the Actors Studio Notes Further reading ArticlesGerard, Jeremy "Frank Corsaro to Head Actors Studio," The New York Times Heimer, Mel, "My New York" Rochester Sentinel p. 2 Kleiner, Dick "The Actors Studio: Making Stars Out of the Unknown," Sarasota Journal p. 26 Pogrebin, Robin "Pacino and Keitel To Lead the Actors Studio," The New York Times Seligsohn, Leo "Actors Studio Needs Cash Birthday Gift," Sarasota Herald-Tribune p. 6-B Smith, Liz "Controversy Engulfs Actors Studio As Anna Strasberg Resigns," Sarasota Herald-Tribune p. 4-CBooksFrome, Shelly The Actors Studio: a History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1073-6 Garfield, David A Player's Place: The Story of the Actors Studio. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-542650-8 Hirsch, Foster A Method to their Madness: The History of the Actors Studio. New York: WW Norton & Co Inc. ISBN 0-393-01783-4 Official website PBS American Masters Series profile Inside the Actors Studio The Actors Studio MFA Program at Pace University Audio collection of the Actors Studio from 1956–69 at the Wisconsin Historical Society A brief history of the Actors Studio, including Lee Strasberg on its origin and purpose.
David Garfield research files on the Actors Studio, 1947–2003, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC