Tania Aebi is an American sailor. She completed a solo circumnavigation of the globe in a 26-foot sailboat between the ages of 18 and 21, making her the first American woman and the youngest person to sail around the world. Despite many challenges, she accomplished her goal and proved to her father that she could complete something. Aebi did not take much of a sailing background on her voyage. In 1984, when Aebi was sixteen, just before finishing up with an alternative high-school a year early, her father bought a boat in the UK to sail it back across the Atlantic to New York. Aebi went with him and in a course of a year they sailed from the UK to Spain, Morocco, the Canary Islands, the Caribbean and the whole group of Islands, heading back to New York City and arriving there in 1985, they did so as novices. During a year-long trip from England to New York City with her father, Aebi learned the basics of sailing. In May 1985, before the circumvention, Aebi took a correspondence course in celestial navigation.
Aebi had no sailing or navigation experience when she departed on her journey, on 28 May 1985. She was eighteen years old. Aebi did not have a GPS receiver. Instead, Aebi had a sextant for a radio direction finder, she used the first leg of her trip from New Jersey to Bermuda as a sea trial of her boat and was plagued by factory defects that may have been corrected before departure had they been exposed. Hearing of Aebi's father's round-the-world offer, many sailors accused Ernst Aebi of taking a cavalier attitude toward his daughter's safety, to which he responded: I didn't feel it was irresponsible. It's a lot less risky to be on the ocean than to be hanging out in bars at 4 a.m. on the Lower East Side like she used to do. Aebi set out on her circumnavigation in her $40,000 sloop, Varuna, on May 28, 1985, her only other sailing experience being a six-month cruise of the Atlantic she had made with her father, her two sisters and her brother. Varuna was called so after a Vedic deity associated with sky, waters and truth.
The boat was a Taylor 26, a Canadian version of Contessa 26, which cost $40,000. Aebi's arrival back in New York City on November 6, 1987, after a cold November, transit across the Atlantic on Varuna was heralded nationally by the news media. Upon Aebi's arrival in New york on Varuna, President Reagan sent Aebi a message saying: You set your energy and youth against an ancient challenge on the ageless seas, you triumphed. In May 1985, with only few months of limited sailing experience, Aebi sailed away from a New York City dock, bound for Bermuda in her small boat. In November 1987 Aebi returned to New York City. Aebi's journey was sponsored in part by Cruising World magazine. After Aebi's return from her 3 year long voyage, Cruising World magazine commented: "When anybody that young departs on an adventure that dangerous and does it it is an example to us all." Tarzoon, the cat who traveled more than half the world around with Aebi, survived for more than 20 years and died peacefully in its sleep just before she was to undertake a new voyage with her two teenage sons in 2008.
She and her sons sailed a newly acquired steel monohull across the Caribbean and South Pacific during 2008. Aebi traded off with her ex-husband Olivier Berner, in Papeete, Tahiti. Olivier and his sons continued their cruising passage from there. Aebi recounts the story of her solo-circumnavigation in her book Maiden Voyage which became a bestseller in the United States in 1989; the book is a story of teenage self-discovery and adventure. Aebi's story is unusual because she was by many standards, poorly prepared for her voyage, but prevailed through common sense, skills she both learned and honed underway as well as a strong sense of determination. In 2005 Aebi published her second book, I've Been Around. Aebi writes monthly columns for several cruising magazines. In September 2017 it was announced that Aebi's memoir Maiden Voyage will be adapted into a film, with the working title of Girl at Sea; the adaptation was bought by Cohen Media Group in 2017 with the film script written by screenwriter Joel Silverman.
Tania Aebi. Maiden Voyage. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-41012-2. Tania Aebi. I've Been Around. Sheridan House. ISBN 1-57409-213-8. List of youth solo sailing circumnavigations List of female explorers and travelers Official website Tania Aebi's boat, the Contessa/Taylor 26 Interview with Tania Aebi for Trekity Interview with Tania Aebi, 5 minutes, in December 2017 on YouTube Interview with Tania Aebi for Mad Mariner radio, 10 minutes
A sloop is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig. A sloop has only one head-sail; the most common rig of modern sailboats is the Bermuda-rigged sloop. A modern sloop carries a mainsail on a boom aft of the mast, with a single loose-footed head-sail forward of the mast. Sloops are either fractional-rigged. On a masthead-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches at the top of the mast. On a fractional-rigged sloop, the forestay attaches to the mast at a point below the top 3/4 of the way to top, or 7/8 or some other fraction. Compared to a masthead-rigged sloop, the mast of a fractional-rigged sloop may be placed farther forward. After the cat rig which has only a single sail, the sloop rig is one of the simpler sailing rig configurations. A sloop has two sails, a mainsail and a headsail, while the cutter has a mainsail and two or more headsails. Next in complexity are the ketch, the yawl and the schooner, each of which has two masts and a minimum of three sails. A sloop has a simple system of mast rigging -- a backstay and shrouds.
By having only two sails, the individual sails of a sloop are larger than those of an equivalent cutter, yawl or ketch. Until the advent of lightweight sailcloth and modern sail-handling systems, the larger sails of a sloop could be a handful. So, until the 1950s, sailboats over 10 metres length overall would use a cutter rig or a two-mast rig. After the advent of modern winches and light sailcloth, the sloop became the dominant sailing rig type for all but the largest sailboats. No rig type is perfect for all conditions. Sloops, with their paucity of spars and control lines, tend to impart less aerodynamic drag. Compared to other rigs, sloops tend to perform well when sailing close hauled to windward and offer a sound overall compromise of abilities on all points of sail. Cutters and yawls are preferred to sloops when venturing far offshore, because it is easier to reef small sails as the wind increases, while still keeping the boat balanced. To maximize the amount of sail carried, the classic sloop may use a bowsprit, a spar that projects forward from the bow.
The foresail may be a jib, which does not overlap the mast more than 10 to 20 percent, or a much larger genoa. The genoa's large overlap behind the mainsail helps to guide the airflow and thereby makes the mainsail more effective. For downwind sailing, the jib or genoa may be replaced by larger curved sails known as spinnakers or gennakers. Nowadays, by far the most common sloop rig, for yachts and dinghies, is the Bermuda rig, the optimal rig for upwind sailing. Originating from the island of Bermuda in the 17th century, the Bermuda rig is simple, yet may be tuned to be maneuverable and fast; the main disadvantage is the large size of the sails on larger vessels. It is less successful sailing downwind, when the addition of a spinnaker becomes necessary for faster progress in all but the strongest winds. However, the spinnaker is an intrinsically unstable sail requiring continuous trimming. An alternative downwind sailplan, more stable but slower, is the "wing on wing". Here, the main is swung wide to lee while the jib is swung wide to windward.
However the "wing on wing" configuration tends to dip the bow, requiring crew to move aft to counterbalance the dip. The wing on wing configuration cannot be heeled over to decrease waterline whereas the spinnaker configuration can be. If not tended the main can go slack to the point of being dangerously close to jibing; the jib will have that same tendency and being to windward, will snap a-lee but with no boom and being forward of the mast will make for a far less dangerous move than that of the main. A slack main when to leeward can be brought back under control by hauling on the mainsheet to bring it back in contact with the wind when on the aft quarter to windward but if the wind comes around onto the aft quarter of what had been to lee, the boat must be brought further a-lee to keep the wind strong on the main. Jamaican sloops had beams that were narrower than ocean-going Bermuda sloops, could attain a speed of around 12 knots, they carried gaff rig. The keel of Jamaican sloops would be between 50–75 feet, but could be built longer.
Jamaican sloops were built near the shore and out of cedar trees, for much the same reasons that Bermudian shipwrights favoured the Bermuda cedar: these were resistant to rot, grew fast and tall, had a taste displeasing to marine borers. Cedar was favoured over oak as the latter would rot in about 10 years, while cedar would last for nigh on 30 years and was lighter than oak. Since piracy was a significant threat in Caribbean waters, merchants sought ships that could outrun pursuers; that same speed and maneuverability made them prized and more targeted by the pirates they were designed to avoid. When the ships needed to be de-fouled from seaweed and barnacles, pirates needed a safe haven on which to car
Michael Perham is an English sailor and adventurer from Potters Bar. In 2007 at the age of 14 he became the youngest person in the world to sail across the Atlantic Ocean single-handedly, beating the record set in 2003 by British sailor Seb Clover. In 2009 at the age of 17 he became the youngest person to sail around the world solo. Perham's second record surpassed that of Zac Sunderland, an older 17-year-old American, set only six weeks earlier. Following this, Perham's adventures included driving around the world and racing in many offshore races, most notably the Sydney to Hobart yacht race in 2011 where his team placed second in class. Perham was educated at Chancellor's School, a state comprehensive foundation school, in the village of Brookmans Park in Hertfordshire. In 2007, Perham became the youngest person in the world to sail across the Atlantic Ocean single-handedly, when he helmed the 28 foot Cheeky Monkey between Gibraltar and Antigua with repair stops in the Canary Islands and Cape Verde between 18 November 2006 and 3 January 2007.
That voyage ended when he sailed into Nelson's Dockyard in Antigua at 14:00 GMT after a 3500-mile voyage. His father crossed the Atlantic at the same time in a separate boat. At the time, Perham was 14 years and 293 days old and he took the Guinness World Record from young Briton Seb Clover from Cowes on the Isle of Wight, who had crossed the Atlantic in late 2002 to early 2003, at the age of 15 years and 362 days. On 15 November 2008, Perham began his solo non-stop circumnavigation around the world from Gunwharf Quays in Portsmouth, England, in his chartered Open 50 yacht, totallymoney.com. He had to sell the vessel he used on his previous record attempt to raise money for the new record attempt; the journey was planned to cover some 40,000 km. In fact he completed it on 27 August 2009. Perham was 16 when he began the journey, turned 17 on 16 March 2009, while crossing the Indian Ocean making him the youngest solo round-the-world sailor. If Perham's trip had gone wholly to plan, he would have been competing for the "unassisted non-stop" record, a different record than the assisted sailing record.
However, multiple problems with the autopilot required that repairs be made in lengthy stopovers in Lisbon and the Canary Islands. By March 2009 Perham had decided to aim for the record of the youngest solo circumnavigation, though he continued to make a continuous passage without use of his engine; the decision to accept assistance along the way, along with harsh winter conditions, led Perham to decide to travel through the Panama Canal rather than sail around Cape Horn. Money raised from the voyage was to be donated to Save the Tall Ships Youth Trust. Perham took the record from Zac Sunderland, an American who completed his journey in July 2009 at the age of 17 years, 7 months. However, Sunderland's record was not recognized by Guinness. Perham and Sunderland met unexpectedly in Cape Town, South Africa, in February 2009, along with Minoru Saito, a Japanese sailor, the oldest person to circumnavigate the world solo; the record was challenged by younger sailors. Jessica Watson from Australia has done a solo non-stop voyage, completed 15 May 2010.
They are near friends. Abby Sunderland from the USA departed on 23 January 2010, on a journey similar to Perham's, she used a race boat, planned non-stop, but had to make stops for repairs - however, after a demasting it was announced that she would be giving up her attempt. The 16-year-old Laura Dekker from The Netherlands became the youngest solo-round-the-world sailor, albeit with planned stops, she finished in Sint Maarten on 21 January 2012. Perham has subsequently written a book about the journey, called Sailing the Dream, released 18 March 2010. Perham crossed the finishing line at 09:47:30 local time on 27 August 2009, he was escorted across the line by HMS Mersey, a Royal Naval helicopter and a flotilla of small boats carrying people from the press and media. Perham's official homecoming reception and press conference was at Gunwharf Quays in Portsmouth on 29 August 2009, where he was met by friends and Vendée Globe yachtsman Tony Bullimore. Shortly after landing back on shore, Perham was handed his framed Guinness World Record certificate.
Perham planned to take part in a challenge called the Bounty Boat Expedition, led by Don McIntyre, sailing a small open boat without any navigational aids at all in the path of the small boat sailed by the crew from the mutiny on the Bounty in 1798. However, on 28 March 2010 Perham announced on his website that because of medical problems following a recent operation he wouldn't be fit enough to participate in the expedition. Perham took part in the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race 2011 as a crew member with Jessica Watson as skipper. In 2012 Perham drove around the world in a camper van; this journey took his from the UK, east through Russia, all the way down through Asia to Singapore. He drove across Australia and New Zealand before the final leg of his journey from Anchorage in Alaska to New York. List of youth solo sailing circumnavigations www.mikeperham.co.uk - Michael Perham's Official Website Around World Official Site - Michael Perham's Round The World Trip Official Website. - Michael Perham's Blog.
Guinness World Records Podcast interview with Craig Glenday, 25 September 2007. Michael's Transatlantic Crossing Route at POI66.com
Jessica Watson, OAM is an Australian sailor, awarded the Order of Australia Medal for completing a southern hemisphere solo circumnavigation at the age of 16. Departing Sydney on 18 October 2009, Watson headed north-east crossing the equator in the Pacific Ocean before crossing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, she returned to Sydney on 15 May 2010, three days before her 17th birthday. The voyage was shorter than the required 21,600 nautical miles to be considered a global circumnavigation, Watson never claimed the voyage to be an attempt at such, preferring the less formal term'around the world'. In recognition of her achievement Watson was named the 2011 Young Australian of the Year, the following year was awarded a Medal of the Order of Australia, she resides in Buderim, Queensland. Watson was born in Gold Coast, Australia; the second of four children of New Zealander couple Roger and Julie Watson, who moved to Australia in 1987, she has dual Australian and New Zealand citizenship. She has younger brother and sister.
All four took sailing lessons as children, the family went on to live on board a 16-metre cabin cruiser for five years, the children being home schooled via distance learning. They lived on a purpose-built double decker bus for some time; when Watson was eleven and they were still living on the boat, her mother read Jesse Martin's book Lionheart: A Journey of the Human Spirit to the children as a bedtime story. This led to Watson forming the ambition, at age twelve, to sail around the world too; when she first tasked around the world she drowned. Watson had been planning to complete a solo non-stop and unassisted circumnavigation since at least early 2008. Announced in May 2009, the journey was expected to take eight months with an estimated distance of 23,000 nautical miles. To fulfill the plan of sailing non-stop and unassisted, during the journey no other person would be allowed to give her anything and she must not moor to any port or other boat, although advice over radio communication was permitted.
Watson's planned circumnavigation route was to start and end at Sydney, to pass near New Zealand, Kiribati, Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Leeuwin and South East Cape. In accordance with the definitions for circumnavigations set out by the International Sailing Federation's WSSRC, the equator must be crossed. However, the WSSRC criteria stipulate that a global circumnavigation must have an orthodromic distance of 21,600 nautical miles. Watson's journey did not meet this requirement. Watson arrived back in Sydney Harbour at 1:53 pm, Saturday 15 May 2010; the Los Angeles Times reported Watson's reason for her journey: "I wanted to challenge myself and achieve something to be proud of. And yes, I wanted to inspire people. I hated being judged by my appearance and other people's expectations of what a'little girl' was capable of. It's no longer just my voyage; every milestone out here isn't just my achievement, but an achievement for everyone who has put so much time and effort into helping getting me here."After the journey she continued a relationship with Michael Perham, the continuing youngest circumnavigator.
They met during a stop he made in Australia during his circumnavigation, they had several phone conversations during her journey. Watson has been seen with Australia's youngest federal politician, Wyatt Roy. Jessica's mother insists they are just friends, that Jessica's schedule—which takes her around the country and world—is preventing her from "dating boys."Watson has written a book about her experience, True Spirit published by Hachette Australia. The book was released 29 July 2010. Watson has filmed a documentary about her solo trip before and after completing her journey, it was narrated by Sir Richard Branson and premiered on ONEHD on 16 August 2010, before being released on DVD along with a CD album on 20 August 2010. As training for her voyage, Watson crewed on a number of vessels, including OceansWatch's Magic Roundabout on which she acted as skipper during a crossing of the Tasman Sea. At the time she left on her voyage, Watson had the following qualifications: RYA/ISAF Offshore Safety course Cat zero RYA Diesel Engine course RYA Radar course YAs Safety and Sea Survival certificate OMTC issued Certificates of Competence for Apply First Aid HTLF301B IMO compliant Elementary First Aid Table A VI/1-3 STCW95 Yachtmaster Ocean theory certificates Radio operator's licence About 6,000 coastal and 6,000 ocean miles experience.
The boat is a 10.23-metre Sparkman & Stephens model S&S 34, the same design as used by Jon Sanders, David Dicks and Jesse Martin in their circumnavigations. It was obtained and refitted with new equipment under the supervision of Don McIntyre and Bruce Arms, both skilled and experienced sailors; the refitting included a new galley, reconditioned diesel and water tanks, a complete rebuild of the electrical system. Watson was deeply involved in the preparation of the boat, which she named Ella's Pink Lady. Most of the time the boat is steered by a self-steering windvane system, she has named the system Parker after the chauffeur of the pink Rolls-Royce in the Thunderbirds television series. During a test run sailing from Brisbane to Sydney, on her first night after leaving Brisbane, Ella's Pink Lady collided with the Silver Yang, a 63,000-tonne bulk carrier at about 02.00 am on 9 September 2009 near Point Lookout. Watson's boat was dismasted in the collision, she was able to retain control and return the boat to Southport under moto
A sailor, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, may work in any one in a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship. The profession of the sailor is old, the term sailor has its etymological roots in a time when sailing ships were the main mode of transport at sea, but it now refers to the personnel of all watercraft regardless of the mode of transport, encompasses people who operate ships professionally or recreationally, be it for a military navy or civilian merchant navy. In a navy, there may be further distinctions: sailor may refer to any member of the navy if they are based on land. Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ship's crew can be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward's department, others. Officer positions in the deck department include but are not limited to: master and his chief and third officers.
The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are able seaman and ordinary seaman. With some variation, the chief mate is most charged with the duties of cargo mate. Second Mates are charged with being the medical officer in case of medical emergency. All three mates each do four-hour afternoon shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea. A common deck crew for a ship includes: Captain / Master Chief Officer / Chief Mate Second Officer / Second Mate Third Officer / Third Mate Boatswain Able seamen Ordinary seamen Deck Cadet / unlicensed Trainee navigator / Midshipman A ship's engineering department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operates and maintains the propulsion and other systems on board the vessel. Marine engineering staff deal with the "hotel" facilities on board, notably the sewage, air conditioning and water systems. Engineering staff manage bulk fuel transfers, from a fuel-supply barge in port; when underway at sea, the second and third engineers will be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, to active working tanks.
Cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff are required to have training in firefighting and first aid. Additional duties include performing other nautical tasks. Engineers play a key role in cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers. A common engineering crew for a ship includes: Chief Engineer Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer Motorman Oiler Entry-level rating Wiper Engine Cadet / unlicensed Trainee engineerUSA ships carry a qualified member of the engine department. Other possible positions include motorman, electrician, refrigeration engineer and tankerman. A typical steward's department for a cargo ship is a chief steward, a chief cook and a steward's assistant. All three positions are filled by unlicensed personnel; the chief steward directs and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals.
The chief steward plans menus. The steward may purchase stores and equipment. Galley roles may include baking. A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the steward's assistant, the chief cook, other Steward's department crewmembers. A person has to have a Merchant Mariner's Document issued by the United States Coast Guard in the United States Merchant Marine in order to serve as a chief steward. All chief cooks who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries because of international conventions and agreements; the only time that steward department staff are charged with duties outside the steward department, is during the execution of the fire and boat drill. Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including junior assistant purser, senior assistant purser, chief purser, medical doctor, professional nurse, marine physician assistant and hospital corpsman; these jobs are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard.
Pilots are merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard. Mariners spend extended periods at sea. Most deep-sea mariners are hired for one or more voyages. There is no job security after that; the length of time between voyages varies by personal preference. The rate of unionization for these workers in the United States is about 36 percent, much higher than the average for all occupations. Merchant marine officers and seamen, both veterans and beginners, are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Hiring halls fill jobs by the length of time the person has been registered at the hall and by their union seniority. Hiring halls are found in major seaports. At sea, on larger vessels members of the deck department stand watch for 4 hours and are off for 8 hours, 7 days a week. Mariners work in all weather
The Falkland Islands is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, about 752 miles from the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, at a latitude of about 52°S; the archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles, comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs; the Falkland Islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833. In April 1982, Argentine forces temporarily occupied the islands. British administration was restored two months at the end of the Falklands War. Most Falklanders favour the archipelago remaining a UK overseas territory, but its sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
The population consists of native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, Chile has reversed a population decline; the predominant language is English. Under the British Nationality Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens; the islands lie on the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic and tundra climate zones, both major islands have mountain ranges reaching 2,300 feet. They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands because of competition from introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina; the name "Falkland Islands" comes from Falkland Sound, the strait that separates the two main islands.
The name "Falkland" was applied to the channel by John Strong, captain of an English expedition which landed on the islands in 1690. Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, the Treasurer of the Navy who sponsored his journey; the Viscount's title originates from the town of Falkland, Scotland—the town's name comes from a Gaelic term referring to an "enclosure", but it could less plausibly be from the Anglo-Saxon term "folkland". The name "Falklands" was not applied to the islands until 1765, when British captain John Byron of the Royal Navy, claimed them for King George III as "Falkland's Islands"; the term "Falklands" is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands. The Spanish name for the archipelago, Islas Malvinas, derives from the French Îles Malouines—the name given to the islands by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764. Bougainville, who founded the islands' first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo; the port, located in the Brittany region of western France, was in turn named after St. Malo, the Christian evangelist who founded the city.
At the twentieth session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Fourth Committee determined that, in all languages other than Spanish, all UN documentation would designate the territory as Falkland Islands. In Spanish, the territory was designated as Islas Malvinas; the nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is Falkland Islands. Although Fuegians from Patagonia may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times, the islands were uninhabited when Europeans first discovered them. Claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether early explorers discovered the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic; the first recorded landing on the islands is attributed to English captain John Strong, who, en route to Peru's and Chile's littoral in 1690, discovered the Falkland Sound and noted the islands' water and game. The Falklands remained uninhabited until the 1764 establishment of Port Louis on East Falkland by French captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville, the 1766 foundation of Port Egmont on Saunders Island by British captain John MacBride.
Whether or not the settlements were aware of each other's existence is debated by historians. In 1766, France surrendered its claim on the Falklands to Spain, which renamed the French colony Puerto Soledad the following year. Problems began when Spain discovered and captured Port Egmont in 1770. War was narrowly avoided by its restitution to Britain in 1771. Both the British and Spanish settlements coexisted in the archipelago until 1774, when Britain's new economic and strategic considerations led it to voluntarily withdraw from the islands, leaving a plaque claiming the Falklands for King George III. Spain's Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata became the only governmental presence in the territory. West Falkland was left abandoned, Puerto Soledad became a prison camp. Amid the British invasions of the Río de la Plata during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the islands' governor evacuated the archipelago in 1806. Thereafter, the archipelago was visited only
Zachary Tristan "Zac" Sunderland is an American former sailor, the first person under the age of 18 to sail solo around the world. Sunderland completed his trip after 13 months and 2 days at sea on July 16, 2009 at age 17; the record was held by Australian David Dicks, was surpassed on August 27, 2009 by Michael Perham of England. Sunderland is the youngest American to complete a circumnavigation, surpassing Brian Caldwell, who finished in 1996 at age 20. However, Sunderland's record was not recognized by Guinness World Records, or by the World Sailing Speed Record Council. In 2010, one of Sunderland's younger sisters, Abby Sunderland, attempted the feat, she was forced to call off her attempt. In 2011, Sunderland and his father Laurence participated in the 19th season of The Amazing Race, they ended up in 6th place out of 11 teams and were the sixth team eliminated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The oldest of Marianne and Laurence Sunderland's eight children, Sunderland's first home was a 17-metre Tradewind sailboat.
His family sailed in New Zealand, the UK and Mexico. His shipwright father bought a 51 feet Aleutian and the family made a three-year cruise of California's Channel Islands, Baja California and mainland Mexico; when Sunderland decided to attempt the circumnavigation, he purchased a 36-foot Islander for $6,000, using all of his savings. With his father's assistance, he retrofitted the boat for the trip. Sunderland planned to complete his voyage in April 2009 with a maximum time of 18 months, he continued his schooling while saying, "I have all my books with me. I have one more year to finish at high school and I have to send back my tests to my mom. She's going to grade them and make sure I am doing well."Sunderland departed from Marina del Rey on June 14, 2008. The Intrepid featured logos of Shuman’s RealSweet, Mastronardi’s Sunset Produce, his sponsor Produce for Kids, promoting healthy eating and produce consumption for children. Sunderland crossed the Pacific to his first port of call, the Marshall Islands headed west to Papua New Guinea Australia, the Indian Ocean and Madagascar, rounding the Cape of Good Hope, sailing across the Atlantic, transiting the Panama Canal/Galapagos Islands back to the Pacific and home.
Sunderland planned to make 15 to 30 stops around the world, the first of, to be the Marshall Islands, Micronesia. Due to some minor work needed to be done on the boat, the desire to reprovision, he re-routed to Hawaii. On July 11, Zac made his first stop at Emerald Bay, Catalina Island before heading on to Ala Wai Boat Harbor, off Diamond Head, he headed towards the Marshall Islands, on July 16, 2008. On August 4, 2008, Marshall Islands President Litokwa Tomeing formally welcomed and congratulated Sunderland in the President's Office on Majuro: "And how is your boat? I remember one time I went with my parents on a 26- or 27-foot canoe and we sailed from Wotje to Arno." The U. S. Ambassador to the Marshall Islands, Clyde Bishop, welcomed Sunderland to Majuro U. S. Embassy on August 7. Sailing from Majuro, Sunderland reached Darwin, Australia on September 18, 2008, with a faulty bilge pump and fuel problems forcing him a stop in Papua New Guinea. Sunderland had his first encounter with pirates on October 7 after leaving Darwin.
250 km off the Indonesian coast, in the Indian Ocean near Cocos Islands, he encountered a large 60–70-foot wooden fishing boat without flags. The pirates, after shadowing the Intrepid for some time lost interest and sped off, but not before Sunderland, as a precaution, had loaded his revolver and locked himself in his cabin. Sunderland endured 25-knot winds and 10-foot seas for more than 24 hours on October 13. Amid continuing engine and fuel problems, a snapped boom, a broken tiller needing repairs, Sunderland reached Cocos Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean on October 14, he proceeded to Mauritius. Sunderland turned 17 on November 2008, while at sea. Sunderland arrived in Durban, South Africa after 10 days becalmed, he flew home on December 22 for Christmas and returned to South Africa afterward to resume his journey. Sunderland took short hops to East London, Port Elizabeth, Mossel Bay, got to Cape Town, where he had a chance meeting with Mike Perham, competing for the record as the world's youngest solo-circumnavigator, Minoru Saito who, at 75, was making his eighth trip and held the record as the oldest solo, non-stop circumnavigator.
After departing Cape Town, Sunderland continued to St. Helena and across the Atlantic to Grenada, his next stop was Panama. After stops in Mexico to dodge bad weather and repair a bulkhead, Sunderland tacked back up the coast to home, arriving July 16, 2009; the World Sailing Speed Record Council, the world sailing authority, complimented Sunderland on his achievement but did not ratify it and further stated that the route did not meet the requirements for a circumnavigation voyage. According to John Reed, Secretary to the WSSRC, Sunderland used an engine at various times during the attempt, had assistance and did not sail around Cape Horn. However, the American Sailing Association has ratified it, using less strict rules, just "circumnavigating alone". On September 19, 2009, Sunderland was Grand Marshal of the 14th annual Route 66 Parade in Duarte, California. On December 12, he was Grand Marshal of the 2009 Marina del Rey Holiday Boat Parade in Marina del Rey, California. List of youth solo sailing circumnavigations Official website Laurence & Zac's