Lambda Literary Award
Lambda Literary Awards are awarded yearly by the US-based Lambda Literary Foundation to published works which celebrate or explore LGBT themes. Categories include Humor and Biography, to qualify, a book must have been published in the United States in the year current to the award. The awards were instituted in 1988, the program has grown from 14 awards in early years to 22 awards today. In addition to the literary awards, the Lambda Literary Foundation presents a number of special awards. Beginning in 2011, the Lambda Literary Awards took over the Jim Duggins Outstanding Mid-Career Novelists Prize, formerly presented by the Saints and Sinners Literary Festival. The award, endowed by academic and writer James Duggins, is presented annually to two LGBT writers, one male and one female, to honor their body of work. In 2013, the instituted the Dr. Betty Berzon Emerging Writer Award. 1 In both the bisexual and transgender categories, presentation may vary according to the number of eligible titles submitted in any given year.
Ellen Hart has won five awards in the Lesbian Mystery category, the most by any single author, and is one of only three writers to have won the award more than once. Similarly, Michael Nava has won five awards in the Gay Mystery category, the most by any single author, and is one of only three writers to have won the award more than once. Alison Bechdel has won four awards in the Humor category, the most by any single author, the Humor category has been discontinued. Nicola Griffith and Melissa Scott have each won four awards in the Scifi/Fantasy/Horror category, colm Tóibín is the only writer to have won two awards in the Gay Fiction category, for The Master in 2004 and for The Empty Family in 2011. Paul Monette is the writer to have won two awards in the Gay Non-Fiction category, for Borrowed Time in 1989 and for Becoming a Man in 1993. A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics and Lipstick Lesbians in 2007 The LGBT Non-Fiction award for Gay L. A, a History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics and Lipstick Lesbians in 2007 The Pioneer Award in 2013.
Michael Nava received both Gay Mystery/Science Fiction and Gay Small Press awards for Golden Boy in 1989, dorothy Allison received both Lesbian Small Press and Lesbian Fiction awards for Trash, Short Stories in 1989. Duberman received both Gay Anthology and Lesbian Anthology awards for Hidden from History in 1990, jewelle Gomez received both Lesbian Scifi/Fantasy/Horror and Lesbian Fiction awards for The Gilda Stories in 1992. Loren Cameron received both Small Press and Transgender awards for Body Alchemy, Transsexual Portraits in 1997, Lisa C. Moore received both Small Press and Lesbian Studies awards for Does Your Mama Know. in 1998. James Saslow received both Gay Studies and Visual Arts awards for Pictures and Passions in 2000, noelle Howey and Ellen Samuels received both Anthologies/Non-Fiction and Childrens/Young Adult awards for Out of the Ordinary in 2001
Wallace Earle Stegner was an American novelist, short story writer and historian, often called The Dean of Western Writers. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1972 and the U. S. National Book Award in 1977. Stegner was born in Lake Mills and grew up in Great Falls, Salt Lake City and the village of Eastend, Stegner says he lived in twenty places in eight states and Canada. He was the son of Hilda and George Stegner, while living in Utah, he joined a Boy Scout troop at an LDS Church and earned the Eagle Scout award. He received a B. A. at the University of Utah in 1930 and he studied at the University of Iowa, where he received a masters degree in 1932 and a doctorate in 1935. In 1934, Stegner married Mary Stuart Page, Stegners son, Page Stegner, is a novelist, nature writer and professor emeritus at University of California, Santa Cruz. Page is married to Lynn Stegner, a novelist, Page co-authored American Places and edited the 2008 Collected Letters of Wallace Stegner. Stegner taught at the University of Wisconsin and Harvard University, eventually he settled at Stanford University, where he founded the creative writing program.
He served as an assistant to Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall and was elected to the Sierra Clubs board of directors for a term that lasted 1964–1966. He moved into a house near Matadero Creek on Three Forks Road in nearby Los Altos Hills, Stegners novel Angle of Repose won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1972. Yet it was based on the letters of Mary Hallock Foote, in 1977 Stegner won the National Book Award for The Spectator Bird. In the late 1980s, he refused a National Medal from the National Endowment for the Arts because he believed the NEA had become too politicized, Stegners semi-autobiographical novel Crossing to Safety gained broad literary acclaim and commercial popularity. Powell served as a government scientist and was an advocate of conservation in the American West. Stegner wrote the foreword to and edited This Is Dinosaur, with photographs by Philip Hyde, the Sierra Club book was used in the campaign to prevent dams in Dinosaur National Monument and helped launch the modern environmental movement.
A substantial number of Stegners works are set in and around Greensboro, some of his character representations were sufficiently unflattering that residents took offense, and he did not visit Greensboro for several years after its publication. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Stegners birth, Timothy Egan reflected in The New York Times on the writers legacy, over 100 readers including Jane Smiley offered comments on the subject. This book publication prize is awarded to the best monograph the Press receives on the topic of American western or environmental history within a time period. Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, has a history of presenting a lecture titled after Stegner
Lambda Literary Foundation
The Lambda Literary Foundation is a LGBT literary organization. The Annual Lambda Literary Awards honor Excellence in LGBT literature in various categories that change from year to year, started in 1988, the Lambda Literary Awards are based principally on the LGBT content, the sexual orientation of the author and the literary merit of the work. The Writers’ Retreat for Emerging LGBT Voices was established in 2007 by the Lambda Literary Foundation and it is a one-week intensive immersion course in fiction, nonfiction, or poetry, aiming to allow new writers learn from established writers in the LGBT community. In 2016 lambda published their first hardback, Emerge,2015 Lambda Fellows Anthology, bookish is a weekly newsletter compiled by the editorial staff of the Lambda Literary Review. Lambda offers a variety of scholarships to emerging LGBT voices most recently adding scholarships in honor of transgender writer Bryn Kelly and feminist writer Jeanne Cordova
Patricia Wettig is an American actress and playwright. She is perhaps best known for her role as Nancy Krieger Weston in the ABC television drama thirtysomething for which she received three Primetime Emmy Awards and a Golden Globe Award. Other notable works include the portrayal of Vice President Caroline Reynolds in the Fox serial drama Prison Break and she is known for her roles in the comedy films City Slickers, City Slickers II, The Legend of Curlys Gold, and the science fiction miniseries The Langoliers. Wettig was born in Milford, Ohio, to Florence and Clifford Neal Wettig and she has three sisters, Pam and Peggy. She was raised in Grove City and graduated from Grove City High School in 1970 and she attended Ohio Wesleyan University and graduated from Temple University in 1975. She returned to her studies in life and received a Master of Fine Arts in playwriting from Smith College in 2001, f2M, a play she authored, was performed in 2011 as part of the New York Stage and Film and Vassar Colleges 2011 Powerhouse Theater season.
Although Wettig has acted in a number of films, she is best known for her work on television and she received critical acclaim for her role as Nancy Weston on ABCs thirtysomething. Her portrayal of Nancys cancer struggle attracted considerable acclaim and attention and she portrayed Joanne McFadden on the television program St. Elsewhere. In addition, Wettig appeared in a number of television programs during the 1980s and 1990s including L. A. Law, Hill Street Blues. Wettig starred in the ABC comedy-drama series Brothers & Sisters, which debuted in September 2006 and her character was the co-CEO at Ojai Foods with Sarah Walker, the daughter of William Walker. She left the show mid-season during Season 5 after her character Holly Harper followed her daughter to New York along with her fiance David played by real life husband Ken Olin and this season sees the whole Harper family absent from the show. Wettig had the role of CIA psychotherapist Dr. Judy Barnett on Alias. Before joining Brothers & Sisters, she played the fictional Vice President Caroline Reynolds on the 2005 Fox television drama and she turned down Foxs offer of becoming a series regular on Prison Break in order to pursue Brothers & Sisters.
In 2007 ABC and FOX agreed that Wettig could briefly reprise her role as Caroline Reynolds, providing off-camera voice-overs, in 2012, Wettig joined the national tour for Larry Kramers production, The Normal Heart. Wettig is married to actor and producer Ken Olin, they have two children, Clifford Olin and Roxanne Roxy Olin, Roxy Olin was a principal cast member of the MTV series The City, and had a regular role on the ABC drama Brothers & Sisters. Patricia Wettig at the Internet Movie Database
American Library Association
The American Library Association is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world, founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey, Fred B. Perkins, Charles Evans, and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia, in attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor, William Frederick Poole, Charles Ammi Cutter, Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from England, the aim of the Association, in that resolution, was to enable librarians to do their present work more easily and at less expense. The Association has worked throughout its history to define, protect, during this period, the first Library Bill of Rights was drafted by Forrest Spaulding to set a standard against censorship and was adopted by the ALA in 1939. This has been recognized as the moment defining modern librarianship as a committed to intellectual freedom.
The ALA formed the Staff Organizations Round Table in 1936 and the Library Unions Round Table in 1940, the ALA appointed a committee to study censorship and recommend policy after the banning of The Grapes of Wrath and the implementation of the LBR. The committee reported in 1940 that intellectual freedom and professionalism were linked and recommended a permanent committee – Committee on Intellectual Freedom, in 1961, the ALA took a stand regarding service to African Americans and others, advocating for equal library service for all. An amendment was passed to the LBR in 1961 that made clear that an individuals library use should not be denied or abridged because of race, national origin, some communities decided to close their doors rather than desegregate. In 1963, the ALA commissioned a study, Access to Public Libraries, in 1967 some librarians protested against a pro-Vietnam War speech given by General Maxwell D. This group called themselves the Organizing Committee for the ALA Round Table on Social Responsibilities of Libraries and this group drew in many other under-represented groups in the ALA who lacked power, including the Congress for Change in 1969.
This formation of the committee was approved in 1969 and would change its name to the Social Responsibilities Round Table in 1971). After its inception, the Round Table of Social Responsibilities began to press ALA leadership to address such as library unions, working conditions, wages. The Freedom to Read Foundation was created by ALAs Executive Board in 1969, the Black Caucus of the ALA and the Office for Literacy and Outreach were set up in 1970. His comments were inappropriate and fell far short of the commitment to diversity. Handlers remarks come at a time when the world has little diversity. Works from authors and illustrators of color make up less than 8 percent of children’s titles produced in 2013, the ALA hopes this regrettable incident will be used to open a dialogue on the need for diversity in the publishing industry, particularly in regards to books for young people. The ALA Archives, including documents, non-current records
The Danish Girl (film)
The film was released in a limited release on 27 November 2015 by Focus Features in the United States. The film was released on 1 January 2016, in the United Kingdom, Vikander won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and Redmayne was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. It was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best British Film, the act of posing as a female figure unmasks Einars lifelong identification as a woman, who named herself Lili Elbe. This sets off a progression, first tentative and irreversible, of leaving behind the identity as Einar, which she has struggled to maintain all her life. This takes place as both Lili and Gerda relocate to Paris, Gerdas portraits of Lili in her feminine state attract serious attention from art dealers in a way that her previous portraiture had not. It is there that Gerda tracks down art dealer Hans Axgil, eventually, at Hanss recommendation and Gerda meet Dr. Kurt Warnekros. This would entail a two-part procedure that involves first removing Lilis external genitalia and then, after a period of recovery and he warns them that it is a very dangerous operation that has never been attempted before, and Lili would be one of the first to undergo it.
Lili immediately agrees and, soon after, travels to Germany to begin the surgery, her eagerness to shed the vestiges of the male anatomy leads her to rush the sequence of procedures, and Lili eventually dies of complications from the surgery. The movie ends with Gerda and Hans on a back in Denmark. The scarf that Lili had originally given Gerda, and that had subsequently given back and forth several times, is carried away on the wind. Screenwriter Lucinda Coxon worked on the screenplay for a decade before it was produced and she told Creative Screenwriting, I started in 2004 and within a couple of years we had a script we were happy to send out. We were terribly excited and I was fantastically naïve, because when you fall in love with a project, the actors were very much in love with it. Several well-known actresses wanted to play Gerda, but the matter made it quite difficult to find someone to play Lili. We scheduled various directors and with each director came a new draft, in December 2009, Swedish newspapers reported that Alfredson was no longer attached to direct The Danish Girl and would begin work on Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy next.
Alfredson said he regretted that reports of him working on The Danish Girl spread before the deal was finalized and he said that he still wanted to make the film and might return to the project. On 12 January 2010, Swedish director Lasse Hallström told Swedish media that he had assigned to replace Alfredson as director. Charlize Theron was originally slated to play the role of Gerda Wegener but, Paltrow left the project due to location changes. Uma Thurman was a rumoured replacement, in September 2010, Marion Cotillard was rumored to be the lead candidate for the role of Gerda Wegener
A debut novel is the first novel a novelist publishes. First-time novelists without a previous published reputation, such as publication in nonfiction, magazines, or literary journals, sometimes new novelists will self-publish their debut novels, because publishing houses will not risk the capital needed to market books by an unknown author to the public. Most publishers purchase rights to novels, especially debut novels, through literary agents, for this reason, literary communities have created awards that help acknowledge exceptional debut novels. The books film rights were purchased soon after by producer Scott Rudin. For similar reasons that advances are not very large—novels frequently dont sell well until the author gains a literary reputation. There are exceptions, YouTube star Zoella published her debut novel Girl Online in November 2014, the novel saw huge sales because she already had an established audience, and publishers were willing to run a large print run. By comparison, bestselling Fifty Shades of Grey sold 14,814 copies in its first week, or popular novels like Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, only receive small initial print runs.
Debut novels that do well will be reprinted as sales increase due to word of mouth popularity of the novels — publishers dont often run large marketing campaigns for debut novelists, there are numerous literary prizes for debut novels often associated with genre or nationality. These prizes are in recognition of the difficulties faced by debut novelists and bring attention to deserving works, often an authors first novel will not be as complex stylistically or thematically as subsequent works and often will not feature the authors typical literary characteristics. As examples, Astor points to J. R. R, instead of writing novels to begin their career, some authors will start with short stories, which can be easier to publish and allow authors to get started in writing fiction. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest attested usage of first novel is from 1876, the term is much older, with instances going back to at least 1800. The Oxford English Dictionary doesnt have an entry for debut novel, the earliest usage of debut novel in the Google Books database is 1930.
The Google Books Ngram Viewer shows it becoming more used after about 1980
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
In October,2015, she began starring in the CBS/CW show Supergirl as Alexandra Alex Danvers. Leigh was born in Charlotte, North Carolina and she is the daughter of Yvonne Norton and Robert Potts. Leigh was raised in Virginia Beach, where her parents ran a weight-loss business, following her parents divorce, Leigh was estranged from her father for many years, but the two have since reconciled. While in eighth grade, she started modelling and she soon began acting by appearing in local television commercials and a syndicated teen news show called Hall Pass. In 1999, Leigh and her mother relocated to Los Angeles in order for Leigh to develop a career in acting, at age 16, Leigh took and passed the California High School Proficiency Exam. At age 16, Leigh met her husband, 20-year-old Nathan West. The two began a relationship, and Leigh left home to move in with West and West, both having had troubled family lives and difficult upbringings, were described by Leigh as being broken. This led to abuse of such as cocaine, which quickly escalated into addiction.
The catalysts for change came in 2001, when Leigh, in the throes of addiction. Around that time and West attended a Christian church service, at the invitation of a friend, in 2002, the couple, now clean and sober, were wed in Alaska, surrounded by their closest family and friends. Leigh started acting at an age and debuted in the film world at age 15 in 1997s Kickboxing Academy. She started hosting in local TV shows and modeling, in 2001 and she appeared in Marilyn Mansons music video Tainted Love, a song which appeared in the film. She was ranked #65 on the Maxim Hot 100 Women of 2002, in 2002, Leigh was cast in two short-lived TV series, Girls Club, in which she played lawyer Sarah Mickle, and That 80s Show, in which she played punk rocker June Tuesday. She became a regular on the ABC legal drama The Practice. Following that, she joined the cast of Reunion in September,2005, in ABCs Greys Anatomy, Leigh first appeared as a woman in Joes bar who was noticed by Derek Shepherd while in the third-season finale, it was revealed that she was Lexie Grey.
She was made a series regular for season four. In October,2015, she began starring in the CBS/CW show Supergirl as Alexandra Alex Danvers, on July 20,2002, Leigh married fellow actor Nathan West. The couple worked together in 2000 on the television series 7th Heaven and West have three children – a son and two daughters, Noah Wilde, Taelyn Leigh, and Anniston Kae
Brigham Young was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the second President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877 and he founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah, Young was dubbed by his followers the Lion of the Lord for his bold personality and was commonly called Brother Brigham by Latter-day Saints. Young was a polygamist and was involved in controversies regarding black people and the Priesthood, the Utah War, and the Mountain Meadows massacre. Young was born to John Young and Abigail Nabby Howe, a family in Whitingham, Vermont. Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works, though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830. He officially joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary, after his wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio.
In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis that ensued. Young opposed this reasoning and motion, the majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorums president. Many of Youngs followers would reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded exactly like Smith, Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smiths death. Rigdon became the president of a church organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, to the Salt Lake Valley. By the time Young arrived at the destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico.
Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24,1847, Youngs expedition was one of the largest and one of the best organized westward treks. On August 22,29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, after three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27,1847. As colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territorys first governor, during his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Arizona, Nevada and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico. Young was one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, Young organized the first legislature and established Fillmore as the territorys first capital. Young organized a Board of Regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley and it was established on February 28,1850, as the University of Deseret, its name was eventually changed to the University of Utah
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776.
The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city