President of the Board of Trade
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade. This is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, first established as a temporary committee of inquiry in the 17th century, that evolved into a government department with a diverse range of functions; the current holder is the Secretary of State for International Trade. The idea of a Board of Trade was first translated into action by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 when he appointed his son Richard Cromwell to head a body of Lords of the Privy Council and merchants to consider measures to promote trade. Charles II established a Council of Trade on 7 November 1660 followed by a Council of Foreign Plantations on 1 December that year; the two were united on 16 September 1672 as the Board of Plantations. After the Board was re-established in 1696, there were 15 members of the Board - the 7 Great Officers of State, 8 unofficial members, who did the majority of the work; the senior unofficial member of the board was the President of the Board known as the First Lord of Trade.
The board was abolished on 11 July 1782, but a Committee of the Privy Council was established on 5 March 1784 for the same purposes. On 23 August 1786 a new Committee was set up, more focused on commercial functions than the previous boards of trade. At first the President of the Board of Trade only sat in the Cabinet, but from the early 19th century it was a cabinet-level position
New College, Oxford
New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1379 by William of Wykeham, the full name of the college is St Mary's College of Winchester in Oxford; the name "New College", soon came to be used following its completion in 1386 to distinguish it from the older existing college of St. Mary, now known as Oriel College. In 2017, the college ranked first in the Norrington Table, a table assessing the relative performance of Oxford's undergraduates in final examinations, it has been ranked highly. It has the 3rd highest average Norrington Table ranking over the previous decade; the college is between Holywell Street and New College Lane, next to All Souls College, Harris Manchester College, Hertford College, The Queen's College and St Edmund Hall. The college's sister college is Cambridge; the college is one of the main choral foundations of the University of Oxford. The college choir is regarded as one of the leading choirs of the world, has recorded over one hundred albums.
Like many of Oxford's colleges, New College admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after six centuries as an institution for men only. New College is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford University; as of July 2017, it had a financial endowment of £ net assets of £ 308 million. Despite its name, New College is one of the oldest of the Oxford colleges. In 1379 William of Wykeham had purchased land in Oxford and was able to apply to King Richard II for a charter to allow the foundation of a college de novo. In his own charter of foundation, Wykeham declared the college to consist of a warden and seventy scholars; the site on which the college would be built was acquired from several sources, including the City of Oxford, Merton College and Queen's College. This land had been the City Ditch, a haunt of thieves, had been used for burials during the Black Death. New College was founded in conjunction with Winchester College, envisaged as a feeder to the Oxford college, the two institutions have striking architectural similarities: both were the work of master mason William Wynford.
On 5 March 1380, the first stone of New College was laid. By 14 April 1386, the college entered formal possession of the buildings. Wykeham set to drawing up the statutes of the college, with a first draft presented in 1390; the statutes were not completed until the year. The coat of arms of the college is one adopted by William Wykeham, it features two black chevrons, one said to have been added when he became a bishop and the other representing his skill with architecture. Winchester College uses the same arms; the grand collection of buildings is a testament to William's experience in administering both ecclesiastical and civil institutions as the Bishop of Winchester and High Chancellor of England. Both Winchester College and New College were established for the education of priests, there being a shortage of properly educated clergy after the Black Death. William of Wykeham ordained that there were to be ten chaplains, three clerks and 16 choristers on the foundation of the college; the original choristers were accommodated within the walls of the college under one schoolmaster.
Since the school has expanded and in 1903 moved to New College School in Savile Road. As well as being the first Oxford college for undergraduates and the first to have senior members of the college give tutorials, New College was the first college in Oxford to be deliberately designed around a main quadrangle. Students at New College were until 1834 exempt from taking the university's examinations for the BA and the MA degrees, were ineligible for honours, though they still had to take the college's own tests; this contributed to the college's old reputation for "Golden scholars, silver bachelors, leaden masters and wooden doctors." In August 1651, New College was fortified by the Parliamentarian forces and the cloister was used for musketry training. In 1685, Monmouth's rebellion involved Robert Sewster, a fellow of the college, who commanded a company of university volunteers; these volunteers were of New College and exercised in the Bowling Green. The college's motto, created by William of Wykeham, is "Manners Makyth Man".
The motto was in many respects revolutionary. First, it was written in English, rather than Latin, which makes it unusual in Oxford, is revolutionary considering the college's age. Secondly, the motto makes a social statement. Wykeham's motto is reminiscent of the insight found in Aristotle's Ethics: that a man or a woman is what he or she does, what we do is what we are. Admiring William of Wykeham's achievements in creating his twinned institutions, King Henry VI modelled the establishment of his own new colleges, King's College and Eton College, upon Wykeham's foundations of New College and Winchester College. Indeed, the link that King's College and Eton College share is a direct copy of William of Wykeham's link between New College and Winchester College. New College has formal ties with Winchester College, Eton College, King's College, dating back to 1444, a four-way relationship known as the Amicabilis Concordi
Geoffrey Lloyd, Baron Geoffrey-Lloyd
Geoffrey William Geoffrey-Lloyd, Baron Geoffrey-Lloyd, PC was a British Conservative politician. The eldest son of G. W. A. Lloyd of Newbury, Lloyd was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, during which time he was President of the Cambridge Union Society in 1925. Lloyd contested South East Southwark in 1924 without success and Birmingham Ladywood in 1929, when he was defeated by just 11 votes, he was Private Secretary to Sir Samuel Hoare, 1926–1929 to Stanley Baldwin, 1929-1931. He was elected as Member of Parliament for Birmingham Ladywood in 1931 with a 14,000 majority, holding the seat until 1945, he was Parliamentary Private Secretary to Stanley Baldwin, 1931–1935 and as Prime Minister in 1935. He held office as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, 1935–1939, he was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1943. He was a Governor of British Broadcasting Corporation, 1946-1949, he returned to Parliament as member for Birmingham King's Norton, 1950–1955, for Sutton Coldfield from 1955 until February 1974.
During this time he was Minister of Fuel and Power, 1951–1955 and Minister of Education, 1957-October 1959. He changed his surname from Lloyd to Geoffrey-Lloyd by deed poll on 18 April 1974, he was created. Lord Geoffrey-Lloyd died at age 82 from natural causes in Kent. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Geoffrey Lloyd, Baron Geoffrey-Lloyd Who was Who
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, was a British Conservative Party statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. Dubbed "Supermac", he was known for his pragmatism and unflappability. Macmillan served in the Grenadier Guards during the First World War, he was wounded three times, most in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. He spent the rest of the war in a military hospital unable to walk, suffered pain and partial immobility for the rest of his life. After the war Macmillan joined his family business entered Parliament at the 1924 general election for the northern industrial constituency of Stockton-on-Tees. After losing his seat in 1929, he regained it in 1931, soon after which he spoke out against the high rate of unemployment in Stockton-On-Tees, against appeasement. Rising to high office during the Second World War as a protégé of wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Macmillan served as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer under Churchill's successor Sir Anthony Eden.
When Eden resigned in 1957 following the Suez Crisis, Macmillan succeeded him as Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party. As a One Nation Tory of the Disraelian tradition, haunted by memories of the Great Depression, he believed in the post-war settlement and the necessity of a mixed economy, championing a Keynesian strategy of public investment to maintain demand and pursuing corporatist policies to develop the domestic market as the engine of growth. Benefiting from favourable international conditions, he presided over an age of affluence, marked by low unemployment and high—if uneven—growth. In his Bedford speech of July 1957 he told the nation they had'never had it so good', but warned of the dangers of inflation, summing up the fragile prosperity of the 1950s; the Conservatives were re-elected in 1959 with an increased majority. In international affairs, Macmillan rebuilt the Special Relationship with the United States from the wreckage of the Suez Crisis, redrew the world map by decolonising sub-Saharan Africa.
Reconfiguring the nation's defences to meet the realities of the nuclear age, he ended National Service, strengthened the nuclear forces by acquiring Polaris, pioneered the Nuclear Test Ban with the United States and the Soviet Union. Belatedly recognising the dangers of strategic dependence, he sought a new role for Britain in Europe, but his unwillingness to disclose United States nuclear secrets to France contributed to a French veto of the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community. Near the end of his premiership, his government was rocked by the Vassall and Profumo scandals, which to some the rebellious youth of the 1960s, seemed to symbolise the moral decay of the British establishment. After his resignation, Macmillan lived out a long retirement as an elder statesman, he was as trenchant a critic of his successors in his old age as he had been of his predecessors in his youth. Macmillan was the last British prime minister born during the Victorian era, the last to have served in the First World War and the last to receive a hereditary peerage.
At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived prime minister in British history, a record surpassed by James Callaghan on 14 February 2005. Macmillan was born at 52 Cadogan Place in Chelsea, London, to Maurice Crawford Macmillan, a publisher, his wife, the former Helen Artie Tarleton Belles, an artist and socialite from Spencer, Indiana, he had two brothers, eight years his senior, Arthur, four years his senior. His paternal grandfather, Daniel MacMillan, who founded Macmillan Publishers, was the son of a Scottish crofter from the Isle of Arran, he considered himself a Scot. Macmillan received an intensive early education guided by his American mother, he learned French at home every morning from a succession of nursery maids, exercised daily at Mr Macpherson's Gymnasium and Dancing Academy, around the corner from the family home. From the age of six or seven he received introductory lessons in classical Latin and Greek at Mr Gladstone's day school, close by in Sloane Square. Macmillan attended Oxford.
He was Third Scholar at Eton College, but his time there was blighted by recurrent illness, starting with a near-fatal attack of pneumonia in his first half. He won an exhibition to Balliol College, but was less of a scholar than his elder brother Dan; as a child and young man, he was an admirer of the policies and leadership of a succession of Liberal Prime Ministers, starting with Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who came to power toward the end of 1905 when Macmillan was only 11 years old, H. H. Asquith, whom he described as having "intellectual sincerity and moral nobility", of Asquith's successor, David Lloyd George, whom he regarded as a "man of action" to accomplish his goals. Macmillan went up to Balliol College in 1912, his political opinions at this stage were an eclectic mix of moderate Conservatism, moderate Liberalism and Fabian Socialism. He read avidly about Disraeli, but was particularly impressed by a speech by Lloyd George at the Oxford Union Society in 1913, where he had become a member and debater.
Macmillan was a protégé of the President Walter Monckton a Cabinet colleague.
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and a brief term as prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957. Achieving rapid promotion as a young Member of Parliament, he became Foreign Secretary aged 38, before resigning in protest at Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy towards Mussolini's Italy, he again held that position for most of the Second World War, a third time in the early 1950s. Having been deputy to Winston Churchill for 15 years, he succeeded him as the leader of the Conservative Party and prime minister in April 1955, a month won a general election. Eden's worldwide reputation as an opponent of appeasement, a "man of peace", a skilled diplomat was overshadowed in 1956 when the United States refused to support the Anglo-French military response to the Suez Crisis, which critics across party lines regarded as an historic setback for British foreign policy, signalling the end of British predominance in the Middle East.
Most historians argue that he made a series of blunders not realising the depth of American opposition to military action. Two months after ordering an end to the Suez operation, he resigned as prime minister on grounds of ill health and because he was suspected of having misled the House of Commons over the degree of collusion with France and Israel. Eden is ranked among the least successful British prime ministers of the 20th century, although two broadly sympathetic biographies have gone some way to shifting the balance of opinion. Biographer D. R. Thorpe described the Suez Crisis as "a tragic end to his premiership, one that came to assume a disproportionate importance in any assessment of his career." Eden was born at Windlestone Hall, County Durham, on 12 June 1897. He was born into a conservative family of landed gentry, he was a younger son of Sir William Eden, 7th and 5th Baronet, a former colonel and local magistrate from an old titled family. Sir William, an eccentric and foul-tempered man, was a talented watercolourist and collector of Impressionists.
Eden's mother, Sybil Frances Grey, was a member of the famous Grey family of Northumberland. Grey had wanted to marry Francis Knollys, who became an important Royal adviser. Although she was a popular figure locally, she had a strained relationship with her children, her profligacy ruined the family fortunes. Eden's elder brother Tim had to sell Windlestone in 1936. Rab Butler would quip that Eden—a handsome but ill-tempered man—was "half mad baronet, half beautiful woman". Eden's great-grandfather was William Iremonger, who commanded the 2nd Regiment of Foot during the Peninsular War and fought under Wellington at Vimiero, he was descended from Governor Sir Robert Eden, 1st Baronet, of Maryland and, through the Calvert Family of Maryland, he was connected to the ancient Roman Catholic aristocracy of the Arundell and Howard families, some of whom were Roman Catholics like the Dukes of Norfolk and others Anglican such as the earls of Carlisle and Suffolk. The Calverts had converted to the Established Church early in the 18th century to regain the proprietorship of Maryland.
He was descendant from the Schaffalitzky de Muckadell family of Denmark, Bie family of Norway. Eden was once amused to learn that one of his ancestors had, like Churchill's ancestor the Duke of Marlborough, been the lover of Barbara Castlemaine. There was speculation for many years that Eden's biological father was the politician and man of letters George Wyndham, but this is considered impossible as Wyndham was in South Africa at the time of Eden's conception, his mother was rumoured to have had an affair with Wyndham. Eden had an elder brother, killed in action in 1914, a younger brother, killed when the battlecruiser HMS Indefatigable blew up and sank at the Battle of Jutland in 1916. Eden was educated at two independent schools; the first was Sandroyd School in Cobham from 1907 to 1910. He started at Eton College in January 1911. There, he won a Divinity prize and excelled at cricket and rowing, winning House colours in the last. Eden learned French and German on continental holidays, as a child is said to have spoken French better than English.
Although Eden was able to converse with Hitler in German in February 1934, with the Chinese premier Chou En-lai in French at Geneva in 1954, he preferred, out of a sense of professionalism, to have interpreters to translate at formal meetings. Although Eden claimed to have had no interest in politics until the early 1920s, his teenage letters and diaries show him to have been obsessed with the subject, he was a strong, partisan Conservative, rejoicing in the defeat of Charles Masterman at a by-election in May 1913, once astonishing his mother on a train journey by telling her the MP and the size of his majority for each constituency through which they passed. By 1914 he was a member of the Eton Society. During the Great War, Eden's elder brother, Lieutenant John Eden, was killed in action on 17 October 1914, at the age of 26, while serving with the 12th Lancers, he is buried in Larch Wood Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery in Belgium. His uncle Robin was shot down and captured whilst serving with the Royal Flying Corps.
Volunteering for service the British Army, as did many others of his generation, Eden served with the 21st Battalion of the King's Royal Rifle Corps, a Kitchener's Army unit recruited from County Durham country labourers, who were replaced by Londoners after losses at
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K