The Widnes Vikings are an English professional rugby league club based in Widnes, Cheshire that plays in the Betfred Championship. The club plays. Founded as Widnes Football Club, they are one of the original twenty-two rugby clubs that formed the Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895, making them one of the world's first rugby league teams, their historic nickname is "The Chemics" after the main industry in Widnes, but now they use their modern nickname, "The Vikings". The club enjoyed a period of success in the 1970s, 1980s, early 1990s, were described as "Cup Kings" reaching the Challenge Cup Final 7 times in 10 years between 1975 and 1984. In 1989, after winning their third Rugby League Championship, Widnes became the first official World Club Champions by beating the Australian champions Canberra Raiders 30-18 at Old Trafford, they have a strong local rivalry with Warrington Wolves. The Farnworth & Appleton Cricket Club was formed in 1871 and four years the members decided to embrace the burgeoning football code.
At their fourth annual evening party in the Drill Hall, Widnes, in November 1875, club Chairman Henry Lea "gave a short account of the club since it commenced about four years ago, indicated that they had now started a football club in connexion with it, hoped all would join". The first known game for the new Farnworth and Appleton FC was in Widnes in January 1876 played under rugby rules against Northwich Victoria. A few weeks a return match was played at Drill Field, Northwich under soccer rules. Vics won both games; these are the only two known fixtures in that truncated first season. By May 1876 the club had changed its name to Widnes FC and the cricket side of the organisation had disbanded to concentrate on football activities. By the late 1870s the club was being referred to as "The Chemicals"—subsequently shortened to'The Chemics'; the first ground was on Albert Road behind what is now the Premier Wetherspoon's pub and a short spell followed in the Simms Cross area. From around 1878–84 the club were based at the junction of Millfield/Peelhouse Lane, apart from season 1880–81 when they played on the Widnes Cricket Club ground at Lowerhouse Lane.
From 1884–95 they rented a field at Lowerhouse Lane before moving to their third separate site on that road in October 1895. The first game at what became Naughton Park was against Liversedge on Saturday 12 October 1895. In 1895, Widnes were founder members of the Northern Union which broke away from the Rugby Football Union, their first game was an away fixture against Runcorn which they lost 15–4. During the early years, the club had to sell players to balance the books; the strength of junior rugby league in the area meant the club had a steady stream of new players to offset any losses. In 1902, the Lancashire and Yorkshire leagues were combined to form a second division, Widnes was added to the first division. In 1914, Arthur'Chick' Johnson was capped for the Lions in the famous Rorke's Drift test, a match in which they overcame all the odds, injuries to beat Australia with a depleted side of 10 against 13, he scored an extraordinary try to win the game. Widnes closed for the 1915-16 season but recommenced playing in 1916 following the introduction of conscription which meant that would not be accused of keeping men from volunteering for the First World War.
Thirteen Widnes players were killed during the conflict. The club's first success came when they won the Lancashire League trophy in the 1919–20 season. However, the 1920s saw the club go to the wall. Local rivals Warrington donated their share of the traditional Easter and Christmas derby matches to keep Widnes afloat in 1927–28. In 1930, Widnes with 12 local-born players defied the odds to beat St. Helens 10–3 to bring home the Challenge Cup; the Kingsway housing scheme threatened the loss of Widnes' ground. After several years of fundraising during the Great Depression of the 1930s, £3,250 was raised to save the ground; this came with a stipulation that the ground could be sold only to the local council at the original price. The newly named Naughton Park was opened in 1932. A major boost for the club was Widnes' first trip to the Challenge Cup final, staged at Wembley, their opponents were St. Helens, Saints scored after 6 minutes to take a 3–0 lead, but Widnes hit back with a penalty try, a further try and a penalty to take a 10–3 half-time lead.
A scoreless second half meant. Widnes became the first club to make two trips to Wembley, with a loss to Hunslet in the 1934 cup final. In 1935–36, the team came close to being rugby league champions. Having finished third in the table, Widnes beat Liverpool 10–9 but lost to Hull FC, in the championship final. A third trip to Wembley came in 1937, with an 18–5 win over Keighley; the final was dubbed "McCue's Match" as the halfback played an important part in the win. Widnes dropped out of the wartime Lancashire league in 1940–41 and did not return to league competition until 1945–46. Tommy McCue led the club to its first Lancashire County Cup win, with a 7–3 victory against Wigan in 1945. Back at Wembley in 1950, the team was beaten 19–0 by Warrington. During this period, the club reverted to selling its players to richer teams. Local man Vince Karalius was appointed club captain. In his first season, Widnes finished third in the Championship, which equalled the club's best league placing. In 1962, the league was split into West of the Pennines.
With two minutes remaining, Lowdon dropped a goal to
Headingley Stadium in Headingley, West Yorkshire, England, is the home of Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Leeds Rhinos rugby league and Yorkshire Carnegie rugby union clubs. There are two separate grounds, Headingley Cricket Ground and Headingley Rugby Stadium, with a two-sided stand housing common facilities. Owned by the Leeds Cricket and Athletic Company, the ground is now managed jointly by Yorkshire C. C. C. and Leeds Rugby. From 2006 until 2017, the stadium was known as the Headingley Carnegie Stadium as a result of sponsorship from Leeds Metropolitan University, whose sports faculty is known as the Carnegie School of Sport Exercise and Physical Education. Since 1 November 2017, the stadium is known as the Emerald Headingley Stadium due to the purchase of the naming rights by Emerald Group Publishing. In December 2005, Yorkshire County Cricket Club obtained a loan of £9 million from Leeds City Council towards the cost of purchasing the cricket ground for £12 million. Shortly afterwards, 98.37% of members who participated in a vote backed the deal.
On 11 January 2006, the club announced plans to rebuild the stand next to the rugby ground with 3,000 extra seats, taking capacity to 20,000. The club announced plans to redevelop the Winter Shed stand on 25 August 2006 providing a £12.5 million pavilion complex. The cricket ground sits to the Northern side of the complex, it opened in 1891 and has been used for Test matches since 1899. It is the main home ground of Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Yorkshire Vikings Twenty20 cricket team; the ground last held The Ashes in 2009. Since 2015 the cricket ground has been floodlit; the ground has a seated capacity of 17,500, executive facilities and a new media centre opened in 2010. All but the stand at the football ground end have been rebuilt since 2000, it is proposed to replace this stand in conjunction with redeveloping its other side facing the rugby ground; the rugby ground sits to the Southern side of the complex. A rugby league ground it now hosts both codes, it is home to Yorkshire Carnegie rugby union club.
The ground consists of three stands and an open terrace at one end, one stand is seated, two mixed. It has a capacity of 21,000. Yorkshire County Cricket Club have shown keen interest in redeveloping the northern side of the ground; this is a major inconvenience to Leeds Rugby Limited as they wish to redevelop their North Stand, which backs onto the Cricket Ground, any redevelopment of this stand cannot go ahead until Yorkshire Cricket are willing to redevelop their side of the cricket pitch. If Headingley is to retain Test Ground Status it is that further improvements will need to be made to the ground. On 5 June 2014 Yorkshire CCC announced the "Headingley Masterplan"; the phased redevelopment costing around £50 million will take place over the next 20 years. Phase One Erection of four permanent floodlight pylons; the floodlights, which have light arrays in the shape of the Yorkshire Rose, were installed in 2015. The first full game to be played under them was the T20 match against Derbyshire Falcons on Friday 15 May 2015, but they were called upon for the County Championship game against Warwickshire a few weeks earlier.
Phase Two The rebuild of the Football Ground End, in conjunction with Leeds Rugby, to incorporate a three-tiered seating area, which will accommodate 5,060 seats, enhanced corporate facilities and new permanent concession units. Phase Three To incorporate an additional 915 seats to the upper tier of the North East Stand with the possibility of a cantilever roof from the side of the Carnegie Pavilion to the existing scoreboard. Phase Four The development of a new Pavilion located in the North West area of the stadium complex. Built on five levels, the Pavilion will be adjacent to the existing Carnegie Pavilion. To include state-of-the-art corporate facilities, new dressing rooms for the players and coaching staff, Members’ Long Room and seating and the creation of a main entrance to the stadium on Kirkstall Lane. Phase Five The erection of a translucent cantilever roof to cover the White Rose Stand on the western side of the ground. Phase Six Landscaping on the White Rose Stand and North East stand concourses.
Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Leeds Metropolitan University have collaborated in building the Headingley Carnegie Pavilion, which replaced'The Shed' to the northern side of the Cricket Ground. The new pavilion replaces'The Winter Shed' and'The Media Centre' at the Kirkstall Lane end of the ground, which had become obsolete, according to Yorkshire County Cricket Club, no longer meeting the requirements of modern broadcasting; the changing facilities are replaced by'state of the art' changing facilities, designed for cricket, while the new executive boxes will provide the expected level of service. Yorkshire County Cricket Clubs offices will be relocated into the pavilion, which boasts environmentally friendly features such as a ground source heat pump and solar hot water heating; the rugby ground has been rebuilt since 2006, when the Carnegie Stand at the east end was opened containing both standing and seated areas, private boxes and catering. In 2017 both the North and South Stands were torn down following Leeds' last home game of the season: the new South Stand will be a two-tier structure similar to the Carnegie Stand with an expanded terrace, while the North Stand's replacement will feature additional executive boxes and state-of-the-art facilities for players and media, as well as thousands of new seats for the cricket ground.
List of cricket grounds in England and Wales List of Test cricket grounds List of international cricket centuries
Samoa national rugby league team
The Samoa national rugby league team represents Samoa in rugby league football and has been participating in international competition since 1986. Known as Western Samoa prior to 1997, the team is administered by Rugby League Samoa and are nicknamed Toa Samoa. Western Samoa has particip in the Pacific Cup, World Sevens, Super League World Nines, World Cup and Pacific Rim competitions. Since 1998 the team has been known as Samoa. Western Samoa made their debut in the 1986 Pacific Cup. Joe Raymond coached this side to a final. Joe Raymond went on to coach them again in 1988 and would return again to coach them 10 years in 1998 in a one off game against a Samoan team of Samoan resident players at Carlaw park. Suani and Lyndsay Stowers operated Samoa Rugby League out of their North Shore home in Auckland and from the Richmond Rugby League Club house where Lyndsay ran the canteen; this resilient couple were known to have put a mortgage on their home to assist with funding the thirty men representing Samoa in the Pacific Cup held in Tonga, 1990.
This commitment lead to a historical win over the Maori team for the first time and won the 1990 Pacific Cup. Coached by the Richmond Bulldogs Head Coach, Steve Kaiser, the Western Samoan team put Samoan rugby league on the map. Samoa won the 1992 Pacific Cup over Tonga in an action filled thriller that went into two overtimes and sent the NZ Rugby League and Polynesian rugby league public into a frenzy; the 1992 Tournament showcased all of NZ Rugby league talent and Australian Rugby league scouts were booked to witness the 1994 Pacific Cup held in Fiji. In 1993 Western Samoa were invited to the International Coca-Cola Sevens in Sydney. With Auckland based Samoan players such as Mark Elia, Tony Tuimavave, Tony Tatupu, Faausu Afoa and Des Maea followed by a group of up and coming players such as Matthew TuiSamoa, Lionel Perera, Aleki Maea, Paki Tuimavave, Joe Vagana, Sefo Fuimaono and Peter Lima, the team beat the Canberra Raiders and the Great Britain International team. Coached by the Richmond Bulldogs' Head Coach Steve Kaiser, this team gave Samoa the status to create the strong foundation Western Samoa Rugby League needed to move forward.
Below this strong foundation however was the strength and commitment of two people: Suani and Lyndsay Stowers. These two held together the concept of Samoa Rugby League and without their dream, Samoa RL will not be where it is today. Steve Kaiser in his sixth year as the Samoan Coach had an array of NZ based quality players for the 1994 Pacific Cup with the likes of Se'e Solomona, Tony Tatupu, the Tuimavave brothers Paki and Tony plus the loyal players of Mike Setefano, Matthew TuiSamoa, Alex Tupou and Mark Faumuina. Henry Suluvale and Rudy David led the contingent of first class players from Canterbury however this arsenal were well contained by the Tongan stars Jim Dymmic, John Hopoate and Albert Fulivae; the 1995 Samoan team had the benefit of ex-All Blacks John Schuster and Va'aiga Tuigamala in their backline. When rugby union went professional players such as Apollo Perelini and Fereti Tuilagi left rugby league to return to the 15-man game. Samoa lost the Pacific Cup in 1996; the 1998 Pacific Cup team saw a old talent.
Joe Raymond, one of the first Samoan Rugby League Rep coaches returned after coaching Tonga and the NZ Maori, the late Eddie Poching managed the team and the introduction of Francis Meli to Samoan Rugby League and Junior Papalii a loyal American Samoan Representative. Pati Tuimavave from the 1992 squad and Matthew TuiSamoa, the only survivor from 1990 Pacific Cup champion team returned. Samoa battled Tonga for the 1998 Pacific Cup again at Carlaw park and again Samoa regained the Pacific Champions Title; the Pacific Cup was taken to Australia's Gold Coast in 2000 where Auckland coach John Ackland took over the reins. Ackland added another dimension to Samoa Rugby League and introduced rising stars, Wayne McDade and Itikeri Sapau-Citran, Tino Brown, Johnny Baker, Louie Talamavoa and bought Matthew TuiSamoa back into the Pacific Cup arena. Samoa took on Ireland and the Aotearoa Māori in the 2000 Rugby League World Cup pool stages, they would lose to'the Irish' in their opening game, but they'd beat NZ Maori, Scotland in their next two games, sealing a place in the knock-out stages.
They would take on Australia in the quarter-final. They ended their tournament with a thrashing 66-10 defeat, sealing an end to a respectable World Cup Campaign. Samoa played in the Pacific Pool of the 2008 Rugby League World Cup Qualifiers, they lost to Tonga. On a points difference, Samoa had to play USA in the Repecharge Semi Final. Samoa won this match 42-10 and played Lebanon on 14 November 2007 in the Repecharge Final to see who would take the 10th and final World Cup place. Samoa came out eventual winners of the 10th and final 2008 Rugby League World Cup place beating Lebanon 38-16 at the Chris Moyles Stadium, Featherstone. For the 2008 Rugby League World Cup tournament Samoa's main jersey sponsor was the Samoa International Finance Authority. Samoa took on Ireland in the Tournament's pool stages, they beat their pacific rivals in a traditional tight pacific match-up, but they lost to'the Irish' by 34-16. This big losing margin, sent the Samoans into battle against the French in the Tournament's 9th place play-off.
Samoa won, winning 42-10 and capping off an undesirable World Cup Tournament. In April 2013, Samoa took on Tonga in the'2013 Pacific Rugby League Test' at Penrith Stadium; the International was created as a World Cup warm-up match. Tonga targeted Samoa's weak defence, it
Jason Taylor (rugby league)
Jason Taylor is an Australian professional rugby league football coach and a former player. He was the assistant coach of the Sydney Roosters in 2018 when the club won the premiership that year, he was previously the head coach of the Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs and Wests Tigers clubs in the National Rugby League. A New South Wales State of Origin representative goal-kicking halfback of the 1990s and early 2000s, Taylor set a number of point-scoring and appearance records in the National Rugby League during a twelve-year career with the Western Suburbs Magpies, North Sydney Bears, Northern Eagles and Parramatta Eels. Taylor spent his junior years at Green Valley JRLFC and the Ashcroft Stallions JRLFC, in Sydney's south-western suburbs, he first attended Ashcroft High School before spending his late teenage years St Gregory's College, Campbelltown. Taylor played for Sydney's Western Suburbs Magpies from 1990 to 1993. Starting from the bench for the first 2 games of the 1990 season, Taylor spent most of the season playing five-eighth outside Ivan Henjak.
Still a teenager, he was called "baby-faced". In what was a poor season for the Magpies, Taylor was described as "the best of the babies" in the NRL for the season.1991 saw the arrival of coach Warren Ryan and big-name players Andrew Farrar, David Gillespie and Paul Langmack at the Magpies. Taylor, now playing halfback, lead the team to its first semi-finals in nine years after starring in a play-off for fifth spot. Wests made the semis again in 1992. Ongoing conflict with Warren Ryan saw Taylor seeking an early release from his contract; the release was not granted and Taylor remained for the 1993 season. Taylor said, "The press came up with some interesting reasons why I wanted to leave, but I prefer to keep most of them to myself because they have been pretty well resolved. One reason, was I thought our style of play was too restrictive, too structured and by the end of the year predictable. I wasn't the only player to think that way. Ryan stated in 1993, "I've made every effort to rectify the things that were buggering him up last year.
I did the same thing with Benny Elias. Jason is very talented mentally. We've taken every step to resurrect his game, and to his credit when we told him he wouldn't be released. He's done a lot of sprint work and he's worked hard." That season, Ryan suspended Taylor from first grade after an "outburst" aimed at teammate Paul Langmack at half-time in a match. The Wests Magpies board overturned the suspension. In 1993, Taylor made his representative debut with City Origin. Described as, "the form player of the premiership" in 1994, Country Rugby League general manager David Barnhill claimed that Taylor should be eligible to play for the Country side due to his time spent at St. Gregorys, he ended up playing halfback for City for the next two years. Taylor was selected to play for the New South Wales team in the 1993 State of Origin series, he was chosen on the bench for all three games, but did not take the field in the first game of the series. Coach Phil Gould said, "if anything happened to Ricky we needed a capable and experienced halfback to go in with a similar game-type to Ricky.
Jason's kicking and passing game is along the same lines and would allow fellows like Daley and Fittler the same room as if they were playing with Ricky."Taylor played with the North Sydney Bears from 1994 to 1999, While at North Sydney, Taylor played a pivotal role in the team and set numerous records. Taylor won The Rothmans medal in 1996 as being the game's best and fairest player. Taylor has scored more points for the North Sydney Bears than any other player to have been at the club with 1274 points. In January 1997, Taylor was escorted from The SCG following unruly behavior at an Australian Cricket match, it was alleged that Taylor and some of his North Sydney teammates had been backing up from a bucks party the night before when they proceeded to urinate in plastic cups and throw it over patrons during a Mexican wave. Taylor was axed as an Australia Day ambassador by Central Coast organisers. In The 1997 preliminary final against The Newcastle Knights, Taylor missed 3 out of 5 conversions in North Sydney's 17-12 defeat.
The most crucial when scores were locked at 12-12 after Taylor set up Michael Buettner for a try moments before. With 3 minutes remaining, Norths had a chance to play in their first grand final in 54 years if Taylor could kick that goal; the reliable Taylor missed the conversion and Newcastle player Matthew Johns went down the other end of the field and kicked a field goal to make it 13-12. With seconds remaining Norths frantically threw the ball around the field, Owen Craigie swooped on a loose pass and raced away to score the match winning try to make it 17-12; this was North Sydney's 4th preliminary final defeat in 6 years. Taylor remained with them for their merger with the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles to form the Northern Eagles in 2000, but was released by the club at the end of the season. Without a club for the next year, Taylor wrote a letter to Parramatta Eels coach Brian Smith and joined the club for the 2001 season, his performance that year was described as, "close to the greatest comeback in big-time rugby league."
Taylor's last match was for Parramatta at halfback in their 2001 NRL grand final loss to the Newcastle Knights. Whilst at Parramatta Taylor set a new point-scoring record, breaking Daryl Halligan's mark of 2,034. Between 1992 and 2000 Taylor played 194 games in succession a standing record, 20 games clear of Hazem El Masri's 174. Taylor retired with the record for most career points
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Queensland Cup is the top level of rugby league football in Queensland, Australia. Run by the QRL, the competition is known as the Intrust Super Cup due to sponsorship from Intrust Super and is contested by fourteen teams, twelve of which are based in Queensland, with one based in New South Wales and one based in Papua New Guinea; the competition is the present-day embodiment of Queensland's top-level club competition. It replaced the Winfield State League in 1996 and accompanied the Brisbane Rugby League, before becoming the premier competition in 1998, following the disbanding of the Brisbane Rugby League. Since its inaugural season in 1922, the Brisbane Rugby League was the premier competition in the state of Queensland. Like its counterpart, the Sydney Rugby Football League, the Brisbane Rugby League was thriving, boasting big crowds and large, loyal supporter bases with their respective clubs; the clubs were constant, with new teams entering the competition. However, in 1956, when poker machines were introduced in New South Wales but not in Queensland, Sydney's clubs were able to recruit the best players from Brisbane, Rugby Union and overseas.
Within the space of several years, the Sydney Rugby League had come to dominate the code within Australia. In the 1980s, the NSWRFL began to further expand and supersede the Brisbane competition in popularity and media coverage. In 1982, the first clubs based outside of Sydney, the Canberra Raiders and Illawarra Steelers, were admitted. In 1988, two Queensland-based sides, the Brisbane Broncos and Gold Coast Giants, were formed and gained entry into the competition; the Broncos would sign Brisbane Rugby League stars like Gene Miles and Allan Langer. In the space of one season, media coverage and match attendance for the Brisbane Rugby League dropped significantly. In 1996, the Queensland Cup was formed, replacing the Winfield State League, as new federal government laws banned cigarette companies from sponsoring sport. Branded the Channel Nine Cup, the 15 round regular season competition featured sixteen teams, fifteen from Queensland and one from Papua New Guinea. At this time it was still considered as the second highest competition in the state, under the Brisbane Rugby League.
The Toowoomba Clydesdales were crowned the inaugural premiers, defeating the Redcliffe Dolphins in the Grand Final. In 1997, three teams withdrew from the competition and the Burleigh Bears joined, becoming the first Gold Coast-based side. In 1998, the competition became the top level of rugby league in the state, following the end of the Brisbane Rugby League. Channel Nine ended their sponsorship for the 1998 season, with competition going under name, the Queensland Cup. A sixteen-team competition returned in 1998, with the Bundaberg Grizzlies rejoining and the Gold Coast Vikings being formed. In 1999, the Grizzlies and Vikings both left the competition, as well as inaugural club Brisbane Brothers and the Townsville Stingers, who played just one season. In 2000, Bundaberg Rum began a two-year sponsorship of the competition and it was known as the Bundy Gold Cup; the 2000 season was the first in which all twelve teams remained from the season prior. It would not last long though, as the Cairns Cyclones folded after the 2000 season, leaving no north Queensland representation in the competition.
In 2002, the North Queensland Young Guns, a Townsville-based North Queensland Cowboys feeder club, were admitted into the competition. At the end of the 2002 season, the Logan Scorpions, an inaugural club, left the competition. In 2003, the Tweed Heads Seagulls joined the competition, becoming the first New South Wales-based side; the club had applied for the 2002 season but were unsuccessful. However, following a merger of the Logan Scorpions and Souths Magpies to form the Souths Logan Magpies, a spot was opened up and Tweed Heads were admitted. Another inaugural club would leave the competition in 2004, with the Wests Panthers exiting, Brothers-Valleys, a merger of Past Brothers and the Fortitude Valley Diehards, joining for a single season. In 2005, the competition became known as the Queensland Wizard Cup, after Wizard Home Loans became the major sponsor. Although the QRL had anticipated that the same teams from 2006 would participate in the 2007 competition, it was announced on 5 December 2006 that inaugural club, the Toowoomba Clydesdales, who were the reigning minor premiers, would be withdrawing from the competition for financial reasons.
Brisbane Broncos chairman Bruno Cullen said that "It didn't make sense to have this club up there running at what was looking like a $250,000 loss for the year." The following day it was announced that the Aspley Broncos would be replacing the Clydesdales, acting as the Brisbane Broncos feeder club. The Aspley Broncos would play just a single season in the competition; the 2007 season marked the first time a team outside of Queensland would win the competition, with the Tweed Heads Seagulls defeating the Redcliffe Dolphins in the Grand Final. 2008 saw the Queensland Cup once again have teams based in the northern cities of Cairns and Mackay after absences of seven and twelve years, respectively. These new teams replaced Aspley and North Queensland as part of the rationalisation of rugby league below the NRL level caused by the introduction of the NRL under 20s competition. In 2009, the Sunshine Coast Falcons rejoined the competition after thirteen-year absence, after signing a partnership with the Manly Sea Eagles to develop rugby league on the Sunshine Coast.
The side won the premiership in their first year. In 2010, Intrust Super was announced as the new major sponsor, with the competition becoming known as the Intrust Super Cup. From 2009 to 2013, the competition featured the same twelve teams for five straight seasons. In 2014
Rugby league positions
A rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field, with four substitutes on the bench. Each of the thirteen players is assigned a position with a standardised number, which reflects their role in attack and defence, although players can take up any position at any time. Players are divided into two general types and backs. Forwards are chosen for their size and strength, they are expected to run with the ball, to attack, to make tackles. Forwards are required to improve the team's field position thus creating space and time for the backs. Backs are smaller and faster, though a big, fast player can be of advantage in the backs, their roles require speed and ball-playing skills, rather than just strength, to take advantage of the field position gained by the forwards. Forwards tend to operate in the centre of the field, while backs operate nearer to the touch-lines, where more space can be found; the diagram, shows the typical positions of each player during a scrum. The laws of the game recognise standardised numbering of positions.
The starting side wear the numbers corresponding to their positions, only changing in the case of substitutions and position shifts during the game. In some competitions, such as Super League, players receive a squad number to use all season, no matter what positions they play in; the positions and the numbers are defined by the game's laws as: Backs1 Full Back 2 Right Wing Threequarter 3 Right Centre Threequarter 4 Left Centre Threequarter 5 Left Wing Threequarter 6 Stand-off Half or Five-eighth 7 Scrum Half or HalfbackForwards8 Prop 9 Hooker 10 Front Row Forward 11 Second Row Forward 12 Second Row Forward 13 Lock ForwardIn practice, the term'front row forward' is rarely used, a team has two props. The scrum half is known as the half back in Australasia, the lock forward is known as loose forward in England. There are seven backs, numbered 1 to 7. For these positions, the emphasis is on ball-handling skills; the "back-line" consists of smaller, more agile players. Numbered 1, the fullback's primary role is the last line of defence, standing behind the main line of defenders.
Defensively, fullbacks must be able to chase and tackle any player who breaks the first line of defence, must be able to catch and return kicks made by the attacking side. Their role in attack is as a support player, they are used to come into the line to create an overlap in attack. Fullbacks that feature in their respective nations' rugby league halls of fame are France's Puig Aubert, Australia's Clive Churchill and Billy Slater, Charles Fraser, Graeme Langlands and Graham Eadie, Great Britain/Wales' Jim Sullivan and New Zealand's Des White. There are four threequarters: two wingers and two centres - right wing, right centre, left centre and left wing; these players work in pairs, with one winger and one centre occupying each side of the field. Known as wingers. There are two wings in a rugby league team, numbered 2 and 5, they are positioned closest to the touch-line on each side of the field. They are among the fastest players in a team, with the speed to exploit space, created for them and finish an attacking move.
In defence their primary role is to mark their opposing wingers, they are usually required to catch and return kicks made by an attacking team dropping behind the defensive line to help the fullback. Wingers that feature in their nations' rugby league halls of fame are Great Britain's Billy Batten, Billy Boston and Clive Sullivan, Australia's Brian Bevan, John Ferguson, Ken Irvine, Harold Horder and Brian Carlson, South African Tom van Vollenhoven and France's Raymond Contrastin There are two centres and left, numbered 3 and 4 respectively, they are positioned just inside the wingers and are the second-closest players to the touch-line on each side of the field. In attack their primary role is to provide an attacking threat out wide and as such they need to be some of the fastest players on the pitch providing the pass for their winger to finish off a move. In defence, they are expected to mark their opposite centre. Centres that feature in their countries' halls of fame are France's Max Rousié, England's Eric Ashton, Harold Wagstaff and Neil Fox, Wales' Gus Risman and Australia's Reg Gasnier, H "Dally" Messenger, Dave Brown, Jim Craig, Bob Fulton and Mal Meninga.
There are two halves. Positioned more centrally in attack, beside or behind the forwards, they direct the ball and are the team's main play-makers, as such are required to be the most skillful and intelligent players on the team; these players usually perform most tactical kicking for their team. Numbered 6, the stand off or five-eighth is a strong passer and runner, while being agile; this player is referred to as "second receiver", as in attacking situations they are the second player to receive the ball and are able to initiate an attacking move. Star players of this position include Wally Lewis, Darren Lockyer, Bob Fulton, Brad Fittler, Laurie Daley and Terry Lamb Numbered 7, the scrum-half or half back is involved in directing the team's play; the position is sometimes referred to as "first receiver", as half backs are the first to receive the ball from the dummy-half after a play-the-ball. This makes them important decision-makers in attack. A rugby league forward pack consists of six players who tend to be bigger and stronger than backs, rely more on their strength and size to fulfill their roles than play-making skills.
The forwards traditionally formed and contested scrums, however in the modern game