Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a literature of ideas. Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying science fiction is what we point to when we say it, a definition echoed by author Mark C. Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography, you do not know what it is, in 1970 or 1971William Atheling Jr. According to science fiction writer Robert A, rod Serlings definition is fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science fiction is the improbable made possible, Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures. Science fiction elements include, A time setting in the future, in alternative timelines, a spatial setting or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, or on subterranean earth. Characters that include aliens, androids, or humanoid robots, futuristic or plausible technology such as ray guns, teleportation machines, and humanoid computers.
Scientific principles that are new or that contradict accepted physical laws, for time travel, wormholes. New and different political or social systems, e. g. utopian, post-scarcity, paranormal abilities such as mind control, telekinesis Other universes or dimensions and travel between them. A product of the budding Age of Reason and the development of science itself. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Keplers work the first science fiction story and it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earths motion is seen from there. Later, Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon, more examples appeared throughout the 19th century. Wells The War of the Worlds describes an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines equipped with advanced weaponry and it is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth. In the late 19th century, the scientific romance was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland, the term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon.
In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. In 1912 Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his series of Barsoom novels, situated on Mars
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name. Historically, they have taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones, actors and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to mask their ethnic backgrounds. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Ellery Queen, the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον, literally false name, from ψεῦδος, falsehood and ὄνομα, name. A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, which is the name of another person and this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a front name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s. See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship, sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person.
This is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name, in many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a persons new legal name. He changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam, likewise some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames that had been in their families for generations. The politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland and he adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, and dummy corporations to hide their identity, a pen name, or nom de plume, is a pseudonym adopted by an author. Some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, the Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books, anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Shirley and Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell, emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans, who wrote as George Eliot, Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter ODonnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a real name is likely to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use different pen names to avoid confusing their readers, in some cases, an author may become better known by his pen name than his real name
Bertrand Tavernier is a French director, screenwriter and producer. Tavernier was born in Lyon, the son of Geneviève and René Tavernier and he says that his fathers publishing of a wartime resistance journal and aid to anti-Nazi intellectuals shaped his moral outlook as an artist. According to Tavernier, his father believed that words were as important, Tavernier wanted to become a filmmaker since the age of 13 or 14 years. He claims that his influences include filmmakers John Ford, William Wellman, Jean Renoir, Jean Vigo. Tavernier was influenced by the 1968 general strike in France and he associated with the OCI between 1973 and 1975, and was particularly struck by the writing of Leon Trotsky. The first film director with whom he worked was Jean-Pierre Melville, his first film won the Prix Louis Delluc and the Silver Bear – Special Jury Prize award at the 24th Berlin International Film Festival. He won the BAFTA for best film in a other than English in 1990 for Life and Nothing But. In 1995, his film LAppât won the Golden Bear Award at the 45th Berlin International Film Festival, four years later, his film It All Starts Today won an Honourable Mention at the 49th Berlin International Film Festival.
His film The Princess of Montpensier competed for the Palme dOr at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival, Tavernier was married to screenwriter Claudine OHagen from 1965 to 1980. Their son, Nils Tavernier, works as both a director and actor and their daughter, Tiffany Tavernier, is a novelist and assistant director. Bertrand Tavernier at the Internet Movie Database Senses of Cinema, Great Directors Critical Database Emily Zants, Bertrand Tavernier, Fractured Narrative and Bourgeois Values, The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham, MD, and London. com Bertrand Tavernier in Conversation with Melinda Camber Porter PDF
Brainstorm (1983 film)
Brainstorm is an American 1983 science fiction film directed by Douglas Trumbull and starring Christopher Walken, Natalie Wood, Louise Fletcher and Cliff Robertson. It was Woods final film appearance, as she died during production and it was the second and final major motion picture to be directed by Trumbull. A team of scientists invent a brain/computer interface that allows sensations to be recorded from a persons brain, the team includes estranged husband and wife Michael and Karen Brace, as well as Michaels colleague Lillian Reynolds. At CEO Alex Tersons instruction, the team demonstrates the device to investors in order to gain financing, Karen dons the recorder while working with Michael and Lillian. When Michael plays the tape back, the realizes that emotional experiences are recorded. Michael tapes his memories of times with Karen, which he shares with her, one team member, Gordy Forbes, has sexual intercourse while wearing the recorder, and he shares the tape with colleagues, including Hal Abramson.
Hal splices one section of the tape into a continuous orgasm, tensions increase as the possibilities for abuse become clear. Lillian is pressured by backers to admit in the team a former colleague, Landon Marks and she disagrees with their plan to have the invention developed for military use. Already suffering from problems and a constant cigarette smoker, Lillian suffers a heart attack while working alone. Realizing that she is about to die, Lillian records her experience, following her funeral, Michael decides to experience Lillians recording, but he nearly dies when the playback causes his body to simulate the sensations and effects of a heart attack. Michael modifies his console to filter the output, and he replays the tape. Viewing Lillians death experience, he sees memory bubbles — moments from Lillians life, a team of scientists wanting to discover the machines military capabilities is monitoring the equipment as Michael plays Lillians final tape. They have Gordy experience the tape, but they neglect to modify the machine as Michael did, Michaels playback is cut short by Hal, but having witnessed a digital near-death experience makes Michael curious to see the entire tape.
Alex has the recording locked away and tells Michael he will not be allowed to view it. When he returns to work, Michael walks in on Landon Marks, Michael attempts to hack into the labs computers. Hal advises him to look under Project Brainstorm, a program the military has created to re-develop their invention for torture and brainwashing. Michael and Karens son Chris, wanting to experience the special device, is exposed to one such tape. Rather than see his creation perverted, Michael vows to destroy his work and enlists the help of Karen and Karen head to the Pinehurst Resort and, realizing they are under surveillance, stage a fight that results in Karen leaving for Hals house
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America
Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, or SFWA is a nonprofit 5013 organization of professional science fiction and fantasy writers. While SFWA is based in the United States, its membership is open to writers worldwide, the organization was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight under the name Science Fiction Writers of America, Inc. The president of SFWA as of 2015 is Cat Rambo, SFWA has about 1,900 professionally published writer members worldwide. SFWA members vote for the Nebula Awards, one of the principal English-language science fiction awards, SFWA informs, promotes and advocates for its members. Science Fiction Writers of America, Inc. was founded in 1965 by a group of associated with the Milford Conference. According to Todd McCaffrey, the organization immediately acquired great status in its efforts to help J. R. R, tolkien get fair recompense in America for pirated sales of The Lord of the Rings. Later, the name of the organization was changed to Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America and her withdrawal was sent after voting had been completed.
When informed she had won, she contacted SFWA and told them she refused to accept it and she was told that her reasons for doing so would be announced. Her publisher accepted the award in her place, apparently with no knowledge of her withdrawal, in September 2009, SFWA joined the Open Book Alliance to oppose the Google Book Settlement. As a party to the class action suit, SFWA had recently explained its reservations about the settlement, in 2013, the SFWA Bulletin was the subject of a controversy about sexism. This led to a hiatus, followed by a reboot of the magazine in a modern. In 2014, the original Massachusetts corporation was dissolved and SFWA reincorporated as a California nonprofit 5013 organization with new bylaws, SFWA holds a semi-annual business meeting at the World Science Fiction Convention when its held in North America, and at the North American Science Fiction Convention otherwise. Other Nebula Awards Weekend events include a semi-annual SFWA business meeting and a mass autographing session for member authors, Nebula Awards Weekend is held in a different location every two years.
Over the years, the reception has gone by names, including Authors and Editors and Swill. The SFWA Reading Series, A series of free events during which SFWA authors read or discuss their fiction with members of local communities. Currently held in Seattle, WA and Portland, OR, SFWA sponsors Writer Beware, whose mission is to track and raise awareness of the prevalence of fraud and other questionable activities in and around the publishing industry. Writer Beware receives additional support from the Mystery Writers of America, Writer Beware staff assist law enforcement agencies with investigations of literary fraud, and have been instrumental in the convictions of several literary scammers. Greifcom, or the Grievance Committee, is formed of volunteers who undertake to mediate writer disputes and grievances between member writers and their publishers
John R. Gribbin is a British science writer, an astrophysicist, and a visiting fellow in astronomy at the University of Sussex. His writings include quantum physics, human evolution, climate change, global warming, the origins of the universe, john Gribbin graduated with his bachelors degree in physics from the University of Sussex in 1966. Gribbin earned his master of science degree in astronomy in 1967, from the Univ. of Sussex, Gribbin distanced himself from The Jupiter Effect in the 17 July 1980, issue of New Scientist magazine, stating that he had been too clever by half. In February 1982, he and Plagemann published The Jupiter Effect Reconsidered, in 1999, Gribbin repudiated it, saying I dont like it, and Im sorry I ever had anything to do with it. In 1984, Gribbin published perhaps his best-known book, In Search of Schrödingers Cat, Quantum Physics and it has been described as among the best of the first wave of physics popularisations preceding Stephen Hawkings multi-million-selling A Brief History of Time.
Gribbins book has been cited as an example of how to revive an interest in the study of mathematics, in 2006, Gribbin took part in a BBC radio 4 broadcast as an expert witness. Presenter Matthew Parris discussed with Professor Kathy Sykes and Gribbin whether Einstein really was a crazy genius, at the 2009 World Conference of Science Journalists, the Association of British Science Writers presented Gribbin with their Lifetime Achievement award. Henry Gee, an editor at Nature, described Gribbin as one of the best science writers around. A review of The Universe, A Biography in the journal Physics World praised his skill in explaining difficult ideas, a Wall Street Journal review of Flower Hunters described the writing as pedestrian, with plenty of domestic detail but a failure to convey a larger cultural context. ISBN 978-0-905347-28-8 Future Weather and the Greenhouse Effect, Delacorte Press ISBN 978-0-440-02498-9 Weather, Macdonald Education,48 pp. Friede ISBN 978-0-440-09529-3 Timewarps, ISBN 1-59609-144-4 He Knew He Was Right, The Irrepressible Life of James Lovelock and Gaia, Allen Lane
Death Watch is a 1980 science fiction film directed by Bertrand Tavernier. It is based on the novel The Unsleeping Eye by David G. Compton, the film was entered into the 30th Berlin International Film Festival. The film had 1,013,842 admissions in France and was the 35th most attended film of the year, the film is set in a future where death from illness has become extremely unusual. When Katherine Mortenhoe is diagnosed as having a disease, she becomes a celebrity and is besieged by journalists. Katherine pretends to agree but evades NTVs employees and goes on the run with the assistance of a casual acquaintance called Roddy, Roddy has done this mainly for money to give his estranged wife and their son. Meanwhile, Katherines doctor has discovered that she is not actually dying and he informs NTV who tell no one and continue with the show, continuing on the lam, Katherine asks Roddy to take her to Lands End. The two arrive and sit on the beach and have a long talk, Katherine asks Roddy to take her to town and buy her some lipstick.
He persuades her to stay by the knowing that she will be recognized if she goes with him. In town, Roddy sees Death Watch playing in a pub and he returns to the beach as night is falling and has an emotional breakdown, losing his flashlight. Katherine comes to him and he asks her to help him and she finds the flashlight and shines it in his eyes, but he has already gone blind. Roddy admits who he is, and what he is doing, as the feed has ended to NTV due to Roddys blindness, they send a helicopter to Lands End with a film crew to finally reveal to Katherine that she is not dying. However and Katherine leave undetected as the helicopter arrives, Katherine takes Roddy to her husbands home in the country nearby. She has not seen her husband Gerald in 6 years, after the two stay overnight and Gerald talk about their relationship as Roddy sleeps in a chair outside. NTV calls Geralds home and after he speaks with them, he tells Katherine they are coming, Katherine takes all of it. Gerald is angry at first but finally accepts her decision, Roddy awakens and Gerald informs him that Katherine has died.
NTV arrives by helicopter with producer Vincent and Roddys wife in tow and Gerald threaten to kill Vincent and he and the rest of the NTV crew leave with Roddys wife staying behind. Roddy reconciles with his wife and introduces her to Gerald, much of the filming took place in and around Glasgow, Glasgow Necropolis, Glasgow Cathedral, the former Queens Dock on the River Clyde and the Glasgow City Chambers. Factory released the film on Blu-ray in Region 1, whilst Park Circus handled the Region 2 release
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply
Synthajoy is a science fiction novel by D. G. Compton. Originally published in 1968 as an Ace Science Fiction Special in the United States, an Italian translation appeared in 1972. Gregg Press issued an edition in 1977. Orion Books revived the novel as part of its Gateway line in 2011, the novel explores the social consequences of the development of a virtual reality technology which enable unremarkable people to enjoy the experiences of those who are more gifted or fortunate. James Blish wrote that obody has handled a tenth as well as this English writer, george Edward Slusser characterized Synthajoy as a precursor to cyberpunk