Relax–GAM Fuenlabrada was a professional cycling team based in Spain. It when selected as a wildcard to UCI ProTour events. In 2006, Relax-Gam received a wild card invitation from the organisers to participate in the Vuelta a España. For the 2007 season, Relax have signed Francisco Santiago Pérez to lead the team. 1st, Team classification, Volta a Catalunya 2nd Overall, Vuelta al País Vasco, Ángel Vicioso 1st, Stage 3, Vuelta al País Vasco, Ángel Vicioso 1st, Mountains classification, Vuelta Asturias, Julian Sanchez Pimienta As of May 28, 2007. Colchones Relax
Louis Meintjes is a South African cyclist, who rides for UCI WorldTeam Team Dimension Data. He won the South African National Road Race Championships in 2014, has finished 8th overall in the Tour de France, on 2 occasions in 2016 and 2017, he has finished 10th overall at the 2015 Vuelta a España. Meintjes announced himself to the cycling world in September 2013, when he earned the silver medal in the World Under 23 Road Race Championships. Meintjes had an impressive 2014 season where he rode the Vuelta a España, his best result at the Vuelta a España was 5th place on stage 14. In March 2015, Meintjes won the final stage of the Settimana Internazionale di Coppi e Bartali, securing him the overall victory as well, he was named in the start list for the Tour de France. He finished fifth on the mountain stage to Plateau de Beille before exiting the Tour due to illness, he was 10th in the Vuelta a España. In September 2015, Meintjes announced that he would be joining Lampre–Merida on a two-year contract from 2016.
He started the 2016 season riding the Tour Down Under and finished 16th overall, 5th in the young rider classification. Meintjes however, first showed his form in the Critérium du Dauphiné by finishing 9th overall and placing 5th on the stage to Méribel, he rode the Tour de France where he took 8th place overall and 2nd place in the young rider classification. He was sitting in 9th place overall after the 10th stage, however, on the 11th stage, he lost time due to crosswinds, he recovered during the mountain time trial on Stage 18. On the following stage to Saint-Gervais Mont Blanc, Meintjes finished fourth sprinting with Rodríguez and Valverde, he finished with the favorites on the next stage. Meintjes' next race was the Men's Road Race at the Olympic Games, he was dropped before the last climb. However, he bridged the gap before sprinting to 7th place at Copacabana Beach. Meintjes finished 6th overall at Tour of the Basque Country, two months he finished 8th overall at the Critérium du Dauphiné.
At the Tour de France, Meintjes was once again team leader for UAE Team Emirates, made his way into top 10 in the second week, as he finished 5th on stage 12 to Peyragudes. He moved up further two positions in the final week, finished 8th overall for the second time in his career at the Tour, his last race of the season was the Vuelta a España. Meintjes returned to Team Dimension Data, for the 2018 season. In May 2018, he was named in the startlist for the Giro d'Italia; however he struggled with his form throughout the spring, was not consistent at all. He ended up abandoning the race in the third week, his best result of the season came at his final preparation race for the Vuelta a España, the Vuelta a Burgos, where he finished 9th overall. Meintjes struggled once again at the Vuelta a España, he would go on to finish 58th overall. Louis Meintjes at Cycling Archives Team Lampre–Merida Profile Official website Louis Meintjes on Twitter
An athlete biological passport is an individual electronic record for professional athletes, in which profiles of biological markers of doping and results of doping tests are collated over a period of time. Doping violations can be detected by noting variances from an athlete’s established levels outside permissible limits, rather than testing for and identifying illegal substances. Although the terminology athlete passport is recent, the use of biological markers of doping has a long history in anti-doping. Maybe the first marker of doping, that tries to detect a prohibited substance not based on its presence in urine or blood, but through the induced deviations in biological parameters, is the so-called testosterone over epitestosterone ratio; the T/E has been used by sports authorities since the beginning of the 1980s to detect anabolic steroids in urine samples. A decade in 1997, markers of blood doping were introduced by some international federations, such as the Union Cycliste Internationale and the Federation Internationale de Ski, to deter the abuse of recombinant erythropoietin, undetectable by direct means at that time.
It is only in 2002 that the concept of using biological markers to detect doping became known by the term athlete passport. The merits of this testing paradigm were exposed in the scientific literature and the terminology adopted by the World Anti-Doping agency. Many believe that the athlete passport provides an excellent alternative to ensure fairness in elite sports. While a new drug test must be developed and validated for each new drug, the main advantage of the athlete passport is that it is based on the stability of the physiology of the human being. New drugs are produced at an unprecedented pace today and there is a lag of several years between the availability of a new drug and the application of an effective detection method. In contrast, the physiology of the human being remains the same through several generations and all biomarkers developed today in the athlete passport will remain valid for at least several decades. For example, the blood module of the passport is sensitive today to any new future form of recombinant erythropoietin, as well as to any form of gene doping that will enhance oxygen transfer to the muscles.
While a negative drug test does not mean that the athlete did not dope, the athlete can present his/her passport at the beginning of a competition to attest that he/she will compete in his/her natural, unaltered condition. The athlete passport received a lot of attention when its blood module was established at the beginning of the 2008 racing season by the UCI. In May 2008 they revealed that 23 riders were under suspicion of doping following the first phase of blood tests conducted under the new biological passport; the blood module of the athlete passport aims to detect any form of blood doping, the steroid module any form of doping with anabolic steroid and the endocrine module any modification of the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis. Each of these modules are however at different steps of development and application in sports. According to the World Anti-Doping Agency, the athlete biological passport is administered to establish whether an athlete is manipulating his/her physiological variables without detecting a particular substance or method.
The biological passport uses the standardized approach of urine sampling to determine steroid abuse. The objective of this testing is to identify athletes in a haematological module and a steroidal module; the haematological module tests for certain markers in the body that identify the enhancement of oxygen transport. The specific markers the module tests for include haematocrit, red blood cell count, percentage of reticulocytes, reticulocytes count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean red cell distribution width, immature reticulocyte fraction; the steroidal module collects information on markers for steroid doping and aims to identify endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids. The specific markers the module tests for include testosterone, the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio and etiocholanolone; the World Anti-Doping Agency released the 2014 Prohibited Substances list and it will take effect on 1 January. In the new list, the agency modified the definitions of exogenous and endogenous steroids being tested for in the steroidal module of the biological passport.
Under the new rules, registered riders have to give the Union Cycliste Internationale daily information about their location and provide a one-hour window for possible testing. They have to submit a form every quarter year saying where they will be every day of the next quarter and they must notify the UCI if they change their whereabouts on any day; this means the whereabouts information provided in the whereabouts filings is accurate and sufficient in detail to enable any relevant Anti-Doping Organization to locate him for testing on any given day in that period of time. This is the most invasive testing programme in the history of any sport, but the UCI feels this invasion of privacy is justified as implemented anti-doping regimes have failed to detect every doping violation; the biological passport programme has allowed the UCI to sanction riders for committing an anti-doping rule violation. Riders have been targeted with further doping controls based on their biological passport. During the first three years of UCI's bio passport program 26 riders were found positive for EPO.
In 20 out of the 26 cases, it was the abnormal blood profile which raised suspicions leading to a targeted doping test. Manuel Beltran tested positive for EPO at the 2008 Tour de France in a targeted test after anomalies appeared in a blood sample taken at the start of the Tour. The
Jacobus Venter is a South African racing cyclist, who rides for UCI WorldTeam Team Dimension Data. He rode in the 2014 Vuelta a España. In 2016, he won the South African National Road Race Championships, he was named in the start list for the 2016 Giro d'Italia. In June 2017, he was named in the startlist for the 2017 Tour de France. 2010 3rd Time trial, National Road Championships 2012 8th Gooikse Pijl 2014 3rd Time trial, National Road Championships 2016 1st Road race, National Road Championships Jaco Venter at Cycling Archives Jaco Venter at ProCyclingStats
U.S. Postal Service Pro Cycling Team
U. S. Postal Service Pro Cycling Team was a United States-based professional road bicycle racing team. On June 15, 2004, the Discovery Channel signed a deal to become sponsor of the team for the 2004–2007 seasons and its name changed to Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team From 2005 until 2007, the team was one of the 20 teams that competed in the new UCI ProTour; as part of the sponsorship deal, Lance Armstrong, the team's undisputed leader, provided on-air appearances for the Discovery Networks TV channels. The deal did not affect the rights of secondary sponsor OLN, now known as NBC Sports Network in the US, to air major cycling events such as the Tour de France, although the two channels are competitors; the team was directed by Belgian Johan Bruyneel, who managed U. S. Postal; the chief mechanic was Julien DeVries. The team was co-owned by Tailwind Sports Corp. of San Francisco and Capital Sports & Entertainment of Austin, Texas. On February 10, 2007, Discovery Channel announced that it would not renew its sponsorship of the team at the end of the 2007 season.
On August 10, 2007 the cycling team announced that it would not search for a new sponsor, but cease operations and disband at the end of the 2007 season. In October 2012 USADA released a report saying that the team had run "the most sophisticated and successful doping programme the sport has seen"; the report contained affidavits from eleven riders on the team including Frankie Andreu, Tyler Hamilton, George Hincapie, Floyd Landis, Levi Leipheimer, others, describing their own usage of erythropoietin, blood transfusion and other banned practices during the Tour de France and other races. They implicated seven-time Tour winner Armstrong. On October 22, 2012 the UCI upheld the USADA's recommendation to strip Armstrong of all results since August 1, 1998, ban him from cycling for life. In February 2013, the US government joined Landis' False Claims Act lawsuit against Armstrong, alleging that Armstrong had defrauded the US Postal Service of sponsorship funds by violating cycling rules by using performance-enhancing drugs while riding for the team.
On August 10, 2007, Tailwind Sports announced the end of the Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team. Tailwind officials stopped their search for a new title sponsor for the Discovery team, citing the current tumultuous conditions within the sport of cycling. Team operations continued until the end of the 2007 season. After the 2007 season Johan Bruyneel went to rebuild Team Astana for the 2008 season, he brought with him much of Discovery's personnel, such as riders Alberto Contador, Levi Leipheimer, Yaroslav Popovych, Tomas Vaitkus, coach Sean Yates. The 2007 U. S. national road champion George Hincapie signed a contract for the 2008 season Team High Road known as Team HTC-Columbia, run by the American Bob Stapleton. As of April 30, 2007. Ages are from August 10, 2007; the US Postal Service Pro Cycling Team and named the US Postal Service Pro Cycling Team presented by Berry Floor operated from 1996 through 2004. The United States Postal Service was the title sponsor from 1996 through 2004 and the team was nicknamed the "Blue Train".
Berry Floor, a Belgian flooring company, was the secondary sponsor known as a Presenting Sponsor. Domestically the USPS Pro Cycling Team was presented by Alloc, the American subsidiary of Berry Floor. Lance Armstrong won six Tours de France with US Postal, in 2003 Roberto Heras—at that time a US Postal rider—won the Vuelta a España. Armstrong went on to win a seventh Tour de France in 2005, after the USPS contract and sponsorship ended; the US Postal Service announced that it would cease sponsorship at the end of the 2004 racing season when its eight-year contract expired. It had been under fire for the expenditure from organizations such as Postal Watch, a website critical of the United States Postal Service. Legitimate problems of mismanagement and sloppy accounting were pointed out by the Postal Service itself, via the USPS Office of the Inspector General. Before the expiration of the USPS contract, Armstrong insisted that he would only continue to ride with the USPS team structure; this demand was met on June 15, 2004 when Discovery Networks stepped in and agreed to sponsor the team for the next three years as the Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team.
With the help of Thomas Weisel and Eddie Borysewicz, the United States Postal Service begins its reign as title sponsor to what has become the most successful cycling team from the United States. Borysewicz served as the team's directeur sportif and the team raced in domestic events in the United States. Thomas Weisel brought in Mark Gorski, the 1984 Olympic Gold Medalist in the Men's 1000 m Sprint event, as team manager. Due in large part to Russian Viatcheslav Ekimov and his key stage wins at Paris–Nice and the Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré, the USPS squad got its first invitation to ride in the Tour de France. Lance Armstrong joined the US Postal team in late 1997, when returning to professional cycling following his cancer treatments. In 2001, the U. S. Postal Service Pro Cycling Team was named the USOC Team of the Year. Armstrong was named USOC SportsMan of the Year, which he won in 1999. Eddie Borysewicz, known as "Eddy B", was the road coach of a pro/amateur cycling team formed by George Taylor and sponsored by Sunkyong, a South Korea-based manufacturing and industrial conglomerate.
At the 1984 Summer Olympics, Borysewicz served as the U. S. Olympic Cycling led American cyclists to an unprecedented nine Olympic medals. Subaru and Montgomery Securities, led by Thomas Weisel, serve as co-title sponsors. Montgomery Securities Chief Executive Thomas W. Weisel, an avid cyclist, continued his support for cycling; the following companies an
Jacques Janse van Rensburg
Jacques Janse van Rensburg is a South African racing cyclist, who rides for UCI WorldTeam Team Dimension Data. He rode in the 2014 Vuelta a España, he was named in the start list for the 2015 Tour de France. In the same year he won the South African National Road Race Championships, he was named in the start list for the 2017 Giro d'Italia. Jacques Janse van Rensburg at Cycling Archives Jacques Janse van Rensburg at ProCyclingStats
Cape Town is the oldest city in South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is primate city of the Western Cape province, it forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The Parliament of South Africa sits in Cape Town; the other two capitals are located in Bloemfontein. The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population, it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was developed by the Dutch East India Company as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa and the Far East.
Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established Dutch Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony; until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Cape Town is not just the city centre area, its suburbs and non-urban areas extend from the South Peninsula to beyond Mamre in the north and as far east as Gordon's Bay; the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms", it was renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East.
Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In the late 16th century, French, Danish and English but Portuguese ships stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies, they traded tobacco and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat. In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, the Fort de Goede Hoop; the settlement grew during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever; some of these, including grapes, ground nuts, potatoes and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.
The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain, it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament and a locally accountable Prime Minister. Suffrage was established according to sexist Cape Qualified Franchise; the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won.
In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, of the Republic of South Africa. In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid under the slogan of "swart gevaar"; this led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished; the most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of "Bantus", i.e. Africans. School students from Langa and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of